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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Leadership Is Developed through Education and Experience
    • “ Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.”
    • ~John F. Kennedy
    Chapter 3
  • 3. The Action-Observation-Reflection Model
    • Making the most of experience is key to developing one’s leadership ability.
    • The theory shows that leadership development is enhanced when the experience involves three different processes:
      • Action
      • Observation
      • Reflection
    • Spiral of experience: Colin Powell’s example.
  • 4. The Spiral of Experience
  • 5. The Key Role of Perception in the Spiral of Experience
    • Experience is not just a matter of what events happen to you; it also depends on how you perceive those events.
    • Perception affects all three phases of the action-observation-reflection model.
    • People actively shape and construct their experiences.
  • 6. Perception and Observation
    • Observation and perception both deal with attending to events around us.
      • We are selective in what we attend to and what we, in turn, perceive.
    • Perceptual sets can influence any of our senses:
      • They are the tendency or bias to perceive one thing and not another.
      • Feelings, needs, prior experience and expectations can all trigger a perceptual set.
    • Stereotypes represent powerful impediments to learning.
      • Awareness of biases occurs upon reflection.
  • 7. Perception and Reflection
    • Reflection deals with how we interpret our observations.
    • Perception is inherently an interpretive, or a meaning-making, activity.
    • Attributions : Explanations we develop for the behaviors or actions we attend to.
    • Fundamental attribution error : Tendency to overestimate the dispositional causes of behavior and underestimate the environmental causes when others fail.
  • 8. Perception and Reflection (continued)
    • Self-serving bias : Tendency to make external attributions for one’s own failures, yet make internal attributions for one’s successes.
    • Actor/observer difference : Refers to the fact that people who are observing an action are much more likely than the actor to make the fundamental attribution error.
    • Reflection also involves higher functions like evaluation and judgment , not just perception and attribution.
  • 9. Perception and Action
    • Research found that perceptions and biases affect supervisors’ actions towards poorly performing subordinates.
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy : Occurs when our expectations or predictions play a causal role in bringing about the events we predict.
    • Research has shown that having expectations about others can subtly influence our actions .
    • These actions can, in turn, affect the way others behave .
  • 10. The Role of Expectations in Social Interaction
  • 11. Reflection and Leadership Development
    • Reflection provides leaders with insights into several ways of framing problems , multiple perspectives , or better understanding .
    • Leaders tend to ignore reflection due to lack of time or lack of awareness of its value .
    • Intentional reflection might prompt one to see potential benefits in experience not initially considered relevant.
  • 12. Single and Double-Loop Learning
    • Single-loop learners seek relatively little feedback that may significantly confront their fundamental ideas or actions.
      • Individuals learn only about subjects within the “comfort zone” of their belief systems.
    • Double-loop learning involves a willingness to confront one’s own views and an invitation to others to do so, too.
      • Mastering double-loop learning can be thought of as learning how to learn.
  • 13. Leadership Development through Experience
    • Factors that make any given experience potent in fostering managerial growth:
      • The people you work with
      • The characteristics of the task itself
    • Leaders in any field tend to first stand out by virtue of their technical proficiency .
      • Competence or proficiency are factors that serve as basis for emergence or selection of a leader.
  • 14. Changing Requirements for Success
  • 15. The People You Work With
    • A boss can be a powerful catalyst for growth.
    • People from different backgrounds , perspectives , or agendas can impact the growth experience.
    • Working with problem subordinates can stimulate managerial growth, as can peers .
    • Both mentors and mentorees benefit from having the relationship.
    • Executive coaching : General responsibility of all executives towards managers who report to them.
  • 16. Developmental Tasks
    • Leadership development can be enhanced in a changing , dynamic , uncontrollable , and unpredictable environment.
      • Strategic planning and projections can contribute to a leader’s development.
    • Opportunities that stretch individuals and allow them to test themselves provide learning.
    • The risk of possible failure is a strong incentive for managers to learn.
    • Organizations may not provide the same development opportunities for all their members.
  • 17. Making the Most of Your Leadership Experiences: Learning to Learn from Experience
    • The learning events and developmental experiences that punctuate one’s life are usually stressful .
    • A flat learning curve can result due to an inability to move against one’s grain of personal success and tolerate a dip in performance results.
    • To be successful, learning must continue throughout life, beyond the completion of one’s formal education.
  • 18. Anatomy of a Learning Experience
  • 19. Leadership Development through Education and Training
    • Research has shown that:
      • Education level or academic performance in college was positively related to future managerial success.
      • Educational programs generally have a positive effect on leadership development.
      • Formal education and training programs can help one become a better leader.
    • The content of different leadership programs varies considerably, depending on the target audience.
    • Leadership education is a component of leadership development.
  • 20. University Courses in Leadership
    • Leadership training programs can include formal courses or extracurricular leadership activities.
    • The pedagogy used to impart different leadership concepts vary greatly.
    • Many courses use the standard lecture methods, or provide individualized feedback through:
      • Case studies
      • Role Playing
      • Simulations
      • Games
  • 21. Leadership Training Programs
    • Programs aimed particularly at industry and public service leaders and supervisors use:
      • Lectures
      • Case studies
      • Role-playing exercises
    • Programs for midlevel managers often focus on:
      • Individualized feedback, case studies, presentations
      • Role playing, simulations
      • In-basket exercises
      • Leaderless group discussions
  • 22. Leadership Training Programs (continued)
    • Conger offers that a multi-tiered approach is effective.
    • Leadership development in the 21st century must occur in more lifelike situations and contexts.
    • Leadership programs for senior executives and CEOs focus on strategic planning , PR , and interpersonal skills .
    • No matter the type of program chosen, a systematic approach guarantees its usefulness.
  • 23. Building Your Leadership Self-Image
    • Leadership develops through experience and formal education .
    • Not everyone wants to be a leader or believes he/she can be.
    • Avoid selling yourself short .
    • Understand the importance of leadership, keep an open mind .
    • Avoid self-defeating generalizations.
    • Experiment and take a few risks with different leadership roles.
  • 24. Summary
    • One way to add value to your leadership courses and experiences is by applying the action-observation-reflection model.
    • Be aware of the role perception plays in leadership development.
    • Education and experience can contribute to your development as a leader.
    • To become a better leader, one must seek challenges and try to make the best of any leadership opportunity .