geothermal education office

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geothermal education office

  1. 1. Slide 1 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  2. 2. Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the Earth.<br />Slide 2 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  3. 3. Heat flows outward from Earth's interior. The crust insulates us from Earth's interior heat. <br />The mantle is semi-molten, the outer core is liquid and the inner core is solid.<br />Slide 3 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  4. 4. The deeper you go, the hotter it gets (in Fahrenheit and miles).<br />Slide 4 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  5. 5. The deeper you go, the hotter it gets (in Celsius and kilometers).<br />Slide 5 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  6. 6. Earth's crust is broken into huge plates that move apart or push together at about the rate our fingernails grow. <br />Convection of semi-molten rock in the upper mantle helps drive plate tectonics.<br />Slide 6 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  7. 7. New crust forms along mid-ocean spreading centers and continental rift zones. When plates meet, one can slide beneath <br />another. Plumes of magma rise from the edges of sinking plates. <br />Slide 7 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  8. 8. Thinned or fractured crust allows magma to rise to the surface as lava. Most magma doesn't reach the surface but <br />heats large regions of underground rock.<br />Slide 8 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  9. 9. Rainwater can seep down faults and fractured rocks for miles. After being heated, it can return to the surface as steam <br />or hot water. <br />Slide 9 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  10. 10. This steaming ground is in the Philippines. <br />Slide 10 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  11. 11. When hot water and steam reach the surface, they can form fumaroles, hot springs, mud pots and <br />other interesting phenomena. <br />Slide 11 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  12. 12. When the rising hot water and steam is trapped in permeable and porous rocks under a layer of impermeable rock, <br />it can form a geothermal reservoir.<br />Slide 12 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  13. 13. A geothermal reservoir is a powerful source of energy!<br />Slide 13 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  14. 14. Slide 14 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  15. 15. Many areas have accessible geothermal resources, especially countries along the circum-Pacific "Ring of Fire," <br />spreading centers, continental rift zones and other hot spots.<br />Slide 15 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  16. 16. These and other methods are used. <br />Slide 16 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  17. 17. Exploration commonly begins with analysis of satellite images and aerial photographs.<br />Slide 17 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  18. 18. Volcanoes are obvious indications of underground heat, this volcano, Mt. Mayon in the Albay province of <br />the Philippines erupted in 1999. <br />Slide 18 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  19. 19. Geologists explore volcanic regions to find the most likely areas for further study, like this steaming hillside in <br />El Hoyo, Nicaragua.<br />Slide 19 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  20. 20. Geologic landforms and fault structures are mapped in the region. This view overlooks Basin and Range terrain <br />East of the Sierra Nevadas.<br />Slide 20 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  21. 21. Rocks are examined up close.<br />Slide 21 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  22. 22. Geologic maps like this one are created, showing rock type and ages in different colors.<br />Slide 22 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  23. 23. Data from electrical, magnetic, chemical and seismic surveys is gathered in the field.<br />Slide 23 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  24. 24. The data obtained in the field are displayed in various ways and analyzed.<br />Slide 24 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  25. 25. Geologists and drillers study the data to decide whether to recommend drilling. Geothermal reservoirs suitable <br />for commercial use can only be discovered by drilling.<br />Slide 25 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  26. 26. First, a small- diameter "temperature gradient hole" is drilled (some only 200' deep, some over 4000 feet deep) with <br />a truck-mounted rig to determine the temperatures and underground rock types.<br />Slide 26 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  27. 27. Workers on a temperature gradient hole drilling project.<br />Slide 27 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  28. 28. Either rock fragments or long cores of rock are brought up from deep down the hole and temperatures <br />are measured at depth.<br />Slide 28 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  29. 29. Geologists examine the cored rock (shown here marked with depth markers).<br />Slide 29 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  30. 30. Temperature results like this would definitely encourage the drilling of a larger, deeper well to try to find <br />a hydrothermal reservoir.<br />Slide 30 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  31. 31. Production-sized wells require large drill rigs like these and can cost as much as a million dollars or more to drill. <br />Geothermal wells can be drilled over two miles deep.