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Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
Imp of pronoun
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Imp of pronoun

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    • 1. Importance of Pronunciation: Vivek Goyal, B.E., CS
    • 2. WHY THIS TOPIC?
    • 3. Background Concepts and Information How is Speech Produced?
    • 4. Background Concepts and Information What is a Speech Sound?
    • 5. Background Concepts and Information Letters vs. Speech Sounds <ul><li>Phonetic transcription to denote speech sounds as opposed to letters. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some letters pronounced > 1 way: </li></ul></ul></ul>Ex.: “c” in “cat” pronounced as /k/; and “ face” pronounced as /s/ <ul><ul><ul><li>Some sounds are assigned > 1 letter: </li></ul></ul></ul>Ex.: Sound / s / uses letters “c“ and “s” as in “cease” <ul><ul><ul><li>Vowel letters > 1 pronunciation: </li></ul></ul></ul>Ex.: Letter “a” pronounced as /ae/ “cat”, / a / “father”, or / ei / “late”
    • 6. Background Concepts and Information <ul><li>Three parameters for distinguishing </li></ul>one speech sound from another : <ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical placement of oral structures
    • 7. Airflow
    • 8. Voicing </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 9. Subjects to be covered <ul><li>Intonation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions
    • 10. 2-Syllable Nouns and Verbs, including Heteronyms
    • 11. Can vs. Can’t </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ th” and use of this in the most frequently used words </li></ul>
    • 12. Intonation <ul><li>What is this? Rhythmic quality of the language. </li></ul><ul><li>English: Is a stress-timed language . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllables may last different amounts of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “about” - The stressed syllable is “bout”.
    • 13. Compared to “a”, it takes longer to say and the pitch rises </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>French: Is a syllable-timed language . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllables all take approximately the same </li></ul></ul>amount of time.
    • 14. Intonation <ul><li>Also includes pitch changes, what words to stress in a sentence, and types of links or liaisons in connecting sounds within and between words.
    • 15. Both English and French use linking (yay!!). </li></ul>IT’S THE MELODY OF THE LANGUAGE
    • 16. Intonation in Use <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: Pitch drops at the end of a question sentence. </li></ul></ul>Ex: Would you like coffee or tea? <ul><ul><li>Exceptions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes/no questions: </li></ul></ul></ul>Ex: Would you like some coffee? <ul><ul><ul><li>Highly emotional questions: </li></ul></ul></ul>Ex: Why don‘t you pay attention to me?
    • 17. Intonation in Use <ul><li>2- Syllable Nouns and Verbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For 2- Syllable Nouns in general , stress is on the first syllable: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: baby, finger, journey, soldier, dinner, bottle, paper, sorrow, elbow, shadow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For 2-Syllable Verbs in general , stress is on the second (last syllable): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: repair, attack, approach, invite, rely, annoy, forget </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 18. Intonation in Use <ul><li>2- Syllable Nouns and Verbs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heteronyms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a 2-syllable word can be used either as a noun or verb, the same rules apply. Examples: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contract
    • 19. “ I signed a con tract.” OR
    • 20. “ I will con tract that disease if I’m not careful.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>permit
    • 21. “ I need a per mit to set up a march.” OR
    • 22. “ Per mit me to pay for this meal.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other examples : content, record, subject, present, convict, object, contrast, project, defect. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 23. Intonation in Use <ul><li>Can vs. Can’t </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1a. Can </li></ul></ul></ul>When “can” is used with another verb, we do not stress it. We stress the verb that follows. Our pronunciation becomes “cn” (/kn/), as if the vowel didn’t exist. Examples: I can (/kn/) do it. Can(/kn/) you lend me $5.00? I can (/kn/) go later. Those Can-Can girls can (/kn/) sure dance. <ul><ul><ul><li>1b. Can </li></ul></ul></ul>However, when “can” finishes a sentence, there is heightened emotion, or you are contradicting someone, it is said completely (full vowel). Examples: I can! Speaker#1: You can’t swim. Speaker #2: I can swim. I do it every day
    • 24. Intonation in Use <ul><li>Can vs. Can’t (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Can’t : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We stress this word: The vowel is said fully, the pitch rises and it takes longer to say. </li></ul></ul></ul>Examples: You can’t do it. You can’t go to the movies. If I can’t go, you can go. (Compare with: If I can go, you can go.) Examples of Both Can and Can’t: Can he come if you can’t? I can see that he can’t handle the job.
    • 25. “ TH” / θ / /ð/ <ul><ul><li>How produced: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral structures: Tongue touches the back of the upper teeth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air Flow: Fricative. Air is pushed through a narrow passage and sounds like a hiss. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voicing: Can be either voiced or voiceless. </li></ul></ul></ul>Examples: Voiceless: think, theater Voiced: brother, that
    • 26. “ TH”/ θ / /ð/ <ul><ul><li>The, this, that, these, those, there, with </li></ul></ul>“ the”: Most used word in English language “ that”: Number 7 “ with”: Number 17 “ this”: Number 23 “ there”: Number 35 <ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the difference between “this and “these”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>- Difficulty with which is singular/which plural. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty with pronouncing them differently even when they know the differences in the meanings: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul> - Native English speaker will think they don’t know their grammar: “This are mine.”
    • 27. “ TH”/ θ / /ð/ <ul><ul><ul><li>Pronouncing “this” vs. “these”: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both begin with voiced “th” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differences: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vowel: / I / in “this” and /i/ in “these”
    • 28. Final Sound: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Voiceless /s/ in “this” Voiced /z/ in “these” (they need to feel the “buzz” in their necks)
    • 29. Pronunciation: Incorporating it Into the Language Learning Process from Day One FINAL QUESTIONS? Vivek Goyal, B.E. CS

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