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A presentation about film and digital photography. The history of photography will be described, along with the process of developing film and prints, and the parts of a camera. The benefits of using digital cameras will be discussed as well. There are also examples of various kinds of photography and cameras.

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  1. 1. Film and Digital Photography
  2. 2. The History of Photography 1826: First permanent image created by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce using a camera obscura. The image takes 8 hours to expose 1839: First photo of person is taken by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, who photographs a Paris street. He uses a camera obscura and a printing process he invented called the daguerreotype process, which creates a very detailed picture on a sheet of copper coated with a thin layer of silver without using a negative. The exposure takes several minutes. 1847: First photos of war are taken by Charles J. Betts during the Mexican-American War. He also uses the daguerreotype process. 1847: First photo of lightning is taken by Thomas Easterly using the daguerreotype process. He also makes pictures of landscapes. 1861: First colour photo is produced by James Clerk Maxwell by superimposing three black-and-white images that were passed through a green, a red and a blue filter. This proves the three-colour method, which was only a theory until then. 1878: First action photos are taken by Eadweard Muybridge of a galloping horse, using new emulsions that allowed almost instantaneous photography. 1940s: First high-speed photos are taken by Dr. Harold Edgerton working with National Geographic to freeze rapid movements that are too fast for the eye on film. 1949-'56: First survey of the night sky is done by National Geographic and the California Institute of Techonology. The seven-year-long project produces the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, the first photographic map of the night sky in the Northern Hemisphere. 1991: First digital still camera is released by Kodak. It is targeted at professional photographers and is extremely expensive.
  3. 3. Use of Film vs. Digital Cameras Film Digital
  4. 4. Parts of a Film Camera Camera Body - houses all the mechanical parts of Shutter Release Button - opens the shutter to allow light to hit the film the camera Film Advance Lever - used to advance to Film Cavity - stores the film inside the camera the next frame on a roll of film Shutter Curtains - open to expose the film Shutter Speed Dial - sets the amount of time the shutter will remain open Viewfinder - used to see what image will be captured on the film Accessory Shoe - used to attach a flash Film Sprockets - guides and holds the film Film Rewind Knob - returns all the exposed film to the casing once the end Film Take-Up Spool - the exposed film rolls on of the roll has been reached to the take-up spool ISO/ASA Index Indicator - used to set the Pressure Plate - keeps the film flat so it will film speed not warp or be improperly exposed Self Timer Button - used to delay the Camera Back - has a light-tight seal to protect response of the shutter release the film
  5. 5. How to Develop Film and Prints Developing Film Developing Prints 1. Either in a dark room or with your hands in a 1. Insert the film into an enlarger, to make the light tight container, remove the film from the image appear the desired size. Make sure it is in casing and thread it onto a film reel. Place the focus, and set the aperture (strength of the light). film reel into a film tank, and make sure the lid is Turn off the enlarger light, and place the photo on securely. paper underneath. Turn the enlarger light back on and expose the photo paper for the desired period of 2. Now you can take the film tank out of the dark time. room or light tight container. Pour the developer chemical, which will make the images show up on the 2. Place the photo paper into the developer and film, into the film tank and agitate the tank to make agitate the chemical. You will be able to see the sure the whole reel of film is covered. Leave the image forming. Once the image has become dark enough, developer in for approximately 5-10 minutes, remove the film paper from the developer. depending on the brand’s instructions. 3. Place the photo paper in the stop bath for about 2 3. Pour the developer down the drain, and pour in the minutes, agitating the chemical when you first put the stop bath. This will stop the film from developing photo paper in. This will stop the picture from further. Leave this in for approximately 30 seconds. getting any darker. 4. Place the photo paper in the fixer for approximately 4. Pour the stop bath back into the bottle (it can be 5 minutes, again agitating the chemical when you first reused) and pour in the fixer. The fixer keeps the put the paper in. This will keep the image from image on the film from disappearing when exposed to disappearing once the paper is exposed to light. light. Leave this in for approximately 5-10 minutes. 5. Place the photo paper in cool, running water for 5. Pour the fixer back into the bottle (it can be about 5-10 minutes to rinse the chemicals off. reused) and leave the film tank under cool, running water for about 20 minutes to rinse all the chemicals 6. Hang the photo paper up to dry. Once it is dry the off the film. Now your film is developed and can be process is complete. taken out of the film tank. 6. Hang the film up to dry. Once it is dry it can be trimmed and placed in a film sleeve.
  6. 6. Digital Photography There are several reasons to choose digital photography over film photography: Time - if you’re sharing your photographs online, it is quicker and easier to use digital pictures than scanning film pictures Cost - even if your pictures don’t turn out the way you want them to, with film photography there is still the cost of film and printing. With digital photography you can preview pictures before printing and there is no film to buy. Learning - since you can see the pictures right away and there is no cost of film or printing involved you can change settings and learn about using the camera with ease. No Need To Change Film - memory cards can hold thousands of pictures, and the ISO (film speed) setting can be changed without having to change the film or memory card. Instant Gratification - you can see the pictures instantly, and can retake them if you don’t like them. Size - digital cameras vary widely in size, and are often smaller and lighter than film cameras with the same features. Ease of Manipulation - digital images are easy to manipulate using computer programs, allowing desired effects to be achieved.
  7. 7. Which Format Produces Higher- Quality Prints? Percentage of People Surveyed
  8. 8. Cameras Throughout History Cinematographe, 1895 Voigtlander Range (First Motion Picture Finder Camera, 1932 Camera) Zorki 4, 1956-1973 Canon EOS 500N Fujifilm Finepix Z5 (Film SLR Camera), Digital Camera, 1996 2007
  9. 9. Examples of Different Types of Photography Landscapes Forensic Photography Advertising Don Valley Brickworks, Toronto Portraits Salar De Uyuni
  10. 10. Information References Film vs. Digital Statistics statistics/ Daguerreotype Photographs: The Daguerreotype History of Photography, Photography Time Line, Photos - National Geographic http:// Parts of a Camera Digital Photography Cameras Throughout History Voigtlander Zorki-4 Cinematographe Canon SLR EOS500nRebelGKiss2/index.htm Fujifilm Finepix Pictures Parts of a Camera Darkroom Film Film Tanks and Reels Digital Cameras Casio Nikon Landscapes Salar de Uyuni Brickworks Forensic Photography Ikea Advertisment