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Ppt Ch 2


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  • 1.  
  • 2. Leadership Involves an Interaction Between the Leader, the Followers, and the Situation
    • “ The crowd will follow a leader who marches twenty steps in advance; but if he is a thousand steps in front of them, they do not see and do not follow him.”
    • ~ Georg Brandes
    Chapter 2
  • 3. Looking at Leadership Through Several Lenses
    • Studying only leaders provides just a partial view of the leadership process.
    • Leadership depends on several factors, including the situation and the followers , not just the leader’s qualities.
    • Leadership is more than just the kind of person the leader is or the things the leader does .
    • The clearest picture of the leadership process occurs only when you use all three lenses to understand it.
  • 4. The Interactional Framework for Analyzing Leadership
  • 5. The Interactional Framework for Analyzing Leadership (continued)
    • Depicts leadership as a function of three elements:
      • The leader
      • The followers
      • The situation
    • A particular leadership situation scenario can be examined using each level of analysis separately.
      • Examining interactions in the area of overlaps can lead to better understanding.
    • Leadership is the result of complex interactions among the leader, the followers, and the situation.
  • 6. The Interactional Framework for Analyzing Leadership (continued)
    • Leader-Member Exchange Theory describes two kinds of relationships that occur among leaders and followers:
      • In-group members
      • Out-group members
    • LMX theory has broadened to include entire continuum of relationships that leaders may have with members.
    • The theory looks at the nature of the relationship between the leader and the followers.
  • 7. The Leader
    • Individual aspects of the leadership equation:
    • Unique personal history
      • Interests
      • Character traits
      • Motivation
    • Effective leaders differ from their followers , and from ineffective leaders on elements such as:
      • Personality traits, cognitive abilities
      • Skills, values
    • Another way personality can affect leadership is through temperament.
  • 8. The Leader (continued)
    • Leaders appointed by superiors may have less credibility and may get less loyalty.
    • Leaders elected or emerging by consensus from ranks of followers are seen as more effective.
    • A leader’s experience or history in a particular organization is usually important to her or his effectiveness.
    • The extent of follower participation in leader’s selection may affect a leader’s legitimacy.
  • 9. The Followers
    • Certain aspects of followers affect the leadership process:
      • Expectations
      • Personality traits
      • Maturity levels
      • Levels of competence
      • Motivation
    • Workers who share a leader’s goals and values will be more motivated to do their work.
  • 10. The Followers (continued)
    • The number of followers reporting to a leader can have significant implications.
    • Other relevant variables include:
      • Follower’s trust in the leader.
      • Follower’s confidence or lack thereof in leader’s interest in their well-being.
  • 11. Changing Roles for Followers
    • The leader-follower relationship is in a period of dynamic change .
      • Increased pressure to function with reduced resources .
      • Trend toward greater power sharing and decentralized authority in organizations.
      • Increase in complex problems and rapid changes.
    • Followers can become much more proactive in their stance toward organizational problems.
    • Followers can become better skilled at “ influencing upward ,” flexible and open to opportunities .
  • 12. The Situation
    • Leadership often makes sense only in the context of how the leader and followers interact in a given situation.
    • The situation may be the most ambiguous aspect of the leadership framework.
    “ You’ve got to give loyalty down, if you want loyalty up.” ~ Donald T. Regan, Former CEO and White House chief of staff
  • 13. Are Good Women Leaders Hard to Find?
    • Women are taking on leadership roles in greater numbers than ever before.
    • Problems still exist that constrain the opportunity for capable women to rise to the highest leadership roles in organizations.
    • Research shows that there are no statistically significant differences between men’s and women’s leadership styles.
  • 14. Are Good Women Leaders Hard to Find? (continued)
    • Differences that were found:
      • Women had significantly lower well-being scores .
      • Women’s commitment to the organizations they worked for was more guarded than that of their male counterparts.
      • Women were more likely to be willing to take career risks by going to new areas of the company where women had not been before.
