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The African Homeland <ul><li>Pre-history </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt, Kush and Axum </li></ul><ul><li>Great Empires of West Af...
African Pre-history <ul><li>Mankind begins in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The birthplace of ALL humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Ho...
All our ancestors were AFRICAN
The Mingling….. <ul><li>20,000 years ago lands South of Egypt were green and fertile – people traveled more </li></ul><ul>...
Ancient Egypt <ul><li>Egypt – name given by Greeks – originally called KEMET </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt – called gift of the ...
The People of Ancient Egypt <ul><li>Was diversified because Egypt was always expanding its territory </li></ul><ul><li>Man...
Accomplishments <ul><li>Hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>Papyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural ...
HIEROGLYPHICS
PAPYRUS
LIBRARIES
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
MUMMIFICATION
Egypt and Kush <ul><li>South of Egypt (in east) unite against common enemies (Asians – Iraq/Iran) </li></ul><ul><li>Kush (...
The Kushite World <ul><li>To the south of present day Khartoum (Sudan) was ancient city of Meroe </li></ul><ul><li>Meroe c...
Cultural Influences <ul><li>Egyptian Influences were very strong </li></ul><ul><li>Influence from southern Africa was grow...
Axum takes over <ul><li>To south and east of Kush (present day Ethiopia)  </li></ul><ul><li>Invade Kush – expand their ter...
Accomplishments of Axum <ul><li>Lasts into the 20 th  century with unbroken line of rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence...
Axum the Trading Center <ul><li>Controlled most of the caravans from the interior of Africa to the Red Sea </li></ul><ul><...
 
Empires of West Africa <ul><li>Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>Mali </li></ul><ul><li>Songhai </li></ul>
Ghana <ul><li>Became great empire when Arab merchants praised their wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Men would mine gold – women w...
The Gold Trade <ul><li>North Africa – silk, cotton, glass, horses and SALT </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANCE OF SALT </li></ul>...
GOLD Gold artifact from ancient Ghana
Islam spreads to West Africa <ul><li>After Roman empire declines, Islam moves across North Africa and West Africa. </li></...
The Empire of Mali <ul><li>After defeat of Ghana – people competed for power </li></ul><ul><li>Mandanka people won – Mali ...
Timbuktu <ul><li>Major hub for food, slaves and salt </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted merchants from throughout Mediterranean w...
TIMBUKTU
Mansa Musa and Mali <ul><li>Mali reached peak of empire under Mansa Musa </li></ul><ul><li>He became king because his brot...
The Empire of Songhai <ul><li>Great traders and warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Seceded from Mali </li></ul><ul><li>Sunni Ali r...
WARRIORS OF SONGHAI
Fall of Songhai <ul><li>Attracted the envy of North Africans (Moroccans) </li></ul><ul><li>Adventurers from Europe (Portug...
COMPARING THE EMPIRES
End of West African Empires <ul><li>End of Songhai- when Europeans more interested in Trading  for HUMAN BEINGS THAN GOLD ...
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Aa Chap 01 03

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Transcript of "Aa Chap 01 03"

