Imp of pronoun
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Imp of pronoun






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Imp of pronoun Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Importance of Pronunciation: Vivek Goyal, B.E., CS
  • 3. Background Concepts and Information How is Speech Produced?
  • 4. Background Concepts and Information What is a Speech Sound?
  • 5. Background Concepts and Information Letters vs. Speech Sounds
    • Phonetic transcription to denote speech sounds as opposed to letters.
        • Some letters pronounced > 1 way:
    Ex.: “c” in “cat” pronounced as /k/; and “ face” pronounced as /s/
        • Some sounds are assigned > 1 letter:
    Ex.: Sound / s / uses letters “c“ and “s” as in “cease”
        • Vowel letters > 1 pronunciation:
    Ex.: Letter “a” pronounced as /ae/ “cat”, / a / “father”, or / ei / “late”
  • 6. Background Concepts and Information
    • Three parameters for distinguishing
    one speech sound from another :
        • Mechanical placement of oral structures
        • 7. Airflow
        • 8. Voicing
  • 9. Subjects to be covered
    • Intonation:
      • Questions
      • 10. 2-Syllable Nouns and Verbs, including Heteronyms
      • 11. Can vs. Can’t
    • “ th” and use of this in the most frequently used words
  • 12. Intonation
    • What is this? Rhythmic quality of the language.
    • English: Is a stress-timed language .
      • Syllables may last different amounts of time.
          • Ex: “about” - The stressed syllable is “bout”.
          • 13. Compared to “a”, it takes longer to say and the pitch rises
    • French: Is a syllable-timed language .
      • Syllables all take approximately the same
    amount of time.
  • 14. Intonation
    • Also includes pitch changes, what words to stress in a sentence, and types of links or liaisons in connecting sounds within and between words.
    • 15. Both English and French use linking (yay!!).
  • 16. Intonation in Use
    • Questions
      • Rule: Pitch drops at the end of a question sentence.
    Ex: Would you like coffee or tea?
      • Exceptions:
        • Yes/no questions:
    Ex: Would you like some coffee?
        • Highly emotional questions:
    Ex: Why don‘t you pay attention to me?
  • 17. Intonation in Use
    • 2- Syllable Nouns and Verbs
      • For 2- Syllable Nouns in general , stress is on the first syllable:
          • Ex: baby, finger, journey, soldier, dinner, bottle, paper, sorrow, elbow, shadow
      • For 2-Syllable Verbs in general , stress is on the second (last syllable):
          • Ex: repair, attack, approach, invite, rely, annoy, forget
  • 18. Intonation in Use
    • 2- Syllable Nouns and Verbs (cont.)
      • Heteronyms
        • When a 2-syllable word can be used either as a noun or verb, the same rules apply. Examples:
          • contract
          • 19. “ I signed a con tract.” OR
          • 20. “ I will con tract that disease if I’m not careful.”
          • permit
          • 21. “ I need a per mit to set up a march.” OR
          • 22. “ Per mit me to pay for this meal.”
          • Other examples : content, record, subject, present, convict, object, contrast, project, defect.
  • 23. Intonation in Use
    • Can vs. Can’t
        • 1a. Can
    When “can” is used with another verb, we do not stress it. We stress the verb that follows. Our pronunciation becomes “cn” (/kn/), as if the vowel didn’t exist. Examples: I can (/kn/) do it. Can(/kn/) you lend me $5.00? I can (/kn/) go later. Those Can-Can girls can (/kn/) sure dance.
        • 1b. Can
    However, when “can” finishes a sentence, there is heightened emotion, or you are contradicting someone, it is said completely (full vowel). Examples: I can! Speaker#1: You can’t swim. Speaker #2: I can swim. I do it every day
  • 24. Intonation in Use
    • Can vs. Can’t (cont.)
      • 2. Can’t :
        • We stress this word: The vowel is said fully, the pitch rises and it takes longer to say.
    Examples: You can’t do it. You can’t go to the movies. If I can’t go, you can go. (Compare with: If I can go, you can go.) Examples of Both Can and Can’t: Can he come if you can’t? I can see that he can’t handle the job.
  • 25. “ TH” / θ / /ð/
      • How produced:
        • Oral structures: Tongue touches the back of the upper teeth.
        • Air Flow: Fricative. Air is pushed through a narrow passage and sounds like a hiss.
        • Voicing: Can be either voiced or voiceless.
    Examples: Voiceless: think, theater Voiced: brother, that
  • 26. “ TH”/ θ / /ð/
      • The, this, that, these, those, there, with
    “ the”: Most used word in English language “ that”: Number 7 “ with”: Number 17 “ this”: Number 23 “ there”: Number 35
        • Emphasize the difference between “this and “these”.
          • Why?
    - Difficulty with which is singular/which plural.
            • Difficulty with pronouncing them differently even when they know the differences in the meanings:
    - Native English speaker will think they don’t know their grammar: “This are mine.”
  • 27. “ TH”/ θ / /ð/
        • Pronouncing “this” vs. “these”:
          • Similarity:
            • Both begin with voiced “th”
          • Differences:
            • Vowel: / I / in “this” and /i/ in “these”
            • 28. Final Sound:
    Voiceless /s/ in “this” Voiced /z/ in “these” (they need to feel the “buzz” in their necks)
  • 29. Pronunciation: Incorporating it Into the Language Learning Process from Day One FINAL QUESTIONS? Vivek Goyal, B.E. CS