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Some images of planning and information systems.

Some images of planning and information systems.

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  • CD screentour: MIS
  •  What is strategic planning?  Strategic planning is a long-term, future-oriented process of assessment, goal-setting, and decision-mailing that maps an explicit path between the present and a vision of the future. It relies on careful consideration of an organization’s capabilities and environment, and leads to priority-based resource allocation and other decisions. Simply stated, strategic planning is a management tool to help an organization do a better job. Strategic planning can help an organization focus its vision and priorities in response to a changing environment and to ensure that members of the organization are working toward the same goals. Key concepts in this definition: The process is strategic because it involves choosing how best to respond to the circumstances of a dynamic environment. Strategic planning is systematic in that it calls for following a process that is both focused and productive. Strategic planning involves choosing specific priorities – making decisions about ends and means, in both the long term and short term. Finally, the process is about building commitment – engaging stakeholders, members, and the community in the process of identifying priorities.


  • 1.  
  • 2. The Planning Cycle Analysis of current Situation Where are we now? (Base Line Data) Forecasting Where is the world moving to? Develop Objectives Where do we want to be within a given period of time? Action Plan (Work Plan) What must I do to get where I want to go? Implementation of Work Plan Do it! Monitor Progress by comparing current data with Baseline Data Taking into consideration policies, strategies and national development plans Start of a new planning cycle Detect weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and risks
  • 3. The activities and information requirements of the three major levels of management Regular internal reports Detailed transaction reports Procedures manuals Current historical data Programmed decisions Production scheduling Inventory control Credit management Directions Commands Actions and other operational decisions Direct the utilization of resources and the performance of tasks in conformance with established rules Operational Management Forecasts and historical data Regular Internal Reports Exception reports Simulations Inquiries Personnel practices Capital Budgeting Marketing Mix Budgets Procedures Rules and other tactical decisions Allocate assigned resources to specific tasks Make rules Measure performance Exert control Tactical Management Forecasts Simulations Inquiries External Reports One-time reports Condensed internal reports Policy on industry and product diversification Social responsibility policy Major capital expenditure policy Goals and strategic objectives Company policies Long range plans and other strategic decisions Long range planning and goal setting Determine organizational resource requirements and allocations Strategic Management Information Requirements Activity Examples Activity Results Primary Activities Management Levels
  • 4. External institutional analysis examples include:
    • Perception/image studies of prospective students, parents, counselors, and employers
    • Price sensitivity studies of prospective students and parents
    • Competition analyses
    • Market share and trend analysis of college bound target populations using College Board’s EPS and ACT’s EIS
    • Demographic projection analyses of high school graduates and other target populations such as adults
    • Workforce demand projections
    • Analyses of prospective student, parent, counselor, adult, and employer wants and needs, including academic programs
  • 5. Internal institutional analysis examples include:
    • Assessment of the relationship of enrollment and institutional fiscal health
    • Enrollment and fiscal projection scenarios
    • Analyses of student flows into academic majors and courses
    • Academic program capacity and demand analyses
    • Assessment of student satisfaction, engagement, and what is important
    • Incoming characteristic profile of students who succeed of those who don’t succeed
    • Price discount sensitivity studies of admitted students
    • Graduating student outcome analyses
  • 6.
    • Data Types and Sources
    • Different Types of Data
      • Student demographics, mobility, attitudes, behavior
      • Academic performance
      • Curriculum and assessment
      • Classroom management
      • School management
    • Different Sources of Data
      • Surveys
      • School & district records
      • State & local assessments
      • Lesson plans, student work
      • Curriculum & assessment materials
      • Observation reports
      • Documents e.g. faculty & PTO meeting minutes, school plans, budget
  • 7. Periodic Scheduled Reports Exception Reports Demand Reports and Responses Drill-down Reports Major Management Information Systems Reports
  • 8. Sensitivity Analysis What-If Analysis Goal-Seeking Analysis Optimization Analysis Important Decision Support Systems Analytical Models
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13. Decision Support Framework
  • 14. Management Information System
    • Scheduled reports
    • Key-indicator reports
    • Exception reports
    • Ad hoc (demand) reports
    • Drill-down reports
    Creates reports managers can use to make routine business decisions MIS
  • 15.
    • Four basic types of analytical modeling activities with a DSS
    • Sensitivity Analysis
      • the study of the effect that changes in one or more parts of a model have on other parts of the model
      • Example: Let’s cut advertising by $100 repeatedly so we can see its relationship to sales.
    • What-if Analysis
      • checks the impact of a change in the assumptions or other input data on the proposed solution
      • Example: What if we cut advertising by 10%? What would happen to sales?
    • Goal-seeking Analysis
      • find the value of the inputs necessary to achieve a desired level of output
      • Example: Let’s try increases in advertising until sales reach $1 million.
    • Optimization Analysis
      • Find the optimum value for one or more target variables, given certain constraints.
      • Example: What’s the best amount of advertising to have, given out budget and choice of media?