  1. 1. The African Homeland <ul><li>Pre-history </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt, Kush and Axum </li></ul><ul><li>Great Empires of West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The West African Heritage </li></ul>
  2. 2. African Pre-history <ul><li>Mankind begins in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The birthplace of ALL humanity </li></ul><ul><li>How do we know? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Africans left behind artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone Age people moved to cooler climates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The physical differences are the same differences we use to classify race today </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. All our ancestors were AFRICAN
  4. 4. The Mingling….. <ul><li>20,000 years ago lands South of Egypt were green and fertile – people traveled more </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt becomes center of world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading between peoples of Egypt and southern Africa </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Ancient Egypt <ul><li>Egypt – name given by Greeks – originally called KEMET </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt – called gift of the Nile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nile highway for transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept Egypt isolated and SAFE </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The People of Ancient Egypt <ul><li>Was diversified because Egypt was always expanding its territory </li></ul><ul><li>Many Africans became Egyptians through conquest or migration. </li></ul><ul><li>During one period, Egypt was ruled by pharaohs who were African. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Accomplishments <ul><li>Hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>Papyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural skills </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Mummification </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul>
  8. 8. HIEROGLYPHICS
  9. 9. PAPYRUS
  10. 10. LIBRARIES
  11. 11. ART AND ARCHITECTURE
  12. 12. MUMMIFICATION
  13. 13. Egypt and Kush <ul><li>South of Egypt (in east) unite against common enemies (Asians – Iraq/Iran) </li></ul><ul><li>Kush (Nubia) had great wealth (gold) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mined nearly 48 tons of gold/year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kushites accepted many Egyptian ways </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Kushite World <ul><li>To the south of present day Khartoum (Sudan) was ancient city of Meroe </li></ul><ul><li>Meroe center of Kushite world </li></ul><ul><li>Meroe was a city built on IRON </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mined the ore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufactured iron instruments and weapons </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cultural Influences <ul><li>Egyptian Influences were very strong </li></ul><ul><li>Influence from southern Africa was growing stronger (trade) </li></ul><ul><li>Human figures (artwork) look more African </li></ul><ul><li>Animals look like African </li></ul><ul><li>Kushite Empire lasts 800 years </li></ul>
  16. 16. Axum takes over <ul><li>To south and east of Kush (present day Ethiopia) </li></ul><ul><li>Invade Kush – expand their territory </li></ul>
  17. 17. Accomplishments of Axum <ul><li>Lasts into the 20 th century with unbroken line of rulers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Hebrew culture and local black populations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 st and ONLY Christian empire in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Axum is the ancient shopping center of Africa </li></ul>
  18. 18. Axum the Trading Center <ul><li>Controlled most of the caravans from the interior of Africa to the Red Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Red Sea was gateway to Asia, and southern Europe </li></ul>
  19. 20. Empires of West Africa <ul><li>Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>Mali </li></ul><ul><li>Songhai </li></ul>
  20. 21. Ghana <ul><li>Became great empire when Arab merchants praised their wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Men would mine gold – women would wash the gold </li></ul><ul><li>Gold was everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Trade was important source of wealth </li></ul>
  21. 22. The Gold Trade <ul><li>North Africa – silk, cotton, glass, horses and SALT </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANCE OF SALT </li></ul><ul><li>Trade based on system of barter (silent trade) </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were war captives </li></ul>
  22. 23. GOLD Gold artifact from ancient Ghana
  23. 24. Islam spreads to West Africa <ul><li>After Roman empire declines, Islam moves across North Africa and West Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Why didn’t Christianity appeal to Africans? </li></ul><ul><li>Moslems dominated royal bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced Arabic writing </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana is invaded by competitors for trade routes </li></ul>
  24. 25. The Empire of Mali <ul><li>After defeat of Ghana – people competed for power </li></ul><ul><li>Mandanka people won – Mali </li></ul><ul><li>Gained control of GOLD MINES </li></ul><ul><li>Converted people to Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce, scholarship played role in holding empire together </li></ul>
  25. 26. Timbuktu <ul><li>Major hub for food, slaves and salt </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted merchants from throughout Mediterranean world </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Islamic learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>150 Islamic schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book dealers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. TIMBUKTU
  27. 28. Mansa Musa and Mali <ul><li>Mali reached peak of empire under Mansa Musa </li></ul><ul><li>He became king because his brother wanted to be an explorer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Went on pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took 60,000 people, 100 elephants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave away a fortune of gold to those who greeted him </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. The Empire of Songhai <ul><li>Great traders and warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Seceded from Mali </li></ul><ul><li>Sunni Ali required captured people to pay tribute to him </li></ul><ul><li>Sought people to return to traditional African ways </li></ul><ul><li>Tripled size of empire </li></ul>
  29. 30. WARRIORS OF SONGHAI
  30. 31. Fall of Songhai <ul><li>Attracted the envy of North Africans (Moroccans) </li></ul><ul><li>Adventurers from Europe (Portugal) were arriving </li></ul><ul><li>Moroccans – defend area by warring with Europeans </li></ul>
  31. 32. COMPARING THE EMPIRES
  32. 33. End of West African Empires <ul><li>End of Songhai- when Europeans more interested in Trading for HUMAN BEINGS THAN GOLD </li></ul>
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