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  • 1. Protists
    Ryan Keyes
    AP Biology
  • 2. Protista
    Kingdom abandoned – Many protists are more similar to animals, plants or fungi
    The term “protist” is still used to describe any eukaryote which is not animal, plant, or fungi
    Protists are more diverse than any other organism
    Diverse because one cell must carry out all of the average functions
  • 3. Complexity
    Mostly unicellular, though some are colonial or multicellular
    Some photo-autotrophs, some hetertrophic, and some are both
    Some are asexual, while others undergo meiosis
  • 4. Endosymbiosis
    Key factor in diversity of protists
    Mitochondria from alpha proteobacteria
    All eukaryotes studied from a certain point either have mitochondria or had them at some point
  • 5. Plastids of endo. sym.
    Red and green algae from a photosynthetic cyanobacteria, supported by similar DNA between algae plastids and cyanobacteria
    R & G algae were also taken in and remain in many other protists
  • 6. Modified mitochondria
    Diplomonads and parabasalids contain remnants of mitochondria
    Remnants aid in digestion, but do not contain electron trans. chain
    TrichomonasVaginalis– the infection of the vagina resulting from an anaerobic eukaryote resembling bacteria found in the vagina.
  • 7. Kinetoplastids
    Contains an organelle, kinetoplast, which stores extranuclear DNA
    African sleeping sickness results from kinetoplastids
    Evades immunity by switching surface proteins every generation
    A third of the genome codes for surface proteins
  • 8. Dinoflagellates
    Flagellated protists which are the foundation of many water based food-chains
    Have blooms, or massive growths, causing red tides
    Tides can be toxic to both fish and humans
  • 9. Apicomplexans
    Parasites of mammals, forming lethal diseases
    Intricate, multi-host life cycles
    Malaria falls into this category
    Very evasive due to changing of surface proteins
    Must go through Anopheles mosquitoes and humans to complete cycle
  • 10. Ciliates
    Protists using cilia to move and eat
    Contain macro and micro-nuclei
    Macro nuclei split to reproduce, but micronuclei simply mix, or conjugate, at times when ciliates cross paths
    Reproduction and sharing of genes are completely separate ideas
  • 11. Brown Algae
    One of the largest and most complex protists
    Their color is due to carotenoids in their plastids
  • 12. Seaweed
    A collective group of largest marine algae, i.e. brown, red, and green algae
    Complex multi-cellular anatomy
    Closely resemble land based plants
    Body is known as a thallus, containing the stem and root systems, which support the photosynthetic leaves branching off
  • 13. Kelp
    Seaweed inhabiting the deep sea beyond the intertidal zone
    Can grow up to 60 meters in length
    All seaweed have alternation of generations