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Chapt02 Lecture

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  • 1. EUROPE CHAPTER 2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 2. European Influences
    • Colonized other regions
    • Diffusion of language, religion, political ideas, scientific discoveries
    • Transformed natural environment
  • 3.
  • 4. Relative Location
  • 5. Relative Location
    • At the heart of the land hemisphere
    • Maximum efficiency for contact with the rest of the world
    • Every part of Europe is close to the sea
    • Navigable waterways
    • Moderate distances
  • 6. Physical Geography
    • Geologic variety
      • Ancient Shield
      • Uplands
      • Young, folded mountains
      • Extensive Plains
      • Volcanoes and earthquakes
  • 7. Physical Geography
    • Peninsulas
    • Estuaries
    • Fjords
    • Rivers
      • Rhine River
      • Trade
      • Transportation
  • 8.
  • 9. Climates
    • Mostly temperate and humid
    • Support farm production
    • Ocean influences – North Atlantic Drift
    • Climate types:
      • Oceanic temperate
      • Subtropical winter rain (Mediterranean)
      • Continental temperate
  • 10. Climates
    • Global warming
      • Retreating glaciers
      • Impact on tourism
      • Hydroelectric power sites
      • Rising sea levels
  • 11.
  • 12. Natural Resources
    • Forests
      • Temperate – Deciduous and evergreen
    • Soils
      • Brown earth – lowlands
      • Loess – North European Plain
    • Fish
      • Mediterranean, Baltic, and North Seas
  • 13. Environmental Impacts
    • Air & water pollution
    • Fish kills
    • Smog
    • Acid deposition
      • The Black Triangle
    • Kyoto Protocol
  • 14.
  • 15. Human Geography
    • Cultural diversity
      • Language Patterns
        • Most are Indo-European
          • Romance
          • Germanic
          • Slavic
        • Others:
          • Celtic
          • Greek
          • Albanian
  • 16.
  • 17. Human Geography
    • Cultural diversity
      • Religion
        • Christianity predominates
        • Judaism – impact of Nazi holocaust
        • Islam – Increasing influence after World War II
  • 18.
  • 19. Population Dynamics
    • Decreasing in Mediterranean and East Central European regions
    • Slight increase in most western and northern countries
    • Overall decline in fertility rates
      • Italy and Spain have lowest fertility rates in the world (1.2)
    • Exceptions to population decline:
      • Countries with large Muslim populations
    • Increasing burden on welfare systems
  • 20. Population Densities
    • High Density Areas
      • Urban industrial belts
      • River valleys
      • Coastlines
    • Low Density Areas
      • Mountainous regions
      • Extreme climates
  • 21. European Cities
  • 22.
  • 23. Urban Pressures
    • Among most highly urbanized countries in the world
    • Few extremely large cities
    • Many global city-regions (London, Paris)
    • Internal spatial differentiation within buildings
    • Industrial Revolution
      • Land use differentiated into districts (CBD, industrial, suburbs)
      • Development of public transportation
  • 24.
    • High suburban densities
    • Apartments
    • Public transportation
    • Land scarcity
    • Government involvement in urban planning
    In European cities you are more likely to find:
  • 25. Urban Pressures
    • World War II –destruction
    • 1945-1970 – reconstruction and expansion
      • Decentralization
      • Gentrification
  • 26.
  • 27. Evolving Politics
    • Nation
    • State
    • Nation-state
    • Nationalism
    • Irredentism
  • 28. Irredentism
    • A policy of cultural extension and political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country
    B A A RIVER & BORDER COUNTRIES MINORITY POPULATION BORDER ADJUSTMENT
  • 29. Ethnic Cleansing
    • Refers to the forcible ouster of entire populations from their homelands by stronger powers bent on taking their territories
    A B A COUNTRIES BORDER MINORITY POPULATION
  • 30. World Wars I and II
    • Result of increasing competition and nationalism in Europe
    • Depressed economy in 1920s and 1930s encouraged fascism and communism
    • Genocide
  • 31. Europe after 1945
    • Independence movements in colonies abroad
    • 2 new world powers emerged:
      • U.S.
      • Soviet Union
    • Communism spread into East Central Europe
      • Democratic centralism
      • State socialism
      • Planned economy
    • NATO
    • Warsaw Pact
  • 32. Global Economics
    • Imperialism
    • Colonialism
    • Industrial Revolution
      • Began in Great Britain
      • Diffused to Central and Eastern Europe
    • Early industrial centers located near coalfields
  • 33.
  • 34. Growing and Changing Economies
    • Productive capacity restored after WWII
    • Agglomeration economies
    • Geographic inertia
    • Deindustrialization 1970s
    • Western Europe = “economic heart” of the region
    • Germany = “motor” of Europe
    • Major industries: cars and airplanes
  • 35. Energy Sources
    • Coal
    • Oil – North Sea
    • Natural Gas
    • Nuclear power
    • Hydroelectricity
    • Wind power
    • Tidal power
  • 36.
