STAYING HEALTHY
1.    Describe the function of blood including transport of oxygen, carbon dioxide, digested food, waste
 ...
Living World (level 5)
• Life processes LW pro: Identify the key structural features and functions involved in the life pr...
7.   Show the               •   With reference to a detailed OHT heart structure, students label the-se Slide 24 and 27 (O...
12. Label parts of the     •   Choose from a list of labels to complete the labelled diagram of the      Slide 53 to be re...
INTRO
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Word search                          KEY WORDS

                         Y   N   I   P   N   O   T   T   S   Y   E   R   C...
AEROBIC RESPIRATION (air-o-bick res-purr-ay-shun) – respiration that use oxygen.
  ALVEOLI (al-vee-oh-lie) – air sacs in t...
Write the answers only in the back of your book

            Term         Definition           GLOSSARY 1      Match the t...
Term          Definition               GLOSSARY 1
Aerobic respiration respiration that use oxygen.
Alveoli                ...
Term          Definition                 GLOSSARY 2             Match the term with its definition

A.    Gas exchange    ...
Term          Definition                         GLOSSARY 2
Gas exchange             the exchange that occurs in the lungs...
Back of book                   WHAT DO I ALREADY KNOW?               Label the diagrams

         (a)                     ...
LOCATION OF THE BODY’S ORGANS


     1. Draw the outline
     2. Draw in where you think the organs (from the previous sli...
BLOOD -
FUNCTION
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
1. DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF BLOOD ...
                                    INTERESTING FACTS

            COPY & ANSWER THE...
BLOOD -
          BITS
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Copy the notes (below) and use computers to help you to complete them


                                 Mainly water (50%...
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
LOOKING AT BLOOD CELLS
       Practical                                                        Do not copy this

        C...
IMAGES
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
WHAT YOU MIGHT SEE, 500 X MAGNIFIED

                                      1000 x MAGNIFIED




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
SICKLE CELL            NORMAL CELL




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Red blood cell




                         White blood cell




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
WHERE DID I COME FROM?




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Extra for Experts   HOW A CLOT FORMS

                                     1. Study the diagram (left and below)
         ...
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                    Platelets

                              ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                    Platelets

                              ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                        Platelets

                          ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                         Platelets

                         ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                          Platelets

                        ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                              Platelets

                    ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                              Platelets

                    ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                              Platelets

                    ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                              Platelets

                    ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                              Platelets

                    ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                              Platelets

                    ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                              Platelets

                    ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                              Platelets

                    ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                              Platelets

                    ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                              Platelets

                    ...
BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH




                                                              Platelets

                    ...
Match these pictures, descriptions & functions
 in a table such as the one shown (below)

                 Picture        ...
HAEMOGLOBIN

                            Haemoglobin is a very large molecule (a big
                            group of ...
BLOOD -
      VESSELS
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Copy the notes & COMPLETE them


Arteries           -     have              walls
                   -     carry blood    ...
Answers                  I SEE RED, I SEE RED, I SEE RED!


1. Dash needs concentrated red cells because his body is not m...
Interactive exercise     ARTERY OR VEIN - WHICH IS WHICH?


A                                      B




                 ...
CIRCULATION

Tuesday, 27 April 2010
WHAT IS CIRCULATION??



 • Circulation is the flow of blood around the
   body.

 • This is required to supply cells with...
WHAT IS CIRCULATION??



 • Circulation is the flow of blood around the
   body.

 • This is required to supply cells with...
ARTERIES CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART. VEINS CARRY BLOOD
                 BACK TO THE HEART.




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Artery

                              Vein

 ARTERIES & VEINS ARE
 CONNECTED BY A CAPILLARY
 NETWORK
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
ARTERIES & VEINS ARE FOUND TOGETHER AROUND ORGANS




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
HEART AS
     A PUMP
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
THE HEART AND THE TWO LOOP SYSTEM




                                    The function of the heart is to ________
       ...
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Blood pressure results from the
       back pressure of the capillaries
       on the arteries due to the
       hearts co...
Blood pressure results from the
       back pressure of the capillaries
       on the arteries due to the
       hearts co...
Blood pressure results from the
       back pressure of the capillaries
       on the arteries due to the
       hearts co...
Blood pressure results from the
       back pressure of the capillaries
       on the arteries due to the
       hearts co...
Blood pressure results from the
       back pressure of the capillaries
       on the arteries due to the
       hearts co...
Blood pressure results from the
       back pressure of the capillaries
       on the arteries due to the
       hearts co...
Blood pressure results from the
       back pressure of the capillaries
       on the arteries due to the
       hearts co...
Blood pressure results from the
       back pressure of the capillaries
       on the arteries due to the
       hearts co...
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Typical Blood
    Pressures include ...




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Typical Blood
    Pressures include ...




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Typical Blood
    Pressures include ...   80/45 in infants




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Typical Blood
    Pressures include ...   80/45 in infants




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Typical Blood
    Pressures include ...   80/45 in infants




                                               120/80 at ag...
Typical Blood
    Pressures include ...              80/45 in infants




                                                ...
Typical Blood
    Pressures include ...              80/45 in infants




                                                ...
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Blood Pressure can
                identify any disease
                that...




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Blood Pressure can
                identify any disease
                that...




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Blood Pressure can
                identify any disease
                that...
                                       1. ...
Blood Pressure can
                identify any disease
                that...
                                       1. ...
Blood Pressure can
                identify any disease
                that...
                                          ...
Blood Pressure can
                identify any disease
                that...
                                          ...
Blood Pressure can
                identify any disease
                that...
                                          ...
Blood Pressure can
                identify any disease
                that...
                                          ...
Blood Pressure can
                identify any disease
                that...
                                          ...
Video worksheet          PUMPING LIFE - THE BLOOD & CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

                                            contin...
HEART,
 VESSELS &
 FUNCTIONS
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
___________________
            carries blood to body
            tissues & organs


                                    _...
THE CUT AND PASTE HEART




                                 PART 4




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
THE CUT AND PASTE HEART instructions

Cut out Part 1

Colour the white areas on the side labeled “right side” BLUE. The gr...
Practical                   HEART DISSECTION
1. The left side will feel thicker and more muscular. Using this knowledge, p...
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Theory                   MY HEART FROM THE OUTSIDE   H/O
                                Now label this




Tuesday, 27 Ap...
BLOOD
                         FLOW
                         (THROUGH THE HEART)




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Use the diagram to
                         MY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
                                                    comp...
BLOOD VESSELS & FLOW THROUGH THE HEART

