Classifying Matter Matter (solid, liquid gas) Pure substance Impure substance (mixture) Element Compound non metal metal mix 2 or more react 2 or more separate by physical methods (SEE LECTURE1) separate by chemical reaction
Notes 1. Matter is anything with mass that takes up space 2. Pure substances are single substances. (eg distilled water contains 100% water) 3. Mixtures contain two or more substances mixed in any ratio or proportion 4. Elements are special substances which contain just one type of atom (eg sodium Na contains Na atoms only) 5. Compounds are substances that contain two or more elements chemically combined together. They are usually hard to separate.
Filtration Your teacher will now show you how to use the equipment Clamp stand conical flask filter funnel beaker
water 100mL beaker strip of filter paper Paper Chromatography Your teacher will now explain how to set up the equipment
How the solvent rises You should mark the position of the solvent front with a fine pencil before it dries out Research: Try to find out what is meant by Rf values How do these relate to the separated dye components?
Metal Burning in Air.mpeg
Assemble your own Liebig Condenser
Labelled distillation equipment
Distilling crude oil (a complex mixture of hydrocarbons) Notice the range of temperatures! Which component has the lowest, which the highest? What is the approx boiling point of petrol?
The distillation of crude oil takes place in a petroleum refinery like this.
Filling up at Tesco's in the UK. The world would a lot different without petrol! Discuss this in small groups