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Tissues3 Tissues3 Presentation Transcript

  • Tissues!
    • Four types of tissues
      • Connective
      • Muscular
      • Epithelial
      • Nervous
  • Epithelial Tissues
    • A sheet of cells that covers a body's surface
    • Lines a body's cavity
    • The major function of epithelial tissue includes protection, secretion, absorption, and filtration.
    • Cells can be thin, flat to cubic to elongated
    Simple Stratified
  • Simple Epithelial
    • Three types of simple epithelial tissues
      • Simple squamous
      • Simple cubiodal
      • Simple columnar
    Squamous Cubiodal Stratified Columnar
  • Simple Squamous Epithelial
    • Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration where protection is important.
    • All Squamous cells are flat cells with an irregular flattened shape and their cytoplasm is sparse
    • Thin and permeable this epithelium is found where filtration or the exchange of substance by rapid diffusion
    • A one-cell layer of simple squamous epithelium forms the alveoli of the respiratory membrane.
    Simple Stratified
  • Simple Cubiodal Epithelial
    • Consists of a single layer of cells as tall as they are wide
    • Forms the wall of the smallest ducts of glands and many kidney tubules
    • Functions are secretion and absorption
    • Located in the kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands
    Simple Stratified
  • Simple columnar epithelial
    • Columnar epithelial cells occur in one or more layers
    • Functions are absorption, secretion of mucus enzymes
    • Lines the digestive tract from the stomach through the rectum
    • Displays cilia on their free surfaces, which moves substance or cells through an internal passageway.
    Simple Stratified
  • Stratified Epithelial
    • Contains two or more cell layers
    • The basal cells divide and push apically to replace the older surface cells
    • More durable than simple epithelial
    • protects
    Transitional Squamous Cubiodal columnar Pseudostratified
  • Stratified Squamous Epithelial
    • Thick membrane composed if several layers
    • Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
    • Found in the areas subjected to wear and tear, and its surface cells are being rubbed away and replaced by division of its basal cells
    Simple Stratified
  • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • Single layer of cells of differing heights, some do not reach free surface.
    • The nuclei lie at different levels above the basement membrane
    • Secretes and absorbs substances
    Simple Stratified
  • Stratified cuboidal epithelial
    • Rare
    • Found in the ducts of some of the larger glands
    • Has two layers of cubiodal cells
    • The cells function in secretion and protection
    Simple Stratified
  • Stratified columnar epithelium
    • Limited distribution in the body
    • Small amount are found in the pharynx
    • Occurs at transition areas or junctions between two other types of epithelium
    Simple Stratified
  • Transitional Epithelium
    • Forms the lining of hollow urniary organs
    • The cells of the basal layer are cubiodal or columnar
    • Stretches readily and permits distension of urniary organ by contained urine
    • Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cubiodal
    Simple Stratified
  • Muscular Tissues
    • Highly cellular
    • Three types of muscle tissue
      • Skeletal
      • Cardiac
      • smooth
    Voluntary Involuntary
  • Voluntary muscle
    • Contractile tissue of the body
    • Derived from the mesodermal layer of embyonic germ cells
    Skeletal
  • Skeletal muscle
    • Tissue is packed by connective tissue organs, they are called skeletal muscles
    • Attached to the bones of the skeleton
    • Form flesh of the body
    • Pull on bones or skin causing body movements
    Voluntary Involuntary
  • Involuntary muscle
    • Produce movements over which we have no control
    • Made up of bundles of fibers which are composed of elongated cells
    Smooth Cardiac
  • Cardiac Muscle
    • Found in the wall of the heart
    • Its contractions help propel blood through the blood vessels
    • Located in the walls of the heart
    Smooth Involuntary
  • Smooth muscle
    • Its cells have no visible striations
    • Spindle shaped cells with central nuclei
    • Cells arranged closely to form sheets
    • Located in the walls of hollow organs
    Cardiac Involuntary
  • Connective tissue
    • Found everywhere in the body
    • Widely distrubuted of the primary tissues
    • Four main classes of connective tissue
      • Connective tissue proper
      • Cartilage
      • Bone tissue
      • blood
    Connective tissue Proper Cartilage Blood Bone
  • Connective tissue proper
    • Wraps and cushions organs
    • Holds and conveys issue fluid
    • Located under the epithelia of body
    • Two subclasses
      • Loose connective tissues
        • Areolar