         1. Cut and Paste the diagram of the human heart (below) into your book.
 ...
DISEASE
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Staying Health                   Research Assignment          Date due

A disease is a condition in which a tissue, organ ...
ATHEROSCLEROSIS               http://www.torrancememorial.org/carrisk.htm


    1. Read the handout sheet entitled “What i...
Mind map                          RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE

    1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and...
Mind map                          RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE

    1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and...
Mind map                           RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE

    1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors an...
Mind map                           RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE

    1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors an...
Mind map                           RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE

    1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors an...
Mind map                           RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE

    1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors an...
Mind map                           RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE

    1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors an...
Mind map                           RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE

    1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors an...
Mind map                           RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE

    1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors an...
Mind map                           RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE

    1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors an...
PULSE  DEFINITION & FACTORS AFFECTING IT




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
WHAT’S IN A PULSE?
         http://www.blaufuss.org/

         http://www.med.ucla.edu/wilkes/intro.html
When the doctor l...
RECOVERY TIME




                         recovery time




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Practical                         TAKING MY PULSE

There are at least 2 places where my pulse can be taken:
(a) at my wris...
Practical               FACTORS AFFECTING PULSE RATE


For each of the activities shown in the table (below) measure your ...
HOW LONG-TERM EXERCISE AFFECTS THE RESTING PULSE RATE




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
OTHER FACTORS




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
WHO IS FITTER?


Pulse rate
                             Heart rate vs time graph for two individuals
(bpm)

             ...
Cut &
                         Copy & answer the following questions into your book   Paste


Questions
1. What is Paul’s ...
SUMMARY - MY HEART AT REST

                            Copy and Complete the following notes:

• Resting heart rate is a ...
BREATHING
 SYSTEM                  PARTS & FUNCTION




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
THE FLOW OF AIR                         Cut & Paste


1. Cut and paste the diagram (of the breathing system) into your
   ...
Alveoli

 Use the pictures on the right to complete the
 following sentence, describing the function of
 the alveoli:

 Th...
DID YOU KNOW?                                  “Not having enough
                                               pulmonary...
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
BREATHING
 PROCESS
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
“Check out the bell jar”     DIAPHRAGM



                                      Glass tube
                               ...
The diaphragm is a sheet of _______.
                                              When the diaphragm __________ it
      ...
PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW                       Copy

                         • Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a measure of the...
HOW TO USE A PEAK FLOW METER




 Step 3: “Make sure the indicator
 is at the bottom of the meter

 1. Stand up straight.
...
BREATHING
   RATE                  & FACTORS AFFECTING IT




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Practical        THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON BREATHING RATE                         Copy

                     My breathing ...
RESPIRATION

Tuesday, 27 April 2010
BREATHING, GAS EXCHANGE and RESPIRATION              Copy

               Breathing          How air gets into and out of ...
STARTERS
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
MICROSCOPE PARTS


Your teacher will show you a microscope
and explain how it works
1. Cut and Paste the microscope pictur...
Focus Knob, Mirror, Eyepiece lens, Condenser,
                          Objective lens, Stage

                         Us...
USING THE MICROSCOPE



A        Change to the                 E   Focus the microscope
         big lens                 ...
STEPS IN USING A MICROSCOPE


IN THE BACK OF YOUR BOOKS. Write out the steps that you would follow when you
use a microsco...
BLOOD BITS REVISION



     Name three substances transported by the blood.
     1. _____________________________________
...
LABEL THE BLOOD VESSELS



Name of vessel
                                                   Word list
                   ...
QUESTIONS



1. Explain why capillaries have thin walls?




2. Explain why arteries have elastic fibres in their walls?

...
THE HEART AND CIRCULATION



• The heart is labelled from the point of view of the
   animal from which the heart is taken...
AN INCREDIBLE JOURNEY
http://subscription.echalk.co.uk/index.htm




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
A MIXED BAG OF WORDS                    Use after teaching SLO’s 1 and 2

                         Match the term with its...
BLOOD BITS




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
THE BIG HEART CROSSWORD CHALLENGE




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
CLUES




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
ANSWERS




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
HEART PARTS


1. The heart is a hollow ball of muscle which sits to the left side of the chest
   _____________.

2. The h...
EXERCISES

Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Hwk 1




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Hwk 2




Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
OTHER
                         STUFF
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
THE HEART OF THE MATTER   H/O: 	

“How the heart
                                                      	

     pumps blood...
QUESTIONS

(a) What is cholesterol, LDL and HDL?

(b) Describe what is meant by heredity?

(c) Explain how smoking makes i...
QUESTIONS



                         Answer the following questions as full sentences.


    1. Explain in words how the ...
CRITERIA           EVIDENCE                                                             Judgement


                      ...
Teacher resource   READING ABOUT ATHEROSCLEROSIS




Atherosclerosis is patchy intimal plaques (atheromas) in medium-sized...
Tuesday, 27 April 2010
DEVELOP INTO
                  A CLOSE
                  EXERCISE

Tuesday, 27 April 2010
DEVELOP INTO
                  A CLOSE
                  EXERCISE

Tuesday, 27 April 2010
DEVELOP INTO
                  A CLOSE
                  EXERCISE

Tuesday, 27 April 2010
DEVELOP INTO
                         Red Blood
                         cells are made

                  A CLOSE
       ...
Blood & circulation
Blood & circulation
Blood & circulation
Blood & circulation
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Blood & circulation

