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Chapt02 Lecture
 

Chapt02 Lecture

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    Chapt02 Lecture Chapt02 Lecture Presentation Transcript

    • EUROPE CHAPTER 2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • European Influences
      • Colonized other regions
      • Diffusion of language, religion, political ideas, scientific discoveries
      • Transformed natural environment
    • Relative Location
    • Relative Location
      • At the heart of the land hemisphere
      • Maximum efficiency for contact with the rest of the world
      • Every part of Europe is close to the sea
      • Navigable waterways
      • Moderate distances
    • Physical Geography
      • Geologic variety
        • Ancient Shield
        • Uplands
        • Young, folded mountains
        • Extensive Plains
        • Volcanoes and earthquakes
    • Physical Geography
      • Peninsulas
      • Estuaries
      • Fjords
      • Rivers
        • Rhine River
        • Trade
        • Transportation
    • Climates
      • Mostly temperate and humid
      • Support farm production
      • Ocean influences – North Atlantic Drift
      • Climate types:
        • Oceanic temperate
        • Subtropical winter rain (Mediterranean)
        • Continental temperate
    • Climates
      • Global warming
        • Retreating glaciers
        • Impact on tourism
        • Hydroelectric power sites
        • Rising sea levels
    • Natural Resources
      • Forests
        • Temperate – Deciduous and evergreen
      • Soils
        • Brown earth – lowlands
        • Loess – North European Plain
      • Fish
        • Mediterranean, Baltic, and North Seas
    • Environmental Impacts
      • Air & water pollution
      • Fish kills
      • Smog
      • Acid deposition
        • The Black Triangle
      • Kyoto Protocol
    • Human Geography
      • Cultural diversity
        • Language Patterns
          • Most are Indo-European
            • Romance
            • Germanic
            • Slavic
          • Others:
            • Celtic
            • Greek
            • Albanian
    • Human Geography
      • Cultural diversity
        • Religion
          • Christianity predominates
          • Judaism – impact of Nazi holocaust
          • Islam – Increasing influence after World War II
    • Population Dynamics
      • Decreasing in Mediterranean and East Central European regions
      • Slight increase in most western and northern countries
      • Overall decline in fertility rates
        • Italy and Spain have lowest fertility rates in the world (1.2)
      • Exceptions to population decline:
        • Countries with large Muslim populations
      • Increasing burden on welfare systems
    • Population Densities
      • High Density Areas
        • Urban industrial belts
        • River valleys
        • Coastlines
      • Low Density Areas
        • Mountainous regions
        • Extreme climates
    • European Cities
    • Urban Pressures
      • Among most highly urbanized countries in the world
      • Few extremely large cities
      • Many global city-regions (London, Paris)
      • Internal spatial differentiation within buildings
      • Industrial Revolution
        • Land use differentiated into districts (CBD, industrial, suburbs)
        • Development of public transportation
      • High suburban densities
      • Apartments
      • Public transportation
      • Land scarcity
      • Government involvement in urban planning
      In European cities you are more likely to find:
    • Urban Pressures
      • World War II –destruction
      • 1945-1970 – reconstruction and expansion
        • Decentralization
        • Gentrification
    • Evolving Politics
      • Nation
      • State
      • Nation-state
      • Nationalism
      • Irredentism
    • Irredentism
      • A policy of cultural extension and political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country
      B A A RIVER & BORDER COUNTRIES MINORITY POPULATION BORDER ADJUSTMENT
    • Ethnic Cleansing
      • Refers to the forcible ouster of entire populations from their homelands by stronger powers bent on taking their territories
      A B A COUNTRIES BORDER MINORITY POPULATION
    • World Wars I and II
      • Result of increasing competition and nationalism in Europe
      • Depressed economy in 1920s and 1930s encouraged fascism and communism
      • Genocide
    • Europe after 1945
      • Independence movements in colonies abroad
      • 2 new world powers emerged:
        • U.S.
        • Soviet Union
      • Communism spread into East Central Europe
        • Democratic centralism
        • State socialism
        • Planned economy
      • NATO
      • Warsaw Pact
    • Global Economics
      • Imperialism
      • Colonialism
      • Industrial Revolution
        • Began in Great Britain
        • Diffused to Central and Eastern Europe
      • Early industrial centers located near coalfields
    • Growing and Changing Economies
      • Productive capacity restored after WWII
      • Agglomeration economies
      • Geographic inertia
      • Deindustrialization 1970s