  • 37. Economic Activities
    • Service Industries – 75% workforce today
      • Most growth – Producer services & tourism
    • Agriculture – 2-7% workforce
      • Concentration
      • Intensification
      • Specialization
      • Market gardening
      • Agribusiness
      • Extensification
  • 38. Tourism
    • Europe receives 55% of tourists worldwide
    • Has 6 of top 10 places visited
      • #1 – France
      • #2 – Spain
  • 39.
  • 40. Subregions
    • Western Europe
    • Northern Europe
    • Mediterranean Europe
    • East Central Europe
  • 41.
  • 42. Western Europe
    • Major colonial powers
    • First to experience Industrial Revolution
    • Established global trade flows
    • Among world’s largest economic powers
    • Political influence
    • High HDIs
  • 43. Western Europe
    • German Reunification
      • Divided 1949
      • West Germany – an economic miracle
      • East Germany – slow economic growth
      • Berlin Wall
        • Erected - 1961
        • Torn down – 1989
      • Reunification - 1991
  • 44.
  • 45. Northern Europe (Norden)
    • Cold climates
    • Sparsely populated
    • Rich in natural resources
    • Viking influence
    • Empires – Sweden and Denmark
    • High standards of living
    • Supporters of human rights
    • Industries: fishing, wood products, hi tech goods
  • 46.
  • 47. Mediterranean Europe
    • Impact on Western civilization – Greek and Roman ideas
    • Age of Discovery – started in Spain and Portugal
    • Political problems – dictators
    • Italy
      • Strong regionalism exists
      • Strong economy – Po River Valley
      • Milan – produces one-third Italy’s GDP
  • 48. Vatican city
    • An enclave within Rome
    • The headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church
    • Functions as an independent political entity
  • 49.
  • 50. Mediterranean Europe
    • Mediterranean Sea Pollution
      • Major oil shipping lanes
      • Impact on tourism
      • Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP)
  • 51.
  • 52. East Central Europe
    • Dominated by 4 empires 1700s - 1918
    • Soviet satellite states after World War II
      • Communist economic policies
      • COMECON
      • Difficulties moving to capitalist systems
    • 2004 – many countries joined EU
  • 53.
  • 54. East Central Europe
    • The Breakup of Yugoslavia
      • Slovenia
      • Croatia
      • Bosnia
      • Macedonia
      • Kosovo
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57. Contemporary Geographic Issues Political Changes: European Union (EU)
    • History
      • 1949 - Benelux
      • 1952 - European Coal & Steel Community (ECSC)
      • 1957 - European Economic Community
      • 1993 - European Union
      • 2002 - Euro adopted as common currency by 12 of 15 members
      • 2004 – 10 new members added
  • 58. History of European Supranationalism
    • 1947 – Marshall plan
    • 1948 - Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)
    • 1949 - Council of Europe
    • 1957 - Treaty of Rome signed, EEC formed.
    • 1959 - EFTA effective
  • 59. Contemporary Geographic Issues Political Changes: European Union (EU)
    • Currently 27 members
    • 456 million people
    • Supranationalism
    • Concerns:
      • Financial drain of poorer states
      • Loss of national sovereignty
      • Erosion of national identity
      • Removal of border controls
  • 60. European Union Members 2007
    • Belgium
    • Netherlands
    • Luxembourg
    • France
    • Italy
    • Germany
    • Britain
    • Ireland
    • Hungary
    • Latvia
    • Lithuania
    • Malta
    • Slovenia
    • Denmark
    • Greece
    • Spain
    • Portugal
    • Austria
    • Sweden
    • Finland
    • Cyprus
    • Czech Republic
    • Estonia
    • Poland
    • Slovakia
    • Romania
    • Bulgaria
  • 61.
    • EU Members and non-members
    • € indicates participation in the Euro currency
    European Supranationalism
  • 62.
  • 63. Contemporary Geographic Issues Devolution within Europe
    • United Kingdom and Northern Ireland
      • Increasing autonomy – Scotland and Wales
      • Conflict in Northern Ireland
        • Nationalists (unionists) vs. Loyalists
        • Catholics and Protestants
        • Violence declined in 1990s
        • Working on shared government arrangement
    • Other areas:
      • Basques
      • Former Yugoslavia
      • Former Czechoslovakia
  • 64. Contemporary Geographic Issues Multicultural Societies
    • Women’s Issues
    • Human Rights Issues
      • International organizations
      • International Court of Justice
    • Refugees and asylum seekers
    • Immigration
      • Impact of decolonization
      • Differing policies:
        • UK
        • France
        • Germany – “guest workers”

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