  1. 1. STAYING HEALTHY 1. Describe the function of blood including transport of oxygen, carbon dioxide, digested food, waste products, hormones, antibodies and heat. 2. Name the parts of the blood and the function of each part 3. Describe the structure of each blood cell type 4. Describe the function of the heart as a “muscular pump that maintains the flow of blood around the body. 5. Identify and label the parts of the heart and describe the function of each part. 6. Draw a diagram to show the movement of blood through the heart. Describe reason for double system 7. Name the major blood vessels entering and leaving the heart and describe where they come from/ go to 8. Describe the structure and function of the three types of blood vessels found in the body 9. Define your pulse as “a wave of blood passing along an artery” and explain where it can be felt in the body 10. Describe factors that affect heart/pulse rate 11. Describe the causes and symptoms of some heart and circulatory diseases - examples include atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure and varicose veins. 12. Label the parts of the breathing system and explain the function of each part. 13. Describe the role of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles in breathing. 14. Explain the effect of exercise on breathing rate. 15. Describe and define the difference between breathing, gas exchange and respiration 16. Explain how to measure lung capacity and relate this to good respiratory function. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  2. 2. Living World (level 5) • Life processes LW pro: Identify the key structural features and functions involved in the life processes of plants and animals. Describe the organisation of life at a cellular level. • Ecology LW eco: Investigate the interdependence of living things (including humans) in an ecosystem. • Evolution LW evo: Describe the basic processes by which genetic information is passed from one generation to the next. Specific Learning Outcome Suggested Learning Activities References 1. Name several • Read about the function of blood and discuss the function of blood Year 10 Study Guide functions of blood emphasising the need for cells to be supplied with nutrients and oxygen and have the wastes and carbon dioxide removed. 2. List the components • Students view cows blood under the microscope and draw the red blood cells. Slide 9 - 4 Sci2 p67 of blood and their • Students view Platelets, red and white blood cells on the projector screen and functions describe their appearance. As an exercise they can compare and contrast the Slides 10 to 12 appearance of these structures 3. Compare the • Students dissect and view cross-sections of veins using the binocular differences in microscopes. They compare and contrast these vessels structure and • Cut and paste diagrams and complete close exercise on slide. Hipkins and Connor function of blood Slide 16 vessels 4. Define ‘pulse’ and • Listen to a normal heart beat on the internet http://www.med.ucla.edu/ give examples of wilkes/intro.html where it can be located • Take both the radial and the carotid pulse and compare the pulse rate of boys and girls. • Discuss the difference between pulse rates of boys and girls and other features of heart rate. 5. Label a simple • Cut and paste a simple diagram of the human circulatory system into books. Year 10 Study Guide circulatory system • Use slide 32 to describe the function of the circulatory system in terms of the major structures. Slide 32 6. Describe the function • Students work through the worksheet, “The heart of the matter” of the parts of the • Complete the cloze exercise summary heart Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  3. 3. 7. Show the • With reference to a detailed OHT heart structure, students label the-se Slide 24 and 27 (OHT) circulation of blood cross ction that is projected on the whiteboard through the heart • Students dissect a sheep’s heart and identify the relevant structures and name the major blood vessels and their function 8. Define • Brainstorm factors that students think will lead to coronary artery Reading Sheet: “What artherosclerosis damage. is atherosclerosis” • Read the handout sheet “What is atherosclerosis” and copy and complete the notes as a cloze exercise. 9. Investigate factors • Read the sheet “Risk factors for heart disease” Reading sheet “Risk that affect coronary • Complete the mind map on slide 35 factors for heart arteries of the • Answer the questions on slide 36 disease” heart and lead to Slides 35 & 36 heart disease 10. Identify factors that • Students read the sheet on training and pulse rate. They form buzz refer to sheet from affect resting heart groups and discuss the questions handed out. Each group nominates a “Training, lactate & rate recorder and a reporter and after the discussion their answers are pulse rate” from Peter reported back to the class one group at a time. Janssen • Use a datalogger to monitor resting heart rate. Students volunteer to be subjects. • Complete the cloze summary on resting heart rate. Slide 48 11. Describe how • Students use a heart rate monitor to record heart rate with time as exercise affects the they exercise. This is plotted on a set of axes. heart rate and • Exercise on Peter’s pulse Slides 49 & 50 explain the purpose • Compare fitness of two individuals Slide 51 of a raised heart rate during exercise Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  4. 4. 12. Label parts of the • Choose from a list of labels to complete the labelled diagram of the Slide 53 to be re- breathing system breathing system. Labels match structure and function developed. and identify the function of each part 13. Describe the • Teacher demonstration: Bell jar breathing model Slide 53 to be re- breathing process • Students explain why the balloons inflate and deflate developed. • Cut and paste diagrams which summarise the breathing process. Bell jar • Discuss the difference between breathing, gas exchange and breathing model. respiration. 14. Describe how • Record breathing rate before and after exercise. Slide 57 exercise affects the • Discuss reasons for breathing rate needing to increase breathing rate and explain the purpose of an elevated breathing rate during exercise 15. Determine a profile • Students work their way around a circus of activities that involves them of health and taking measurements of each others resting ECG, Repiration rate fitness that has an (before and after exercise), Heart rate (before, after and during emphasis on exercise), lung capacity plus peak flow and blood pressure. cardiovascular fitness. 16. Define respiration • Discuss respiration. Stress that it is a cellular process and using simple Slide 58 and write an ideas about cell structure explain the chemical change that takes equation for this place. reaction Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  5. 5. INTRO Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  6. 6. Word search KEY WORDS Y N I P N O T T S Y E R C W N plasma R B O H O C R U R Z R W I O G platelets pulse A R K I I L K A N A Z E I E P aorta atrium L O R E T S E L O H C T T U R artery L N R P A A P A C Q A H L R C ventricle pulmonary I C L T L L R A I L C M E X A vena cava cholesterol P H Y O A A V I A C O J V A J inhalation A I R S H A T H P N X A E R R exhalation trachea C K M Y N G X E A S U N N O K bronchi bronchiole V A Q N I E V R L Y E S T H M alveolus M U I R T A Y L J E C R R T J diaphragm thorax M G A R H P A I D V T S I W T vein B R O N C H I O L E E S C F W capillary respiration A L V E O L U S S N P U L S E U C H K C O E D Z A P E E F W Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  7. 7. AEROBIC RESPIRATION (air-o-bick res-purr-ay-shun) – respiration that use oxygen. ALVEOLI (al-vee-oh-lie) – air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION (an-air-o-bick res-purr-ay-shun) – respiration that does not use oxygen. AORTA (ay-ort-ar) – major artery that carries blood from the heart to the body. ARTERIOSCLEROSIS (are-tear-ee-oh-skleer-oh-sis) – hardening of the arteries. ARTERY (are-ter-ee) – blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. ATRIUM (ay-tree-um) – one of two chambers in the heart that collect blood. BREATHING (bree-thing) – the physical movement of air in and out of the lungs. BRONCHI (bronk-eye)– two tubes that connect the trachea to the lungs. BRONCHIOLES (bronk-ee-oles) – narrow tubes in the lungs that branch off from the bronchi. CAPILLARY (ka-pill-are-ee) – the smallest blood vessel with walls only one cell thick. CILIA (sill-ee-a) – tiny hairs present on the surface of cells lining the airways. