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Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
Aa Chap 01 03
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Aa Chap 01 03

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  • 1. The African Homeland <ul><li>Pre-history </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt, Kush and Axum </li></ul><ul><li>Great Empires of West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The West African Heritage </li></ul>
  • 2. African Pre-history <ul><li>Mankind begins in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The birthplace of ALL humanity </li></ul><ul><li>How do we know? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Africans left behind artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone Age people moved to cooler climates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The physical differences are the same differences we use to classify race today </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. All our ancestors were AFRICAN
  • 4. The Mingling….. <ul><li>20,000 years ago lands South of Egypt were green and fertile – people traveled more </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt becomes center of world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading between peoples of Egypt and southern Africa </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Ancient Egypt <ul><li>Egypt – name given by Greeks – originally called KEMET </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt – called gift of the Nile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nile highway for transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept Egypt isolated and SAFE </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. The People of Ancient Egypt <ul><li>Was diversified because Egypt was always expanding its territory </li></ul><ul><li>Many Africans became Egyptians through conquest or migration. </li></ul><ul><li>During one period, Egypt was ruled by pharaohs who were African. </li></ul>
  • 7. Accomplishments <ul><li>Hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>Papyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural skills </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Mummification </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul>
  • 8. HIEROGLYPHICS
  • 9. PAPYRUS
  • 10. LIBRARIES
  • 11. ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  • 12. MUMMIFICATION
  • 13. Egypt and Kush <ul><li>South of Egypt (in east) unite against common enemies (Asians – Iraq/Iran) </li></ul><ul><li>Kush (Nubia) had great wealth (gold) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mined nearly 48 tons of gold/year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kushites accepted many Egyptian ways </li></ul>
  • 14. The Kushite World <ul><li>To the south of present day Khartoum (Sudan) was ancient city of Meroe </li></ul><ul><li>Meroe center of Kushite world </li></ul><ul><li>Meroe was a city built on IRON </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mined the ore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufactured iron instruments and weapons </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Cultural Influences <ul><li>Egyptian Influences were very strong </li></ul><ul><li>Influence from southern Africa was growing stronger (trade) </li></ul><ul><li>Human figures (artwork) look more African </li></ul><ul><li>Animals look like African </li></ul><ul><li>Kushite Empire lasts 800 years </li></ul>
  • 16. Axum takes over <ul><li>To south and east of Kush (present day Ethiopia) </li></ul><ul><li>Invade Kush – expand their territory </li></ul>
  • 17. Accomplishments of Axum <ul><li>Lasts into the 20 th century with unbroken line of rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Hebrew culture and local black populations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 st and ONLY Christian empire in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Axum is the ancient shopping center of Africa </li></ul>
  • 18. Axum the Trading Center <ul><li>Controlled most of the caravans from the interior of Africa to the Red Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Red Sea was gateway to Asia, and southern Europe </li></ul>
  • 19.  
  • 20. Empires of West Africa <ul><li>Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>Mali </li></ul><ul><li>Songhai </li></ul>
  • 21. Ghana <ul><li>Became great empire when Arab merchants praised their wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Men would mine gold – women would wash the gold </li></ul><ul><li>Gold was everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Trade was important source of wealth </li></ul>
  • 22. The Gold Trade <ul><li>North Africa – silk, cotton, glass, horses and SALT </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANCE OF SALT </li></ul><ul><li>Trade based on system of barter (silent trade) </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were war captives </li></ul>
  • 23. GOLD Gold artifact from ancient Ghana
  • 24. Islam spreads to West Africa <ul><li>After Roman empire declines, Islam moves across North Africa and West Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Why didn’t Christianity appeal to Africans? </li></ul><ul><li>Moslems dominated royal bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced Arabic writing </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana is invaded by competitors for trade routes </li></ul>
  • 25. The Empire of Mali <ul><li>After defeat of Ghana – people competed for power </li></ul><ul><li>Mandanka people won – Mali </li></ul><ul><li>Gained control of GOLD MINES </li></ul><ul><li>Converted people to Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce, scholarship played role in holding empire together </li></ul>
  • 26. Timbuktu <ul><li>Major hub for food, slaves and salt </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted merchants from throughout Mediterranean world </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Islamic learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>150 Islamic schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book dealers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. TIMBUKTU
  • 28. Mansa Musa and Mali <ul><li>Mali reached peak of empire under Mansa Musa </li></ul><ul><li>He became king because his brother wanted to be an explorer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Went on pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took 60,000 people, 100 elephants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave away a fortune of gold to those who greeted him </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. The Empire of Songhai <ul><li>Great traders and warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Seceded from Mali </li></ul><ul><li>Sunni Ali required captured people to pay tribute to him </li></ul><ul><li>Sought people to return to traditional African ways </li></ul><ul><li>Tripled size of empire </li></ul>
  • 30. WARRIORS OF SONGHAI
  • 31. Fall of Songhai <ul><li>Attracted the envy of North Africans (Moroccans) </li></ul><ul><li>Adventurers from Europe (Portugal) were arriving </li></ul><ul><li>Moroccans – defend area by warring with Europeans </li></ul>
  • 32. COMPARING THE EMPIRES
  • 33. End of West African Empires <ul><li>End of Songhai- when Europeans more interested in Trading for HUMAN BEINGS THAN GOLD </li></ul>

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