  • 15. Research on Second-Generation Managerial Women
    • Research suggests that many women appear to be succeeding because of characteristics originally considered too feminine for effective leadership.
    • Tend to use interactive leadership , based on
      • Enhancing others’ self-worth.
      • The belief that the best performance results out of satisfaction at work and higher sense of self-worth.
      • Style developed due to women’s socialization experiences and career paths.
  • 16. The Shift Toward More Women Leaders
    • Factors that explain the shift toward more women leaders:
      • Women themselves have changed.
      • Leadership roles have changed.
      • Organizational practices have changed.
      • Culture has changed.
  • 17. Leadership and Management Revisited Leaders Managers Innovate Administer Develop Maintain Inspire Control Long-term view Short-term view Ask what and why Ask how and when Originate Initiate Challenge the status quo Accept the status quo Do the right things Do things right
  • 18. Leader-Follower-Situation Interactions
    • Leaders create environments where follower’s innovations and creative contributions are welcome.
    • Leaders encourage growth and development in their followers beyond the scope of the job.
    • Leaders are generally more interested in the big picture of followers’ work than managers.
    • Leaders motivate followers through more personal and intangible factors .
    • Leaders redefine the parameters of tasks and responsibilities .
  • 19. Manager-Follower-Situation Interactions
    • Managers are more likely to emphasize routinization and control of follower’s behavior.
    • Managers tend to assess followers’ performance in terms of explicit, fairly specific job descriptions .
    • Managers motivate followers more with extrinsic , even contractual consequences .
    • Managers tend to accept the definitions of situations presented to them.
    • Managers are likely to affect change officially , through control tactics.
  • 20. Leadership and Management as Solutions to Different Kinds of Problems
    • Heifetz offers that we often face challenges for which the problem-solving resources already exist.
      • Technical problems – Though complex, there are expert solutions or experts available to solve them.
      • Adaptive problems – They can only be solved by changing the system itself.
    • Adaptive problems involve people’s values.
    • Adaptive leadership: Finding solutions requires the active engagement of people’s hearts and minds, not just the leader’s .
  • 21. Leadership and Management as Solutions to Different Kinds of Problems (continued)
    • A challenge is wholly or mostly adaptive in nature:
      • When people’s hearts and minds need to change.
      • By a process of elimination.
      • If there is continuing conflict among people struggling with the challenge.
      • A crisis may be a reflection of an underlying or unrecognized adaptive problem.
    What’s the work? Who does the work? Technical Applying current know-how Authorities Adaptive Discovering new ways The people facing the challenge
  • 22. A Final Word
    • Fairholm offers that an organization needs two different kinds of people at the helm: good leaders and good managers.
    • Kotter suggests the development of leader-managers .
      • May be particularly important with regard to developing the talents of younger leader–managers .
  • 23. There is no Simple Recipe for Effective Leadership
    • Leadership must always be assessed in the context of the leader, the followers, and the situation:
      • A leader may need to respond to various followers differently in the same situation.
      • A leader may need to respond to the same follower differently in different situations.
      • Followers may respond to various leaders quite differently.
      • Followers may respond to each other differently with different leaders.
      • Two leaders may have different perceptions of the same followers or situations.
  • 24. Drawing Lessons From Experience
    • The right behavior in one situation is not necessarily the right behavior in another situation.
    • Though unable to agree on the one best behavior in a given situation, agreement can exist on some clearly inappropriate behaviors.
    • Saying that the right behavior for a leader depends on the situation differs from saying it does not matter what the leader does.
  • 25. Summary
    • Leadership involves dynamic interaction between leaders and followers in a particular situation .
    • Study of leadership must include the followers and the situation .
    • The interactive nature of leader-followers-situation can help us better understand
      • The changing nature of the leader-follower relationship.
      • The increasingly greater complexity of situations leaders and followers face.
    • Good leadership can be enhanced by greater awareness of factors influencing the leadership process.