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (sir-kew-lar-tory sis-tim) – the blood, blood vessels and heart. DEOXYGENATED (dee-ox-I-gin-ay-ted) – without oxygen. DIAPHRAGM (dye-a-fram) – sheet of muscle separating the chest area from the abdomen that has an important role in breathing. EXHALE (ex-hail) – to breathe air out of the body. GAS EXCHANGE (gass ex-change) – the exchange that occurs in the lungs of oxygen for carbon dioxide. HAEMOGLOBIN(he-mow-glow-bin) – a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. HEART (hart) – a muscle that pumps blood around the body. INHALE (in-hay-l) – to breathe air into the body. LARYNX (lar-inx) – voice box. OXYGENATED (ox-i-gin) – containing oxygen. PLASMA (plaz-ma) – pale yellow liquid part of blood. PLATELETS (plate-lets) – a cell in blood involved in blood clotting. PULMONARY (pull-mun-airy) – refers to the lungs. PULSE (pole-z) – expanding and contracting of arteries as a wave of blood passes. RED BLOOD CELLS (red blud cells) – cells that carry oxygen around the body. RESPIRATION (res-purr-ay-shun) – a chemical process that occurs in cells and releases energy. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (res-purr-a-tory sis-tim) – the organs involved in getting air into the body and exchanging oxygen for carbon dioxide. TRACHEA (tray-key-a) – the wind pipe. VALVES (valve-z) – flaps in a blood vessel that only allow blood to go one way. VEIN (vay-n) – blood vessels that return blood to the heart. VENA CAVA (vee-na car-va) – vein that carries blood that is returning from the body to the heart VENTRICLE (ven-trick-kill) – one of two chambers in the heart that pumps blood. WHITE BLOOD CELLS (why-te blud cells)– cells involved in defence against disease-causing organisms. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  8. 8. Write the answers only in the back of your book Term Definition GLOSSARY 1 Match the term with its definition A. Aerobic respiration 1. two tubes that connect the trachea to the lungs B. Alveoli 2. hardening of the arteries C. Anaerobic 3. without oxygen respiration D. Aorta 4. narrow tubes in the lungs that branch off from the bronchi. E. Arteriosclerosis 5. to breathe air out of the body F. Artery 6. the physical movement of air in and out of the lungs G. Atrium 7. major artery that carries blood from the heart to the body. 8. sheet of muscle separating the chest area from the H. Breathing abdomen that has an important role in breathing I. Bronchi 9. respiration that use oxygen. J. Bronchioles 10. one of two chambers in the heart that collect blood K. Capillary 11. blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. L. Cilia 12. air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs M. Circulatory system 13. respiration that does not use oxygen N. Deoxygenated 14. the smallest blood vessel with walls only one cell thick O. Diaphragm 15. the blood, blood vessels and heart P. Exhale 16. tiny hairs present on the surface of cells lining the airways Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  9. 9. Term Definition GLOSSARY 1 Aerobic respiration respiration that use oxygen. Alveoli air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs Anaerobic respiration that does not use oxygen respiration Aorta major artery that carries blood from the heart to the body. Arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries Artery blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Atrium one of two chambers in the heart that collect blood Breathing the physical movement of air in and out of the lungs Bronchi two tubes that connect the trachea to the lungs Bronchioles narrow tubes in the lungs that branch off from the bronchi. Capillary the smallest blood vessel with walls only one cell thick Cilia tiny hairs present on the surface of cells lining the airways Circulatory system the blood, blood vessels and heart Deoxygenated without oxygen sheet of muscle separating the chest area from the abdomen Diaphragm that has an important role in breathing Exhale to breathe air out of the body Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  10. 10. Term Definition GLOSSARY 2 Match the term with its definition A. Gas exchange 1. containing oxygen B. Haemoglobin 2. a cell in blood involved in blood clotting C. Heart 3. the exchange that occurs in the lungs of oxygen for carbon dioxide D. Inhale 4. cells that carry oxygen around the body. E. Larynx 5. pale yellow liquid part of blood F. Oxygenated 6. voice box G. Plasma 7. a muscle that pumps blood around the body H. Platelets 8. a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen I. Pulmonary 9. to breathe air into the body J. Pulse 10. flaps in a blood vessel that only allow blood to go one way. K. Red blood cells 11. refers to the lungs L. Respiration 12. blood vessels that return blood to the heart M. Respiratory system 13. expanding and contracting of arteries as a wave of blood passes 14. the organs involved in getting air into the body and exchanging oxygen for N. trachea carbon dioxide O. valves 15. the wind pipe P. vein 16. one of two chambers in the heart that pumps blood Q. vena cava 17. cells involved in defence against disease-causing organisms R. ventricle 18. a chemical process that occurs in cells and releases energy S. white blood cells 19. vein that carries blood that is returning from the body to the heart Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  11. 11. Term Definition GLOSSARY 2 Gas exchange the exchange that occurs in the lungs of oxygen for carbon dioxide Haemoglobin a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen Heart a muscle that pumps blood around the body Inhale to breathe air into the body Larynx voice box Oxygenated containing oxygen Plasma pale yellow liquid part of blood Platelets a cell in blood involved in blood clotting Pulmonary refers to the lungs Pulse expanding and contracting of arteries as a wave of blood passes Red blood cells cells that carry oxygen around the body. Respiration a chemical process that occurs in cells and releases energy the organs involved in getting air into the body and exchanging oxygen for carbon Respiratory system dioxide trachea the wind pipe valves flaps in a blood vessel that only allow blood to go one way. vein blood vessels that return blood to the heart vena cava vein that carries blood that is returning from the body to the heart ventricle one of two chambers in the heart that pumps blood white blood cells cells involved in defence against disease-causing organisms Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  12. 12. Back of book WHAT DO I ALREADY KNOW? Label the diagrams (a) (b) (c) (d) (g) (f) (e) GUT, HEART, STOMACH, LIVER, LUNG PANCREAS, KIDNEY Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  13. 13. LOCATION OF THE BODY’S ORGANS 1. Draw the outline 2. Draw in where you think the organs (from the previous slide) are. (Use the pictures on the previous slide to show you the shape of each organ Check your work with the teacher when you think you have finished Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  14. 14. BLOOD - FUNCTION Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  15. 15. 1. DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF BLOOD ... INTERESTING FACTS COPY & ANSWER THE QUESTIONS (BELOW) INTO YOUR EXERCISE BOOKS USE A COMPUTER TO RESEARCH ANSWERS Start in class ---> Finish for homework 1. What volume of blood is contained in the body of an average adult male? 5L 2. At what rate is this blood circulated through the heart? 5 L min-1 3. What effect does smoking have on the way our blood Narrows the blood vessels in legs and arms (mainly) circulates through our body? High blood pressure. 4. Name one blood-related disease and describe it briefly. Leukemia, Clotting disorders (haemophilia), Copy and complete the notes Anaemia. Blood is important because it carries substances around the body. • Heat is carried to the skin. • Wastes to the kidneys • Carbon dioxide to the lungs • Food from the gut & stomach to the cells • Hormones from the glands to the body organs Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  16. 16. BLOOD - BITS Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  17. 17. Copy the notes (below) and use computers to help you to complete them Mainly water (50%) Straw 4% colored 1% other White blood cells - fight Platelets - Red blood cells - carry around the body Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  18. 18. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  19. 19. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  20. 