The Eastern Origins Of Western Civilization Editted


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The Eastern Origins Of Western Civilization Editted

  1. 1. The Eastern Origins of Western Civilization Chapter 4 - The East Remains Dominant: the twin myths of oriental despotism and isolationism in India , South-east Asia and Japan , 1400-1800 Class: Periwinkle Central and South Asia John Estrella Alexis Feliciano Kate Heaney
  2. 2. The East over the West, 1200-1800 Proof that the East was ahead of Europe in economics, trading, and standard of living
  3. 3. Statistics & (Paul Bairoch) Data <ul><li>Eastern income was 220% of Western in 1750 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West only got ahead in 1870 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eurocentric scholars focused on per capita income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The decline of the Eastern economy was explained by colonial exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>1750 - World manufacturing output: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East contributed 77% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West contributed only 23% </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. East Ahead in Global Economy <ul><li>High European demand for Asian products </li></ul><ul><li>Low Asian demands for European products </li></ul><ul><li>Europe sent bullion exports to make up difference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullion: gold or silver not in coin form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe had trading deficits with other powers besides Asia </li></ul>
  5. 5. The twin myths of Indian isolationism and oriental despotism <ul><li>Examples disproving the myths </li></ul><ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Oriental despotism : single authority ruling with absolute power (depicted as brutal) </li></ul><ul><li>Isolationism : characterized by: </li></ul><ul><li>legal barriers to control trade and exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>avoidance of alliances & wars with other nations </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Indian state as growth permissive: anti-Eurocentric propositions <ul><li>The Mughal state did not crush capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially supported Gujarati merchants, granted autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support of traders increased trade in India—esp. Surat area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mughal rulers promoted peace (esp. with Persian Shahs & Uzbeck Khans) to maintain trade relations </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Map of the State of Gujarat (including Surat)
  8. 8. The Indian state as growth permissive: anti-Eurocentric propositions <ul><li>Merchants became extremely wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Low tariffs on foreign trade & local transit </li></ul><ul><li>Claims about scale of Indian trade before colonization proven false: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only luxury goods, textiles made for mass market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulses, wheat, rice, oil traded throughout Indian Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade not only by town merchants (banians), but also by long-distance merchants (banjaras) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Goods of the Trade Oil Textiles Rice Pulses Wheat
  10. 10. The Indian state as growth permissive: anti-Eurocentric propositions <ul><li>India was not isolated from international trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementary role in Indian Ocean trading system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian villages linked to global economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian economy: great levels of productive power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major Brit. Industrial Revo. industries: cotton & steel/iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, up to 18 th century, India actually led the way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced Wootz steel - exported to Persia - become famous Damascus (Damask) steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian steel was cheaper & superior to steel produced elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foremost cotton-textile producer; also produced silk textiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Khaki, pyjama, sash, shawl </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. A South-east Asian appendix <ul><li>Region involved in trade & expeditions that go back to early yrs. of common era </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom of Srivijaya in Sumatra – global economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voyages of Chinese (Muslim) admiral Cheng Ho </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portuguese & Dutch: unable to monopolize South-east Asian trade </li></ul><ul><li>Eurocentrism reduces: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South-east Asia to Straits of Melaka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melaka to an appendix in mainstream Western trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viewed merely as a transit point between Europe & China </li></ul><ul><li>Melaka was allegedly dominated by Portuguese after 1511 & Dutch after 1641 </li></ul>Eastern Support/Justification Eurocentric View/Claims
  12. 12. Straits of Melaka/Malacca
  13. 13. Cheng-Ho’s Expeditions (1405-33) Cheng Ho’s voyages falsify the assumption that Melaka was only significant after 1511
  14. 14. Silk Road <ul><li>Series of trade routes connecting the East and West – cultural & intellectual interactions </li></ul>
  15. 15. Indian Ocean Trade Routes
  16. 16. The myth of Japanese oriental despotism and isolationism: Japan as an ‘early developer’, 1600-1868 Even though Eurocentrics portray Japan as a backwards country, Japanese economic growth rates that were experienced in the post-1868 Meiji period exceeded those of almost all the European economies. Much of the relative ease of the Meiji achievement is now attributed to the start which that the Tokugawa gave it.
  17. 17. How it all really began in Japan: economic dynamism in the Tokugawa era, 1603-1868 <ul><li>Tokugawa enjoyed per capita income growth </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese enjoyed high living standards </li></ul><ul><li>Significant growth rate in agricultural production </li></ul><ul><li>The Tokugawa state sought to undermine the power of the samurai </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Castle towns caused rapid development & rapid commercialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Credit institutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Advancement of Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proto-industrialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing, textiles, paper making, sake & soy sauce brewing, iron & other metalworking, agricultural and marine product processing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Japanese Industry: Goods & Professions Textiles Fishing Iron & Metalworking Soy Sauce
  19. 19. The myth of Japanese isolationism: the post-1639 continuation of foreign trade <ul><li>Myth: Japan withdrew and became isolated from international trade </li></ul><ul><li>The policy of Sakoku taken too literally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State sought to regulate foreign trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tokugawa fundamentally committed to maintaining trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eradicate influence of Catholic Christian ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan’s desire to counter the dominance of Chinese rather than Western merchants </li></ul>
  20. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>Eurocentric ideas have influenced many viewpoints and attitudes of nations & historical events, but through the strong verifications presented, one can see that the East was more dominant & independent than it was accredited for. </li></ul><ul><li>Of course, Eurocentrism is one point of view ; this source is still one point of view as well… </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at the world through one perspective leads to subjective views and claims. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to learn about the world as a whole, you must see the world as a whole. </li></ul>