Chapter6

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Chapter6

  1. 1. CHAPTER 6 BASIC MOTIVATION CONCEPTS
  2. 2. AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: <ul><li>Outline the motivation process. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Maslow’s need hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast Theory X and Theory Y. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors. </li></ul><ul><li>List the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the types of goals that increase performance. </li></ul>
  3. 3. AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: <ul><li>State the impact of underrewarding employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify key relationships in expectancy theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the contemporary theories of motivation complement each other. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Defining Motivation <ul><li>Key Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity: how hard a person tries </li></ul><ul><li>Direction: toward beneficial goal </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence: how long a person tries </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hierarchy of Needs Theory
  6. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs E X H I B I T 6-1
  7. 7. Theory X and Theory Y(Douglas McGregor)
  8. 8. Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)
  9. 9. Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers E X H I B I T 6-3 Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction
  10. 10. Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 6-4 Presence Absence
  11. 11. ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases.
  12. 12. David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff
  13. 13. Matching Achievers and Jobs E X H I B I T 6-5
  14. 14. Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)
  15. 15. Reinforcement Theory Concepts: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.
  16. 16. Equity Theory Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside
  17. 17. Equity Theory (cont’d) E X H I B I T 6-7
  18. 18. Equity Theory (cont’d) <ul><li>Choices for dealing with inequity: </li></ul><ul><li>Change inputs (slack off) </li></ul><ul><li>Change outcomes (increase output) </li></ul><ul><li>Distort/change perceptions of self </li></ul><ul><li>Distort/change perceptions of others </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a different referent person </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the field (quit the job) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Equity Theory (cont’d) <ul><li>Propositions relating to inequitable pay: </li></ul><ul><li>Overrewarded employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Overrewarded employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work. </li></ul><ul><li>Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. </li></ul><ul><li>Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees </li></ul>
  20. 20. Equity Theory (cont’d)
  21. 21. Expectancy Theory E X H I B I T 6-8
  22. 22. Performance Dimensions E X H I B I T 6-9

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