<br />Slide 31 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  32. 32. On these large rigs, drilling continues 24 hours per day.<br />Slide 32 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  33. 33. If a reservoir is discovered, characteristics of the well and the reservoir are tested by flowing the well.<br />Slide 33 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  34. 34. If the well is good enough, a wellhead, with valves and control equipment, is built onto the top of the well casing.<br />Slide 34 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  35. 35. This photograph shows a vertical geothermal well test in the Nevada Desert.<br />Slide 35 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  36. 36. Slide 36 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  37. 37. Natural steam from the production wells power the turbine generator. The steam is condensed by evaporation in <br />the cooling tower and pumped down an injection well to sustain production. <br />Slide 37 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  38. 38. Like all steam turbine generators, the force of steam is used to spin the trubine blades which spin the generator, <br />prducing electricity. But with geothermal energy, no fuels are burned.<br />Slide 38 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  39. 39. Turbine blades inside a geothermal turbine generator.<br />Slide 39 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  40. 40. Turbine generator outdoors at an Imperial Valley geothermal power plant in California.<br />Slide 40 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  41. 41. Turbine generator in a geothermal power plant in Cerro Prieto, Mexico.<br />Slide 41 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  42. 42. Geothermal power plant operators in geothermal power plant control room in the Philippines.<br />Slide 42 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  43. 43. Substation with transformer and insulators, at a geothermal power plant.<br />Slide 43 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  44. 44. Wood power poles delivering electricity from geothermal power plants in the Mojave Desert in California to <br />the electrical grid. Steam from well-testing in background.<br />Slide 44 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  45. 45. Those white plumes you see at geothermal power plants are steam (water vapor). Geothermal plants do not <br />burn fuel or produce smoke. <br />Slide 45 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  46. 46. Geothermal power plants are clean and are operating successfully in sensitive environments.<br />Slide 46 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  47. 47. These geothermal plants are operating successfully in a Philippine cornfield, at Mammoth Lakes, Calif., <br />in the Mojave Desert of California, and in a tropical forest, at Mt. Apo, Philippines. <br />Slide 47 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  48. 48. There are different kinds of geothermal reservoirs and different kinds of power plants.<br />Slide 48 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  49. 49. In dry steam power plants, the steam (and no water) shoots up the wells and is passed through a rock catcher (not shown) <br />and then directly into the turbine. Dry steam fields are rare.<br />Slide 49 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  50. 50. Prince Piero Ginori Conti invented the first geothermal power plant in 1904, at the Larderello dry steam field in Italy.<br />Slide 50 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  51. 51. The first modern geothermal power plants were also built in Lardello, Italy. They were destroyed in World War II <br />and rebuilt. Today after 90 years, the Lardello field is still producing. <br />Slide 51 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  52. 52. The first geothermal power plants in the U.S. were built in 1962 at The Geysers dry steam field, in northern California. <br />It is still the largest producing geothermal field in the world.<br />Slide 52 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  53. 53. 20 plants are still operating at The Geysers. Wastewater from nearby cities is injected into the field, providing <br />environmentally safe disposal and increased steam to power plants.<br />Slide 53 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  54. 54. Flash steam power plants use hot water reservoirs. In flash plants, as hot water is released from the pressure of the<br /> deep reservoir in a flash tank, some if it flashes to steam.<br />Slide 54 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  55. 55. Flash technology was invented in New Zealand. Flash steam plants are the most common, since most reservoirs are <br />hot water reservoirs. This flash steam plant is in East Mesa, California.<br />Slide 55 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  56. 56. This flash plant is in Japan. In flash plants, both the unused geothermal water and condensed steam are injected <br />back into the periphery of the reservoir to sustain the life of the reservoir. <br />Slide 56 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  57. 57. This plant operates in the middle of crops in the Imperial Valley, California. High mineral contents of <br />some southern California geothermal reservoirs provide salable byproducts like silica and zinc.<br />Slide 57 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  58. 58. This flash plant is in Dixie Valley, Nevada. Nevada is rich in geothermal resources, with more hot springs for <br />its size than any other state.<br />Slide 58 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  59. 