20. LOOKING AT BLOOD CELLS Practical Do not copy this Copy the aim and draw the method then follow this instruction Practical: 4Sci2 p67 Also, look at the OHT of red blood cells set up on the projector Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  21. 21. IMAGES Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  22. 22. WHAT YOU MIGHT SEE, 500 X MAGNIFIED 1000 x MAGNIFIED Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  23. 23. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  24. 24. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  25. 25. SICKLE CELL NORMAL CELL Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  26. 26. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  27. 27. Red blood cell White blood cell Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  28. 28. WHERE DID I COME FROM? Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  29. 29. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  30. 30. Extra for Experts HOW A CLOT FORMS 1. Study the diagram (left and below) 2. For homework find out what fibrin is and write the definition in the space below. 3. Research how aspirin works and what it is used for and write a brief paragraph to summarize your findings Fibrin is ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Aspirin is used for people who have had a __________ attack. It works by __________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  31. 31. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  32. 32. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  33. 33. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  34. 34. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Have no nucleus Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  35. 35. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Red in colour Have no nucleus Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  36. 36. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Red in colour Have no nucleus Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  37. 37. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Larger than red blood cells Red in colour Have no nucleus Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  38. 38. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Fewer in number than red blood cells Larger than red blood cells Red in colour Have no nucleus Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  39. 39. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Fewer in number than red blood cells Larger than red blood cells Have a nucleus Red in colour Have no nucleus Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  40. 40. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Fewer in number than red blood cells Larger than red blood cells Have a nucleus Red in colour Flat Have no nucleus Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  41. 41. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Fewer in number than red blood cells Larger than red blood cells Have a nucleus Red in colour Irregularly shaped discs Flat Have no nucleus Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  42. 42. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Fewer in number than red blood cells Larger than red blood cells Have a nucleus Red in colour Irregularly shaped discs Flat Have no nucleus Cell fragments Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  43. 43. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Fewer in number than red blood cells Larger than red blood cells Have a nucleus Red in colour Irregularly shaped discs Flat Very small in size Have no nucleus Cell fragments Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  44. 44. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) - this increases surface area Fewer in number than red blood cells Larger than red blood cells Have a nucleus Red in colour Irregularly shaped discs Flat Very small in size Have no nucleus Carry oxygen Cell fragments Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  45. 45. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) Can cause bacteria to clump so - this increases surface area that antibodies can attack them Fewer in number than red blood cells Larger than red blood cells Have a nucleus Red in colour Irregularly shaped discs Flat Very small in size Have no nucleus Carry oxygen Cell fragments Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  46. 46. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) Can cause bacteria to clump so - this increases surface area that antibodies can attack them Fewer in number than red blood cells Larger than red blood cells Have a nucleus Red in colour Irregularly shaped discs Flat Very small in size Have no nucleus Can eat bacteria Carry oxygen Cell fragments Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  47. 47. BLOOD BITS - MIX & MATCH Platelets Cut out the pictures, Red blood cells White blood cells descriptions & functions Donut shaped Granular (rough) in appearance (discs which have a hollow on each side) Can cause bacteria to clump so - this increases surface area that antibodies can attack them Fewer in number than red blood cells Larger than red blood cells Have a nucleus Red in colour Irregularly shaped discs Flat Very small in size Have no nucleus Can eat bacteria Carry oxygen Cell fragments Help blood to clot Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  48. 48. Match these pictures, descriptions & functions in a table such as the one shown (below) Picture Descriptions Functions Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  49. 49. HAEMOGLOBIN Haemoglobin is a very large molecule (a big group of atoms joined together). In the centre of the molecule there are iron atoms which allow the molecule to carry oxygen atoms (and some carbon dioxide). Haemoglobin gives blood its red colour. When someone is low in haemoglobin we say that they are anaemic. Oxygen is collected from the lungs and delivered to the body tissues: Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  50. 50. BLOOD - VESSELS Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  51. 51. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  52. 52. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  53. 53. Copy the notes & COMPLETE them Arteries - have walls - carry blood the heart - have elastic fibres that withstand . Veins - have walls - carry blood to the heart - do not need elastic fibres because the in veins is at a low pressure - rely on to make sure that blood flows back to the heart in one direction only. also help blood return to the heart by squeezing on veins - Veins are found in the veins of calves, hands and arms as these vessels carry blood against the force of gravity Capillaries - are blood vessels that ensure that blood reaches every cell - their walls are one cell thick so blood can pass through them easily - they supply & and remove and . - have walls that are one cell thick Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  54. 54. Answers I SEE RED, I SEE RED, I SEE RED! 1. Dash needs concentrated red cells because his body is not making red cells. 2. Marcus needs chemicals in the plasma because he needs more factor VIII. 3. Ignatius needs concentrated blood cells to replace the blood cells that have been lost and concentrated plasma to maintain fluid balance. After the operation he needs immunity proteins from plasma to help fight infection. 4. Joan needs concentrated plasma as this will replace the fluids lost in the burn blisters. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  55. 55. Interactive exercise ARTERY OR VEIN - WHICH IS WHICH? A B C Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  56. 56. CIRCULATION Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  57. 57. WHAT IS CIRCULATION?? • Circulation is the flow of blood around the body. • This is required to supply cells with nutrients and oxygen. • Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine and become dissolved in the plasma. • Oxygen is carried on haemoglobin. • Circulation is required to remove wastes and carbon dioxide from the cells. Carbon dioxide is carried on haemoglobin. • Wastes are dissolved in the plasma. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  58. 58. WHAT IS CIRCULATION?? • Circulation is the flow of blood around the body. • This is required to supply cells with nutrients and oxygen. • Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine and become dissolved in the plasma. • Oxygen is carried on haemoglobin. • Circulation is required to remove wastes and carbon dioxide from the cells. Carbon dioxide is carried on haemoglobin. • Wastes are dissolved in the plasma. