Imp of pronoun


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  • Imp of pronoun

    1. 1. Importance of Pronunciation: Vivek Goyal, B.E., CS
    2. 2. WHY THIS TOPIC?
    3. 3. Background Concepts and Information How is Speech Produced?
    4. 4. Background Concepts and Information What is a Speech Sound?
    5. 5. Background Concepts and Information Letters vs. Speech Sounds <ul><li>Phonetic transcription to denote speech sounds as opposed to letters. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some letters pronounced > 1 way: </li></ul></ul></ul>Ex.: “c” in “cat” pronounced as /k/; and “ face” pronounced as /s/ <ul><ul><ul><li>Some sounds are assigned > 1 letter: </li></ul></ul></ul>Ex.: Sound / s / uses letters “c“ and “s” as in “cease” <ul><ul><ul><li>Vowel letters > 1 pronunciation: </li></ul></ul></ul>Ex.: Letter “a” pronounced as /ae/ “cat”, / a / “father”, or / ei / “late”
    6. 6. Background Concepts and Information <ul><li>Three parameters for distinguishing </li></ul>one speech sound from another : <ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical placement of oral structures
    7. 7. Airflow
    8. 8. Voicing </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Subjects to be covered <ul><li>Intonation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions
    10. 10. 2-Syllable Nouns and Verbs, including Heteronyms
    11. 11. Can vs. Can’t </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ th” and use of this in the most frequently used words </li></ul>
    12. 12. Intonation <ul><li>What is this? Rhythmic quality of the language. </li></ul><ul><li>English: Is a stress-timed language . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllables may last different amounts of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “about” - The stressed syllable is “bout”.
    13. 13. Compared to “a”, it takes longer to say and the pitch rises </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>French: Is a syllable-timed language . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllables all take approximately the same </li></ul></ul>amount of time.
    14. 14. Intonation <ul><li>Also includes pitch changes, what words to stress in a sentence, and types of links or liaisons in connecting sounds within and between words.
    15. 15. Both English and French use linking (yay!!). </li></ul>IT’S THE MELODY OF THE LANGUAGE
    16. 16. Intonation in Use <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: Pitch drops at the end of a question sentence. </li></ul></ul>Ex: Would you like coffee or tea? <ul><ul><li>Exceptions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes/no questions: </li></ul></ul></ul>Ex: Would you like some coffee? <ul><ul><ul><li>Highly emotional questions: </li></ul></ul></ul>Ex: Why don‘t you pay attention to me?
    17. 17. Intonation in Use <ul><li>2- Syllable Nouns and Verbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For 2- Syllable Nouns in general , stress is on the first syllable: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: baby, finger, journey, soldier, dinner, bottle, paper, sorrow, elbow, shadow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For 2-Syllable Verbs in general , stress is on the second (last syllable): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: repair, attack, approach, invite, rely, annoy, forget </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Intonation in Use <ul><li>2- Syllable Nouns and Verbs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heteronyms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a 2-syllable word can be used either as a noun or verb, the same rules apply. Examples: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contract
    19. 19. “ I signed a con tract.” OR
    20. 20. “ I will con tract that disease if I’m not careful.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>permit
    21. 21. “ I need a per mit to set up a march.” OR
    22. 22. “ Per mit me to pay for this meal.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other examples : content, record, subject, present, convict, object, contrast, project, defect. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Intonation in Use <ul><li>Can vs. Can’t </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1a. Can </li></ul></ul></ul>When “can” is used with another verb, we do not stress it. We stress the verb that follows. Our pronunciation becomes “cn” (/kn/), as if the vowel didn’t exist. Examples: I can (/kn/) do it. Can(/kn/) you lend me $5.00? I can (/kn/) go later. Those Can-Can girls can (/kn/) sure dance. <ul><ul><ul><li>1b. Can </li></ul></ul></ul>However, when “can” finishes a sentence, there is heightened emotion, or you are contradicting someone, it is said completely (full vowel). Examples: I can! Speaker#1: You can’t swim. Speaker #2: I can swim. I do it every day
    24. 24. Intonation in Use <ul><li>Can vs. Can’t (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Can’t : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We stress this word: The vowel is said fully, the pitch rises and it takes longer to say. </li></ul></ul></ul>Examples: You can’t do it. You can’t go to the movies. If I can’t go, you can go. (Compare with: If I can go, you can go.) Examples of Both Can and Can’t: Can he come if you can’t? I can see that he can’t handle the job.
    25. 25. “ TH” / θ / /ð/ <ul><ul><li>How produced: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral structures: Tongue touches the back of the upper teeth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air Flow: Fricative. Air is pushed through a narrow passage and sounds like a hiss. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voicing: Can be either voiced or voiceless. </li></ul></ul></ul>Examples: Voiceless: think, theater Voiced: brother, that
    26. 26. “ TH”/ θ / /ð/ <ul><ul><li>The, this, that, these, those, there, with </li></ul></ul>“ the”: Most used word in English language “ that”: Number 7 “ with”: Number 17 “ this”: Number 23 “ there”: Number 35 <ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the difference between “this and “these”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>- Difficulty with which is singular/which plural. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty with pronouncing them differently even when they know the differences in the meanings: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul> - Native English speaker will think they don’t know their grammar: “This are mine.”
    27. 27. “ TH”/ θ / /ð/ <ul><ul><ul><li>Pronouncing “this” vs. “these”: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both begin with voiced “th” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differences: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vowel: / I / in “this” and /i/ in “these”
    28. 28. Final Sound: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Voiceless /s/ in “this” Voiced /z/ in “these” (they need to feel the “buzz” in their necks)
    29. 29. Pronunciation: Incorporating it Into the Language Learning Process from Day One FINAL QUESTIONS? Vivek Goyal, B.E. CS