History Slide 1 History Slide 2 History slide 3 Uniforms and equipment slide 1 Uniforms and equipment slide 2 Uniforms and equipment slide 3 Officiating mechanics slide 1 Officiating mechanics slide 2 Officiating mechanics slide 3 Conclusion bibliography
<ul><li>When the nfl began in 1920, only 3 officials were used during games- the referee, umpire, and head linesman. </li></ul><ul><li>The field judge position, adjacent to the head linesman, was added in 1929 to gain a deep angle perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>The back judge position, deep in the middle of the field, was instituted in 1947. </li></ul><ul><li>The line judge position started being used in 1965, and was placed directly across the head linesman on the line of scrimmage. </li></ul>
<ul><li>when new rules opened up passing in 1978, the side judge position was added and place directly across from the field judge. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the wireless microphone by the referee began in 1975. </li></ul><ul><li>Nfl officials have always been paid on a contract basis, and many are very successful in their normal professions including: Medicine, law, and corporate business! </li></ul>
The Nfl is a great illustration of an organization that isn’t afraid to change or improve itself. This is evidenced by how the association added more officials to its standard officiating crew. As the game rules and style of play evolved, the nfl recognized that calling a game would be more difficult. Using more officials is a fantastic example of how utilizing more perspectives from a larger group of people can make problem solving easier. Can u think of a time when using more points of view helped you in school?
<ul><li>Lloyd olds, a long-time High school sports official from michigan, came up with the ‘zebra’ stripes design after causing a fumble in a game in 1920. the stripes helped the players distinguish players from officials, who wore all-white shirts until that point. </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the uniform consists of white knickers with a black belt, black shoes, and a black hat w/ white piping. The referee wears a white hat with the same basic uniform. </li></ul><ul><li>The newest uniform option for nfl officials are black pants for cold weather situations . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Whistle- used to signal that a play has ended </li></ul><ul><li>Penalty flag- thrown by an official when a foul has occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Bean Bag- Used to mark the spot of something that is not a penalty. For example- a fumble </li></ul><ul><li>Down indicator- shows what down it is, 1 st -4 th </li></ul><ul><li>Chains- used to measure the ten yards necessary for a first down </li></ul><ul><li>Game card and pencil- used to record timeouts and penalties </li></ul>
Just like many academic and professional groups, nfl officials have uniforms and specialized equipment to use. Their uniforms help to make them easily identifiable. Their tools look like foreign objects to some, but when used correctly, they serve a very handy purpose. Can you think of some other groups of people who use specialized equipment? What kinds of things do they use?
<ul><li>Mechanics are what nfl officials use to call a game. They consist of official signals and keys that each official uses to efficiently observe a football play. Keys are certain players that have to be watched by a specific official. Below are the keys for each position. </li></ul><ul><li>referee (white hat)- watches the quarterback and sometimes an offensive tackle </li></ul><ul><li>Umpire-watches the center and the two guards </li></ul><ul><li>Head linesman/line judge- watches the running backs and the tight end/slot wide receiver </li></ul><ul><li>field judge/side judge- watches the widest receiver on their side </li></ul>
<ul><li>Back Judge- watches the inside receiver/tight end on the strong side of the offensive formation. </li></ul><ul><li>As the officials watch their keys, they look for penalties that are typically committed by those players </li></ul>
Nfl officials use long-developed techniques, just like many professionals and academic groups. They have highly technical methods for calling a game, and specialists that use those studied methods efficiently to produce high-quality work. Can you think of a professional or academic group that uses advanced methods? Can u think of different fields that incorporate specialists working toward a common goal?
As you can see, nfl officials as a group are like many other scholarly groups! They use well- developed methods, specialized tools and equipment, and evolved thought processes. They have distinguishable uniforms that make them recognizable. Wow! It’s no wonder why so many of these people are found in highly-regarded fields! Officiating may look simple on tv, but now that you’ve learned about their techniques, maybe you’ll come to have a least a little more respect for the guys in stripes.
Getty. Ed Hochuli . Photograph. Chicagobears.com. LHSAA. "7-Man Mechanics." 7-Man Mechanics (2009): 1-19. LHSAA.org . Louisiana High School Athletic Association, 01 Jan. 2009. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. Mike Carey . Photograph. Babbleoninbabylon.today.com. "NFL History." NFL.com . National Football League. Web. 25 Jan. 2010. <www.nfl.com/history>.
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