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  59. 59. ARTERIES CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART. VEINS CARRY BLOOD BACK TO THE HEART. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  60. 60. Artery Vein ARTERIES & VEINS ARE CONNECTED BY A CAPILLARY NETWORK Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  61. 61. ARTERIES & VEINS ARE FOUND TOGETHER AROUND ORGANS Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  62. 62. HEART AS A PUMP Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  63. 63. THE HEART AND THE TWO LOOP SYSTEM The function of the heart is to ________ blood around the body. Blood circulates through two loops. • One loop involves the _________. • The other loop involves the flow of blood through body’s tissues and _________ (these include the brain, _____________ kidneys, and ________________ . Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  64. 64. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  65. 65. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  66. 66. Blood pressure results from the back pressure of the capillaries on the arteries due to the hearts contraction Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  67. 67. Blood pressure results from the back pressure of the capillaries on the arteries due to the hearts contraction A healthy blood pressure for an adult is 120 over 80. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  68. 68. Blood pressure results from the back pressure of the capillaries on the arteries due to the hearts contraction A healthy blood pressure for an adult is 120 over 80. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  69. 69. Blood pressure results from the back pressure of the capillaries on the arteries due to the hearts contraction A healthy blood pressure for an adult is 120 over 80. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  70. 70. Blood pressure results from the back pressure of the capillaries on the arteries due to the hearts contraction A healthy blood pressure for an adult is 120 over 80. 120 mm Hg - max contraction Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  71. 71. Blood pressure results from the back pressure of the capillaries on the arteries due to the hearts contraction A healthy blood pressure for an adult is 120 over 80. 120 mm Hg - max contraction Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  72. 72. Blood pressure results from the back pressure of the capillaries on the arteries due to the hearts contraction 80 mm Hg - heart A healthy blood relaxes as blood pressure for an flows into it. adult is 120 over 80. 120 mm Hg - max contraction Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  73. 73. Blood pressure results from the back pressure of the capillaries on the arteries due to the hearts contraction 80 mm Hg - heart A healthy blood relaxes as blood pressure for an flows into it. adult is 120 over 80. 120 mm Hg - max contraction Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  74. 74. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  75. 75. Typical Blood Pressures include ... Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  76. 76. Typical Blood Pressures include ... Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  77. 77. Typical Blood Pressures include ... 80/45 in infants Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  78. 78. Typical Blood Pressures include ... 80/45 in infants Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  79. 79. Typical Blood Pressures include ... 80/45 in infants 120/80 at age 30 Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  80. 80. Typical Blood Pressures include ... 80/45 in infants 120/80 at age 30 140/85 at age 40 and over Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  81. 81. Typical Blood Pressures include ... 80/45 in infants 120/80 at age 30 140/85 at age 40 and over Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  82. 82. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  83. 83. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  84. 84. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  85. 85. Blood Pressure can identify any disease that... Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  86. 86. Blood Pressure can identify any disease that... Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  87. 87. Blood Pressure can identify any disease that... 1. widens blood vessels Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  88. 88. Blood Pressure can identify any disease that... 1. widens blood vessels Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  89. 89. Blood Pressure can identify any disease that... 1. widens blood vessels 2. narrows blood vessels Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  90. 90. Blood Pressure can identify any disease that... 1. widens blood vessels 2. narrows blood vessels Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  91. 91. Blood Pressure can identify any disease that... 1. widens blood vessels 2. narrows blood vessels 3. makes blood vessels less stretchy Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  92. 92. Blood Pressure can identify any disease that... 1. widens blood vessels 2. narrows blood vessels 3. makes blood vessels less stretchy Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  93. 93. Blood Pressure can identify any disease that... 1. widens blood vessels 2. narrows blood vessels 3. makes blood vessels less stretchy 4. effects the pumping power of the heart Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  94. 94. Video worksheet PUMPING LIFE - THE BLOOD & CIRCULATORY SYSTEM continually In order for blood to do its job it must ______________ flow throughout the body. pump The heart acts as a ____________ to drive blood through the circulatory system. It muscle can do this because it is nearly all _____________. four atria The heart has _________ chambers. The top chambers are called _________ and the ventricles atrium bottom chambers are called __________. The right _________ and the right ventricle atrium ventricle _____________ are connected and the left ___________ and left __________ are right left also connected but there is no connection between the _______ and ________ side of the heart. left The right side of the heart appears on the ____________ from our point of view. The right atrium accepts blood (that is low in ____________) from the body tissues oxygen and organs. It then passes into the right ____________. The right __________ ventricle ventricle pumps blood to the capillaries of the lungs. Capillaries allow ___________ _________ carbon dioxide to enter the lungs and pick up _____________ from the lungs. oxygen Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  95. 95. HEART, VESSELS & FUNCTIONS Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  96. 96. ___________________ carries blood to body tissues & organs _______________ carries blood back to the heart from _______________ the lungs Carries blood to the lungs Word list Valves _______________ Left atrium carries blood back Right atrium to the heart from Left ventricle organs & tissues Right ventricle Septum Pulmonary artery Pulmonary vein BLOOD VESSELS & CHAMBERS OF Aorta THE HEART Vena cavae Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  97. 97. THE CUT AND PASTE HEART PART 4 Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  98. 98. THE CUT AND PASTE HEART instructions Cut out Part 1 Colour the white areas on the side labeled “right side” BLUE. The grey shaded areas are the muscular wall. Paste Part 1 in the centre of a new page in your exercise book. Cut out parts 2 and 3 Colour these RED. Glue the dotted edges (not the whole thing) and stick edges on top of the numbers 2 and 3 on Part one. Cut out parts 4, 5 and 6. Colour these parts BLUE. Glue the arrowed edges (not the whole thing) and stick edges on top of the numbers 4, 5 and 6 on Part one. Lift part 3 so part 6 lies underneath it. Cut out parts 7 and 8 Colour these parts YELLOW. Glue the arrow edges (not the whole thing) and stick edges on top of the numbers 7 and 8 on Part one. Cut out Part 9. Colour this PINK. Glue the back of the tab and stick in your book so it covers all of Part 1. Once you have completed this exercise, label the blood vessels. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  99. 99. Practical HEART DISSECTION 1. The left side will feel thicker and more muscular. Using this knowledge, place the heart on the dissection tray so that the left side is where you would expect to see it if you were looking at a picture of your heart. 