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If a sub-retinal hemorrhage occurs and is not treated immediately, a disciform scar will result, which may cause permanent loss of central vision (Prasad, Schwartz, & Hubschman, 2010).
What does age-related macular degeneration look like? Healthy, normal retina Early AMD - drusen appearing on retina Macula Optic disc Yellow spots are drusen Images from http://www.agingeye.net/maculardegen/maculardegeninformation.php
As the disease progresses… Late or end-stage dry AMD (geographic atrophy) Geographic atrophy (may lead to) Wet or exudative AMD Sub-retinal hemorrhage Images from http://www.agingeye.net/maculardegen/maculardegeninformation.php
Hold the chart approximately 14-16 inches from your eye
Cover one eye
Look at center dot
Note irregularities (wavy, size, gray, fuzzy)
Repeat the test with your other eye
Contact an ophthalmologist if you see any irregularities or notice any changes d
How might the Amsler grid look to a person who has AMD? First image from http:// www.nei.nih.gov/photo/keyword.asp?conditions =Age-Related+Macular+Degeneration+%28AMD%29 Second image from http://www.cnib.ca/en/your-eyes/eye-conditions/amd/diagnosing/diagnostic-tests/Default.aspx
What might the world look like to someone who has AMD?
Normal vision The same scene as viewed by a person with age-related macular degeneration Images from: http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/maculardegen/armd_facts.asp#1a
More examples… Clockwise from top: First image from http://www.dukehealth.org/eye_center/specialties/macular_degeneration/care_guides/macular _degeneration_frequently_asked_questions Second image from http://www.stlukeseye.com/conditions/MacularDegeneration.html Third image from http://www.nei.nih.gov/photo/sims/images/ESD11.jpg
What are some things individuals can use to adapt to their vision loss?
Brembridge, T. (2008). Caring for people with age-related macular degeneration. Nursing & Residential Care , 10 (9), 443. Retrieved from CINAHL database.
Coleman, A. L., Seitzman, R. L., Cummings, S. R., Yu, F., Cauley, J. A., Ensrud, K. E.,…Mangione, C.M. (2010). The association of smoking and alcohol use with age-related macular degeneration in the oldest old: The study of osteoporotic fractures. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 149 (1), 160-169. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2009.07.025
Hasson, M. (2009, October). Increased risk of advanced AMD after cataract surgery unfounded. Ocular Surgery News Europe , p. 6. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
Jeganathan, V., & Verma, N. (2009). Safety and efficacy of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for age-related macular degeneration. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology , 20 (3), 223-225. Retrieved from CINAHL with Full Text database.
Symptoms of macular degeneration. (2004). University of Illinois Eye & Ear Institute. Retrieved from The Eye Digest website: http://www.agingeye.net/maculardegen /maculardegensymptoms.php
Webb, J., & Kubota, R. (2009). Potential dry AMD treatment slows visual cycle to prolong eye health. Optometry Times , 1 (9), 20-22. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
Yin, W., Klein, R., Cong, S., Mitchell, P., Couper, D., Hong, L., et al. (2006). Age-related macular degeneration and risk for stroke. Annals of Internal Medicine , 145 (2), 98-W22. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.