59. In a binary cycle power plant (binary means two), the heat from geothermal water is used to vaporize <br />a "working fluid" in separate adjacent pipes. The vapor, like steam, powers the turbine generator.<br />Slide 59 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  60. 60. In the heat exchanger, heat is transferred from the geothermal water to a second liquid. The geothermal <br />water is never exposed to the air and is injected back into the periphery of the reservoir.<br />Slide 60 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  61. 61. Binary technology allows the use of lower temperature reservoirs, thus increasing the number of reservoirs <br />that can be used. This binary plant is at Soda Lake, Nevada.<br />Slide 61 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  62. 62. This power plant provides about 25% of the electricity used on the Big Island of Hawaii. It is a hybrid binary and flash plant.<br />Slide 62 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  63. 63. This binary power plant, at Wendell-Amadee, California, runs by itself. If it detects a problem, it automatically radios <br />the operator to come to the site.<br />Slide 63 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  64. 64. This small binary power plant is in Fang, Thailand.<br />Slide 64 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  65. 65. Geothermal power has many local and global benefits.<br />Slide 65 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  66. 66. The fastest growth in US geothermal capacity was from 1980 to 1990, following enactment of federal laws <br />that compelled utilities to purchase electricity from independent power producers.<br />Slide 66 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  67. 67. Slide 67 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  68. 68. Slide 68 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  69. 69. People who live in these areas are receiving electricity from geothermal power plants.<br />Slide 69 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  70. 70. Geothermal power could serve 100% of the electrical needs of 39 countries (over 620,000,000 people) in Africa, <br />Central/ South America and the Pacific. See:http://www.geotherm.org/PotentialReport.htm<br />Slide 70 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  71. 71. Producing electricity is a relatively new use of geothermal energy. People have used Earth's natural hot water <br />directly since the dawn of humankind.<br />Slide 71 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  72. 72. Slide 72 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  73. 73. Slide 73 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  74. 74. This historical drawing depicts Native Americans using hot springs at what is now Calistoga, California. <br />Some tribes considered hot springs to be neutral territory where no wars were allowed.<br />Slide 74 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  75. 75. Use of hot springs by Maoris of New Zealand for cooking and other purposes extends into modern times.<br />Slide 75 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  76. 76. Modern day Beppu Japan uses geothermal water and heat in buildings and factories and has 4,000 hot springs <br />and bathing facilities that attract 12 million tourists a year. <br />Slide 76 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  77. 77. Bathing in hot pools like these at Hot Creek, Mammoth Lakes, California, has been practiced throughout history. <br />Be careful -- people and animals have been burned badly in unfamiliar pools.<br />Slide 77 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  78. 78. Since Roman times, we have piped the hot water into pools to better control the temperature. These are photos <br />of outdoor and indoor pool and spa bathing in Japan, the US, and Europe.<br />Slide 78 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  79. 79. This small greenhouse is heated with geothermal water. Plants grow faster and larger when they have additional <br />heat available. <br />Slide 79 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  80. 80. In several western US states, many long greenhouses are built and heated with geothermal water. <br />This one is in New Mexico.<br />Slide 80 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  81. 81. Peppers, tomatoes, and flowers are commonly grown in geothermally heated greenhouses.<br />Slide 81 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  82. 82. Geothermal water is also used to speed the growth of fish. These are growing in a geothermally heated<br />hatchery at Mammoth Lakes, California. <br />Slide 82 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  83. 83. This net full of fish was grown in geothermally heated waters in California's Imperial Valley.<br />Slide 83 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  84. 84. Closeup of individual fish from a geothermal fish farm.<br />Slide 84 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  85. 85. Closeup of a prawn grown in a research project with geothermally heated water at the GeoHeat Center, <br />Oregon Institute of Technology.<br />Slide 85 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  86. 86. These alligators are grown in geothermally heated water in Idaho.<br />Slide 86 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  87. 87. Geothermal water is also used for industrial uses, like drying lumber or food products. This plant in Brady, <br />Nevada, provides dried onions to Burger King. <br />Slide 87 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  88. 88. Pipes of geothermal water can be installed under sidewalks and roads to keep them from icing over in winter, <br />like this sidewalk in Klamath Falls, Oregon.<br />Slide 88 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  89. 