2. Draw and label your heart showing the blood vessels that enter and leave the heart. Also draw and label the coronary arteries. B 3. Make cuts A, B and C (in A that order. Use the 3D picture on the next slide to C help you to identify the highlighted structures Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  100. 100. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  101. 101. Theory MY HEART FROM THE OUTSIDE H/O Now label this Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  102. 102. BLOOD FLOW (THROUGH THE HEART) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  103. 103. Use the diagram to MY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM complete these notes • The right side of the heart receives blood from all body ______ and ______. This blood is dark in colour because it does not contain much oxygen. • Blood enters the right side of the heart through the _____ ______ and into the ______ ______ .It then passes into the right ventricle which squeezes blood into the pulmonary arteries. • ___________ ________ carry blood to the lungs. • The lungs oxygenate the blood. • The ________ ______ carry blood from the lungs back to the heart where it enters the left atrium. This blood is bright red in colour because it is rich in oxygen. • From the left atrium, blood passes into the _______ _____________. • The left ventricle squeezes blood into the _________ which branches into smaller blood vessels. These supply body tissues and organs with oxygenated blood. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  104. 104. BLOOD VESSELS & FLOW THROUGH THE HEART 1. Cut and Paste the diagram of the human heart (below) into your book. 2. Use the “3D DIAGRAM” on OHT to help you to label this diagram using the word list below. Use every word once only. Word list Labels for arrows Aorta From body Right ventricle From lungs Left ventricle to lungs Pulmonary artery Vena Cava to body Pulmonary vein Valve tendon bicuspid valve tricuspid valve Right atrium Left atrium semilunar valve Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  105. 105. DISEASE Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  106. 106. Staying Health Research Assignment Date due A disease is a condition in which a tissue, organ or organ system does not function properly. Atherosclerosis is one form of the disease arteriosclerosis and it affects part of the circulatory system. In your report you must answer the following questions: - • Name the part of the circulatory system this disease affects and how the disease affects it • Describe the causes of the disease • Describe the symptoms a person with this disease might show • Discuss how the disease can be prevented and how it is treated. You can present your report as either an A3 sized poster or a written/typed report of no more than 2 A4 pages. Your written work must be in your own words (no cut and paste from internet sites). You must also include at least one diagram/picture that helps support your written answers. Make sure it has either labels or a caption that links to your written work. Include a bibliography at end of the written report or on the back of poster. This will include:- • the title and author(s) of any books you use in alphabetical order • the web address of any world wide web sites used Hint - start by looking up arteriosclerosis and then look for Atherosclerosis Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  107. 107. ATHEROSCLEROSIS http://www.torrancememorial.org/carrisk.htm 1. Read the handout sheet entitled “What is Atherosclerosis?” 2. Copy and Complete the following notes: • Also called “.......................... ..... ......... ..................... “ . • Caused by a build up of ............ and ...................... on the inside walls of arteries. • This can cause ...................... of the arteries and a ..................... in blood flow. • Permanent damage to tissues and organs can occur if .............. supply is disrupted. • If the coronary arteries are affected by atherosclerosis, they could become further narrowed by substances in the blood and block altogether. THIS RESULTS IN A HEART ATTACK. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  108. 108. Mind map RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE 1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and Coronary Heart Disease?” 2. Copy & Complete the mind map below: All Risk factors Major can be managed or controlled ( --> obesity) Contributing can be managed or controlled can not be managed or controlled ACTIVITY: With these factors up on the white board; Students all stand. Go thru each factor. Students who think they have it sit. By the end of the lesson...no one is standing ---> no one is safe from heart disease) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  109. 109. Mind map RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE 1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and Coronary Heart Disease?” 2. Copy & Complete the mind map below: All Risk factors Major smoking can be managed or controlled ( --> obesity) Contributing can be managed or controlled can not be managed or controlled ACTIVITY: With these factors up on the white board; Students all stand. Go thru each factor. Students who think they have it sit. By the end of the lesson...no one is standing ---> no one is safe from heart disease) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  110. 110. Mind map RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE 1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and Coronary Heart Disease?” 2. Copy & Complete the mind map below: All Risk factors Major smoking Cholesterol can be managed or controlled ( --> obesity) Contributing can be managed or controlled can not be managed or controlled ACTIVITY: With these factors up on the white board; Students all stand. Go thru each factor. Students who think they have it sit. By the end of the lesson...no one is standing ---> no one is safe from heart disease) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  111. 111. Mind map RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE 1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and Coronary Heart Disease?” 2. Copy & Complete the mind map below: All Risk factors Major smoking Cholesterol diabetes can be managed or controlled ( --> obesity) Contributing can be managed or controlled can not be managed or controlled ACTIVITY: With these factors up on the white board; Students all stand. Go thru each factor. Students who think they have it sit. By the end of the lesson...no one is standing ---> no one is safe from heart disease) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  112. 112. Mind map RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE 1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and Coronary Heart Disease?” 2. Copy & Complete the mind map below: All Risk factors Major smoking Cholesterol diabetes inactivity can be managed or controlled ( --> obesity) Contributing can be managed or controlled can not be managed or controlled ACTIVITY: With these factors up on the white board; Students all stand. Go thru each factor. Students who think they have it sit. By the end of the lesson...no one is standing ---> no one is safe from heart disease) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  113. 113. Mind map RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE 1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and Coronary Heart Disease?” 2. Copy & Complete the mind map below: All Risk factors Major smoking Cholesterol diabetes inactivity can be managed or controlled ( --> obesity) Contributing stress can be managed or controlled can not be managed or controlled ACTIVITY: With these factors up on the white board; Students all stand. Go thru each factor. Students who think they have it sit. By the end of the lesson...no one is standing ---> no one is safe from heart disease) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  114. 114. Mind map RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE 1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and Coronary Heart Disease?” 2. Copy & Complete the mind map below: All Risk factors Major smoking Cholesterol diabetes inactivity can be managed or controlled ( --> obesity) Contributing stress alcohol can be managed or controlled can not be managed or controlled ACTIVITY: With these factors up on the white board; Students all stand. Go thru each factor. Students who think they have it sit. By the end of the lesson...no one is standing ---> no one is safe from heart disease) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  115. 