  • 16. ISs to support decisions Information produced by analytical modeling of business data Information produced by extraction and manipulation of business data Information processing methodology Ad hoc, flexible, and adaptable format Prespecified, fixed format Information format Interactive inquiries and responses Periodic, exception, demand, and push reports and responses Information form and frequency Provide information and techniques to analyze specific problems Provide information about the performance of the organization Decision support provided Decision Support Systems Management Information Systems
  • 17. Executive Support Systems (ESS) in Perspective Tailored to individual executives Easy to use- colour and graphic Drill down capabilities Support need for external data Can help when uncertainty is high Future-oriented Linked to value-added processes
  • 18. Managerial Decisions in the Control Process Exhibit 18.7
  • 19.  
  • 20.
    • Capabilities of an ESS
    • Support for defining an overall vision
    • Support for strategic planning
    • Support for strategic organizing & staffing
    • Support for strategic control
    • Support for crisis management
  • 21. Key issues to consider in developing the strategic plan:
    • Quality
      • Sample result oriented Goal: “To reduce medication administration errors by 10%”
        • Information Technology
          • Consider implementation of electronic charting/drug administration system
        • Staff Levels
          • Analyze staff to patient ratios
          • Are nurses overworked?
          • What is the customer satisfaction level?
        • Baylor of Garland case study
          • Baylor of Garland still uses paper charting -- because of this it is easier for medication errors occur
    • Access
      • Sample result oriented Goal: “Provide care to 15% more patients than we did last year”
        • Assess resources available to achieve the objective
          • How much additional staff will be needed?
          • How much additional space will we need?
        • Will we need new construction?
          • New wing or modular building?
          • How will we pay for the addition – seek funding, charity or debt financing?
    • Cost
      • Sample result oriented Goal: “Increase the accuracy of billing for supplies by 5%”
        • Implement incentive-based motivation for staff to decrease wasted supplies
          • Consider implementing a competition for the least amount of supplies wasted, winner gets first right on holiday scheduling decisions
          • Require supply charge to patient
          • Consider implementing additional policies for supply uses? (Example: Mandatory workshops on improving sterile technique)
  • 22. Desired characteristics of Information
    • Accurate
    • Complete
    • Economical
    • Flexibility
    • Reliable and verifiable
    • Relevant
    • Simple
    • Timely
    • Accessible and Secure
  • 23. Figure 9.3 An example of a mission statement, strategic goals, and tactical objectives for an in-line skate manufacturer
  • 24. PERT AND CPM
    • PERT (Programmed Evaluation and Review Technique and CPM (Critical Path Method) are important network techniques useful in planning are especially useful for planning.
    • 1. The project is divided into a number of clearly identifiable activities which are then arranged in al logical sequence.
    • 2. A network diagram is prepared to show the sequence of activities, the starting point and the termination of the project.
    • 3. Time estimates are prepared for each activity. PERT requires the preparation of three time estimates optimistic.
    • 4. The longest path in the network is identified as the critical path. It represents the sequence of those activates which are important for timely completion of the project and where no delays can be allowed without delaying the entire project.
  • 25. The Nature of Managerial Work
    • Controlling
      • Managers control activities by comparing plans to results.
  • 26. Table 1.1 A Categorization of Decision Characteristics Category I Decisions Category II Decisions Classifications Programmable; routine; Nonprogrammable; unique; generic; computational; judgmental; creative; negotiated; compromise adaptive; innovative; inspirational Structure Procedural; predictable; Novel, unstructured, certainty regarding consequential, elusive, and cause/effect relationships; complex; uncertain cause/ recurring; within existing effect relationships; non- technologies; well-defined recurring; information information channels; channels undefined, incom- definite decision criteria; plete information; decision outcome preferences may criteria may be unknown; be certain or uncertain outcome preferences may be certain or uncertain Strategy Reliance upon rules and Reliance on judgment, principles; habitual intuition, and creativity; reactions; prefabricated individual processing; response; uniform heuristic problem-solving processing; computational techniques; rules of thumb; techniques; accepted general problem-solving methods for handling processes
  • 27. What is Strategic Planning?
    • Strategic Planning is a long-term, future-oriented process of assessment, goal-setting, and decision-making that maps an explicit path between the present and a vision of the future. It relies on careful consideration of an organization's capabilities and environment, and leads to priority-based resource allocation and other decisions.
  • 28. Strategic Planning = Align organization with its environment to promote stability and survival Traditional Planning = Set goals then develop steps to achieve those goals
  • 29. Strategic Planning in the Organization
    • Strategic planning as a management process includes the following steps:
      • Clearly define the purpose of the organization
      • Establish realistic goals and objectives consistent with the mission of the organization
      • Identify the organization’s external constituencies or stakeholders, then determine their assessment of the organization’s purposed and operations
      • Clearly communicate the goals and objectives
      • Develop a sense of ownership of the plan
      • Develop strategies to achieve the goals
      • Ensure the most effective use of resources is made
      • Provide a base from which progress can be measured
      • Provide a mechanism for informed change as needed
      • Build a consensus about where the organization is going