      • Western Europe = “economic heart” of the region
      • Germany = “motor” of Europe
      • Major industries: cars and airplanes
    • Energy Sources
      • Coal
      • Oil – North Sea
      • Natural Gas
      • Nuclear power
      • Hydroelectricity
      • Wind power
      • Tidal power
    • Economic Activities
      • Service Industries – 75% workforce today
        • Most growth – Producer services & tourism
      • Agriculture – 2-7% workforce
        • Concentration
        • Intensification
        • Specialization
        • Market gardening
        • Agribusiness
        • Extensification
    • Tourism
      • Europe receives 55% of tourists worldwide
      • Has 6 of top 10 places visited
        • #1 – France
        • #2 – Spain
    • Subregions
      • Western Europe
      • Northern Europe
      • Mediterranean Europe
      • East Central Europe
    • Western Europe
      • Major colonial powers
      • First to experience Industrial Revolution
      • Established global trade flows
      • Among world’s largest economic powers
      • Political influence
      • High HDIs
    • Western Europe
      • German Reunification
        • Divided 1949
        • West Germany – an economic miracle
        • East Germany – slow economic growth
        • Berlin Wall
          • Erected - 1961
          • Torn down – 1989
        • Reunification - 1991
    • Northern Europe (Norden)
      • Cold climates
      • Sparsely populated
      • Rich in natural resources
      • Viking influence
      • Empires – Sweden and Denmark
      • High standards of living
      • Supporters of human rights
      • Industries: fishing, wood products, hi tech goods
    • Mediterranean Europe
      • Impact on Western civilization – Greek and Roman ideas
      • Age of Discovery – started in Spain and Portugal
      • Political problems – dictators
      • Italy
        • Strong regionalism exists
        • Strong economy – Po River Valley
        • Milan – produces one-third Italy’s GDP
    • Vatican city
      • An enclave within Rome
      • The headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church
      • Functions as an independent political entity
    • Mediterranean Europe
      • Mediterranean Sea Pollution
        • Major oil shipping lanes
        • Impact on tourism
        • Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP)
    • East Central Europe
      • Dominated by 4 empires 1700s - 1918
      • Soviet satellite states after World War II
        • Communist economic policies
        • COMECON
        • Difficulties moving to capitalist systems
      • 2004 – many countries joined EU
    • East Central Europe
      • The Breakup of Yugoslavia
        • Slovenia
        • Croatia
        • Bosnia
        • Macedonia
        • Kosovo
    • Contemporary Geographic Issues Political Changes: European Union (EU)
      • History
        • 1949 - Benelux
        • 1952 - European Coal & Steel Community (ECSC)
        • 1957 - European Economic Community
        • 1993 - European Union
        • 2002 - Euro adopted as common currency by 12 of 15 members
        • 2004 – 10 new members added
    • History of European Supranationalism
      • 1947 – Marshall plan
      • 1948 - Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)
      • 1949 - Council of Europe
      • 1957 - Treaty of Rome signed, EEC formed.
      • 1959 - EFTA effective
    • Contemporary Geographic Issues Political Changes: European Union (EU)
      • Currently 27 members
      • 456 million people
      • Supranationalism
      • Concerns:
        • Financial drain of poorer states
        • Loss of national sovereignty
        • Erosion of national identity
        • Removal of border controls
    • European Union Members 2007
      • Belgium
      • Netherlands
      • Luxembourg
      • France
      • Italy
      • Germany
      • Britain
      • Ireland
      • Hungary
      • Latvia
      • Lithuania
      • Malta
      • Slovenia
      • Denmark
      • Greece
      • Spain
      • Portugal
      • Austria
      • Sweden
      • Finland
      • Cyprus
      • Czech Republic
      • Estonia
      • Poland
      • Slovakia
      • Romania
      • Bulgaria
      • EU Members and non-members
      • € indicates participation in the Euro currency
      European Supranationalism
    • Contemporary Geographic Issues Devolution within Europe
      • United Kingdom and Northern Ireland
        • Increasing autonomy – Scotland and Wales
        • Conflict in Northern Ireland
          • Nationalists (unionists) vs. Loyalists
          • Catholics and Protestants
          • Violence declined in 1990s
          • Working on shared government arrangement
      • Other areas:
        • Basques
        • Former Yugoslavia
        • Former Czechoslovakia
    • Contemporary Geographic Issues Multicultural Societies
      • Women’s Issues
      • Human Rights Issues
        • International organizations
        • International Court of Justice
      • Refugees and asylum seekers
      • Immigration
        • Impact of decolonization
        • Differing policies:
          • UK
          • France
          • Germany – “guest workers”