89. In some places, geothermal water is piped from wells to heat single homes or whole residential or <br />commercial districts. This truck-mounted drill rig is drilling a well for use in Klamath Falls, Oregon. <br />Slide 89 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  90. 90. Hot water from one or more geothermal wells is piped through a heat exchanger plant to heat city water in <br />separate pipes. Hot city water is piped to heat exchangers in buildings to warm the air.<br />Slide 90 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  91. 91. The geothermal water never mixes with the city water. Once its heat is transferred to the city water, the geothermal <br />water is injected back into the reservoir to be reheated and recycled.<br />Slide 91 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  92. 92. This is a "plate type" heat exchanger which passes hot geothermal water past many layers of metal plates, transferring <br />the heat to other water passing through the other side of each plate. <br />Slide 92 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  93. 93. These pumps are used to pump the heated water to buildings in a district heating system, after it has passed <br />through the heat exchanger. <br />Slide 93 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  94. 94. This photo of Reykjavik, Iceland, was taken in 1932, when buildings were all heated by burning of (imported) fossil fuels. <br />Slide 94 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  95. 95. Today, about 95% of the buildings in Reykjavik are heated with geothermal water. Reykjavik is <br />now one of the cleanest cities in the world.<br />Slide 95 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  96. 96. The first geothermal district heating system in the US was built in Boise, Idaho. Today, Boise's capital and <br />city buildings are heated with a geothermal district heating system.<br />Slide 96 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  97. 97. Slide 97 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  98. 98. Slide 98 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  99. 99. The areas in orange and red are where with today's technology, we can find and use geothermal reservoirs. <br />Slide 99 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  100. 100. Slide 100 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  101. 101. Geothermal heat pumps can be used almost everywhere in the world, without a geothermal reservoir. <br />The insulating properties of the earth, just below our feet, can keep us warm or cool.<br />Slide 101 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  102. 102. Slide 102 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  103. 103. Slide 103 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  104. 104. Different styles of pipes are installed beside a building. A liquid is piped through the pipes to pick up the heat <br />FROM the ground or (in the summer) to bring heat from the building TO the ground. <br />Slide 104 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  105. 105. In a poll, over 95% of people who had installed a geothermal heat pump said they would recommend it and would do it again.<br />Slide 105 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  106. 106. Slide 106 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  107. 107. Slide 107 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  108. 108. The entire U.S. (and most other areas of the world) are suitable for geothermal heat pumps. <br />In the U.S., geothermal reservoirs occur primarily in western states.<br />Slide 108 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  109. 109. It is of critical importance that we use energy sources that are easy on the environment.<br />Slide 109 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  110. 110. Our modern world relies more and more on electricity -- to run our simplest household appliances, <br />to keep businesses humming, to operate our computers and to light the night. <br />Slide 110 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  111. 111. We rely on abundant, affordable energy. We must conserve, use energy more efficiently, and <br />diversify our energy resource base. <br />Slide 111 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  112. 112. Today, coal provides 55% of the U.S. electricity supply and the U.S. imports more than half of the oil it consumes. <br />The burning of fossil fuels cannot be sustained. <br />Slide 112 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  113. 113. Slide 113 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  114. 114. Much air pollution is caused by burning of fossil fuels. The costs of pollution include health effects like rising <br />rates of asthma, especially in children and especially in cities.<br />Slide 114 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  115. 115. Currently we are using primarily fossil fuels.<br />Slide 115 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  116. 116. What will be the consequences if our growing energy needs are also met by fossil fuels?<br />Slide 116 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office <br />
  117. 117. Slide 117 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  118. 118. Slide 118 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  119. 119. Slide 119 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  120. 120. Slide 120 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />
  121. 121. You can choose clean renewable energy from wind, solar, small hydropower and geothermal resources.<br />Slide 121 of 122, © 2000 Geothermal Education Office<br />

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