AP Biology - Photosynthesis (Part 1
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AP Biology - Photosynthesis (Part 1

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AP Biology - Photosynthesis (Part 1 AP Biology - Photosynthesis (Part 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Photosynthesis
    “The Process That Feeds the Biosphere”
  • Terminology
    Heterotrophs
    Photoautotrophs
  • Important Structures
    Chloroplast
    Chlorophyll (pigment)
    Stomata
    Thylakoid
    Grana
    Stroma
  • Photosynthesis
    CO2 + H2O + light  C6H12O6 + O2
  • Photosynthesis
    Organisms split water as a source of electrons, then release O2
    Electrons reduce CO2 to sugars (increase in ΔG requires energy)
  • Two Stages
    Light Reactions
    Light absorbed creates NADPH
    Water split
    ATP produced
    Photophosphorylation
    Thylakoids
    Calvin Cycle
    Carbon fixation
    Uses NADPH and ATP
    Stroma
  • Light
    Visible wavelengths drive photosynthesis
    Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b absorb different wavelengths
    Carotenoids= photoprotection
  • Photosystems
    Pigments and proteins
    Absorbed energy funneled to reaction center
    Photosystems II and I absorb different wavelengths of light
  • Non-cyclic Electron Flow
    PS II electron excited to PEA
    Water split to replace lost electrons (O2 formed)
    Electron passed down ETC to PS I, providing energy for ATP
    Repeat process in PS I
    NADP+ reduced by 2 e- to NADPH
  • Non-cyclic Electron Flow
  • Cyclic Electron FLow
    No use of PS II
    Rise in NADPH levels triggers cyclic flow that creates only ATP
  • Electron Transport / ATP Synthesis
    DIFFERENCES:
    • Where electrons come from
    • H+ reservoir area
    Similar proton-motive force in chloroplasts