Baghdad is the capital of Iraq.It is the center of air, road and rail transport. It is also the leading manufacturing city in Iraq.
Baghdad was founded in 762 A.D. by Abu Jafar al-Mansur, the second Abbasid caliph. It was originally called Madinat as-Salam which means “ City of Peace”. Baghdad was at the height if commercial prosperity during the 8th and 9th centuries A.D. Abu Jafar al-Mansur
During the 8th and 12th centuries it was the flourishing center of Arab civilization. As capital of the caliphate, Baghdad was also to become the cultural capital of the Islamic world. The walled City of the “Thousand and One Nights”, Baghdad, was one of the loveliest cities in the world, with tombs, mosques, minarets, a university and the revered Kadhumain mosque and shrine.
Tell Harmal, a small mound of antiquity on the outskirts of Baghdad was ancient Shaduppum, was where the first laws were discovered. This same site has yielded tablets showing mathematical and geometrical problems the precede Greek developments by centuries.
Baghdad Mosques Al-Qadiriya shrine was originally a religious school. Sheik AdulQadir was one of the most highly respected teachers throughout the Islamic world. When he died the buried him during the night and when the school opened in the morning, people rushed to pray to him, thus the school became one of the greatest mosques in Baghdad.
The Mosque and tomb of Imam al-A’dham, a famous and holy Islamic site, is flocked to by tourist every year.
Al-Mustansereyya School It took six years to build (completed in 1233 AD) courses in Arabic, Theology, Astronomy, Mathematics, Pharmacology and Medicine Nearly three quarters of a million dinars in gold was spent on its construction and had an endowment valued at about one million dinars in gold from which the School obtained an annual revenue of 70,000 dinars to spend on staff and students.
Originally designed as an inn (the oldest in Baghdad) for traveling merchants The khan contains a large number of rooms distributed on two stories around a closed paved courtyard. reconstructed in 1935 and is now a first class restaurant where Iraqi dishes are served and folkloric music performed at night. Khan Murjan
In 1285, Baghdad was overrun by Mongolian conquer Halagu Kahn. Who killed the last caliph. In 1401 the Mongols leader Tamerlane (Timur the lame) sacked Baghdad and massacred many of its inhabitants. By the 16th century it was in disrepair and the population was reduced to 150,000. The Ottomans maintained Iraq as a Sunni-controlled state until the early 19th century.
By the end of WWI, the league of nations gave Great Britain a mandate to administer Iraq until it established its own government. The British placed a member of the Hashemite family, Faisal ibn Husayn, on the throne as King Faisal I in 1921.
Oil reserves began to be developed in 1931 after the government signed agreements with numerous international oil companies. The British mandate was officially removed in 1932 and Iraq was an independent country.
An oil boom in the 1970’s brought wealth to Baghdad, and the city developed on a massive scale. The city stretches along both banks of the Tigris River with 11 bridges connecting it and its 5 million people.
Sunni and Shiites Split After Muhammad’s death there was conflict over who would become his successor, either his closet friend, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, or his son-in-law, Ali ibnAbiTalib. Supporters of Abu became the Sunnis, those of ibn Ali the Shiites.
Sunni Muslims In Iraq, only 35 percent of the population is Sunni Sunni refers to the sunnas, or oral traditions and interpretations of the Koran Sunnis believe that the position of Caliph should be a position to which one is elected by the religious leaders of the Islamic community, and not dependent on direct lineage from Mohammed