        • Adipose
        • reticular
      • Dense connective tissues
        • Dense regular
        • Dense irregular
        • Elastic
    Loose Dense
  • Loose Connective Tissue
    • Loose connective tissues
        • Areolar
        • Adipose
        • reticular
    Areolar Reticular Adipose
  • Dense Connective Tissue
      • Dense connective tissues
        • Dense regular
        • Dense irregular
        • Elastic
    Regular Irregular
  • Areolar connective Tissue
    • Supports and binds other tissues
    • Holds body fluids
    • Defends against infection
    • Stores nutrients as fat
    Loose Dense
  • Reticular Connective Tissue
    • A network of reticular fibers in a typical ground substance
    • Located in Lymphoid organs
    • Fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types including white blood cells,mast cells and macrophages
    Loose Dense
  • Adipose connective tissue
    • Provides reserve food fuel
    • Insulates against heart loss
    • Supports and protects organs
    • Located under the skin and around kidneys
    • Has high metabolic activity
    Loose Dense
  • Dense regular connective tissues
    • Parallel collagen fibers
    • The major cell type is the fibroblast
    • Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles
    • Located in tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses
    Loose Dense
  • De nse Irre gular Connective Tissue
    • Irregularly arranged collagen fibers
    • Forms sheets in the body areas where tension is exerted from many different directions
    • Found in the skin as the leathery dermis, and forms joint capsules and the fibrous coverings that surround organs
    • Able to with stand tension exerted in many directions
    • Provides structural strength
    Loose Dense
  • Cartilage
    • Stands up to both tension and compression
    • Lacks nerve fibers and its avascular
    • Receives nutrients by diffusion
    • Three varieties of cartilage
      • Hyaline cartilage
      • Elastic cartilage
      • fibrocartilage
    Hyaline Elastic Fibro cartilage
  • Hyaline Cartilage
    • Supports and reinforces and resists compressive stress
    • Forms most of the embryonic skeleton,
    • Covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities
    Cartilage
  • Elastic Cartilage
    • Identical to hyaline cartilage
    • Found where strength and stretchability is needed
    • Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
    • Supports the external ear
    Cartilage
  • Fibro cartilage
    • Has tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
    • Has tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
    • Located in interverebral discs, pubic symphysis, and disc of knee joint
    Cartilage
  • Bone (osseous tissue)‏
    • Hard calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers, lie in lacunae
    • Bone supports and protects
    • Provides levers for the muscles to act on
    • Stores calcium on other minerals and fat
    Connective
  • Blood
    • Transports of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes
    • Classified as a connective tissue because develops from mesenchyme and consists of blood cells
    • Contained with blood vessels
    • Majority if blood cells are red cells
    Connective
  • Nervous Tissue
    • Highly specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses
    • Neurons are branching cells
    • Transmits electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors with control activity
    • Located in brain, spinal cord, and nerves
  • Credits
    • http://www.germes-online.com/direct/dbimage/50165020/Facial_Tissue_Box.jpg
    • http://www.buildsize.com/images/bicep.jpg
    • http://cytochemistry.net/Cell-biology/Medical/25092.JPG
    • http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/anatomy/brightfieldgallery/images/pseudostratifiedcilialarge.jpg
    • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Labs/Anatomy_%26_Physiology/A%26P201/Epithelium/esophagus_400x_PA041991.JPG&imgrefurl=http://biology.clc.uc.edu/
    • http://biology.ucf.edu/~logiudice/zoo3713/Files/image015.gif
    • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://biodidac.bio .
    • http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/histology_mh/smmusc.jpg
    • http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/anatomy/brightfieldgallery/images/mammalcardiacmusclesmall.jpg
    • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.pathguy.com/histo/052.jpg&imgrefurl=http://
    • http://www.udel.edu/biology/Wags/histopage/colorpage/cct/cctrct.GIF
    • http://www.cytochemistry.net/microanatomy/connective_tissue/00004525.jpg
    • http://washington.uwc.edu/about/faculty/schaefer_w/TISSUES/hyaline_cartilage1.jpg
    • http://virtual.yosemite.cc.ca.us/randerson/Lynn's%20Bioslides/119.jpg
    • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/1679.jpg
    • http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/3/34/350px-Blood_smear.jpg