115. Mind map RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE 1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and Coronary Heart Disease?” 2. Copy & Complete the mind map below: All Risk factors Major smoking Cholesterol diabetes inactivity can be managed or controlled ( --> obesity) Contributing stress alcohol age can be managed or controlled can not be managed or controlled ACTIVITY: With these factors up on the white board; Students all stand. Go thru each factor. Students who think they have it sit. By the end of the lesson...no one is standing ---> no one is safe from heart disease) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  116. 116. Mind map RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE 1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and Coronary Heart Disease?” 2. Copy & Complete the mind map below: All Risk factors Major smoking Cholesterol diabetes inactivity can be managed or controlled ( --> obesity) Contributing stress alcohol age gender can be managed or controlled can not be managed or controlled ACTIVITY: With these factors up on the white board; Students all stand. Go thru each factor. Students who think they have it sit. By the end of the lesson...no one is standing ---> no one is safe from heart disease) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  117. 117. Mind map RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE 1. Read the handout sheet entitled “Risk factors and Coronary Heart Disease?” 2. Copy & Complete the mind map below: All Risk factors Major smoking Cholesterol diabetes inactivity can be managed or controlled ( --> obesity) Contributing stress alcohol age gender heredity can be managed or controlled can not be managed or controlled ACTIVITY: With these factors up on the white board; Students all stand. Go thru each factor. Students who think they have it sit. By the end of the lesson...no one is standing ---> no one is safe from heart disease) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  118. 118. PULSE DEFINITION & FACTORS AFFECTING IT Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  119. 119. WHAT’S IN A PULSE? http://www.blaufuss.org/ http://www.med.ucla.edu/wilkes/intro.html When the doctor listens to my heart using a stethoscope a “lud doog” sound is heard. This is the sound of one beat. These sounds are from the valves in the heart snapping shut. Definition The pulse is a wave of blood passing through an artery and it is the pressure caused by the compression of blood that is felt when someone feels for a pulse. Things you need to know 1. My pulse rate is the number of beats that my heart makes per minute. 2. The unit of pulse rate is __________ _____ _____________ (____) . 3. The average adult resting pulse rate is between 60 and 80 bpm 4. Newborns have a pulse rate of about __________. 5. Women have a ___________ pulse rate than men. 6. Recovery rate is the time it takes for a person’s heart rate to return to its resting value once exercise has stopped. The lower the recovery rate, the greater the level of fitness 7. A fit person also has a low resting pulse and takes a long time to reach maximum heart rate Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  120. 120. RECOVERY TIME recovery time Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  121. 121. Practical TAKING MY PULSE There are at least 2 places where my pulse can be taken: (a) at my wrist (radial pulse) (b) at my neck (carotid pulse) 1. Take your pulse using both methods, each time counting the number of beats in 15 seconds and multiplying by 4. (What are the units of your answer? Are both of your answers the same?) 2. Calculate your average pulse and write it into your book. 3. Record your class results in the following table Class results Average Boys Average Girls Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  122. 122. Practical FACTORS AFFECTING PULSE RATE For each of the activities shown in the table (below) measure your pulse rate and record this in your books in a table (as shown below) Activity Pulse rate (bpm) Copy and answer the questions: Sitting Standing Jogging Step-ups/stairs Questions (a) Which activity that would give a lower pulse rate than standing ______________________________________________________________ (b) Trial your suggestion and record your result in the space in the table (c) Explain why your pulse rate changes when you change from sitting down to each of the other activities _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  123. 123. HOW LONG-TERM EXERCISE AFFECTS THE RESTING PULSE RATE Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  124. 124. OTHER FACTORS Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  125. 125. WHO IS FITTER? Pulse rate Heart rate vs time graph for two individuals (bpm) Key: Paul Peter 200 150 100 50 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 time (min) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  126. 126. Cut & Copy & answer the following questions into your book Paste Questions 1. What is Paul’s resting heart rate? ____________ 2. At what time does the graph suggest that exercise started? __________ 3. How long does it take Paul’s heart rate to reach a maximum? __________ 4. What is Peter’s maximum heart rate? __________ 5. For how long does Peter maintain his maximum heart rate? __________ 6. At what time does the graph suggest that exercise stops? __________ 7. How long does it take Paul’s heart rate to return to its resting value? __________ 8. Explain why Peter is fitter than Paul. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  127. 127. SUMMARY - MY HEART AT REST Copy and Complete the following notes: • Resting heart rate is a measure of the overall .................... of an athlete. The lower the better. • Resting heart rate is best measured in the ................... so that accurate comparisons can be made. • Over several months of exercise resting heart rate can be ........................... . • Resting heart rate can remain elevated a day or two after a heavy workout or race as increased blood flow is required to compensate for the low .................. level of recovering muscle cells. • During a fever the resting heart rate ............. to compensate for a ..................... in blood pressure caused by illness. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  128. 128. BREATHING SYSTEM PARTS & FUNCTION Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  129. 129. THE FLOW OF AIR Cut & Paste 1. Cut and paste the diagram (of the breathing system) into your book. 2. Copy a flow diagram into your book that correctly represents the pathway that air flows through as it enters the body (the format of this diagram is shown below and the words needed to complete it are in the box) bronchiole, mouth, alveoli bronchus, trachea 1. Cut & paste the picture of the trachea into your book. 2. The cartilage rings are like the ribs of a vacuum cleaner hose. Copy and complete the sentence below next to your pasted diagram The trachea Another name for the trachea is the __________________ . Cartilage rings Its walls are reinforced with cartilage rings. Cartilage is a soft yet stiff material. The cartilage prevents the wind pipe from ____________ when we breathe in. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  130. 130. Alveoli Use the pictures on the right to complete the following sentence, describing the function of the alveoli: The ____________ is an air sac at the end of a ______________ . It is surrounded by a ________________ which carries blood from the heart. ___________ ___________ passes into the alveolus through the ____________ _____________. _______________ from the alveolus passes into the capillary and this blood is carried back to the _______________ The surface of the alveolar wall must be moist so that gases can ___________ . This must happen before they can pass into the blood stream. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  131. 131. DID YOU KNOW? “Not having enough pulmonary surfactant causes respiratory distress syndrome in infants.” A moist alveolar surface is important but ... the water creates a lot of surface tension There is a special type of alveolar cell called a type II cell which secretes a substance called pulmonary surfactant. This is a chemical which reduces the surface tension of the water that lines the alveolus. Without this chemical it would be very difficult to expand the alveolus so that air could be dragged into them. The effort required would be tremendous. Taking deep breaths stimulates the release of this chemical and allows breathing to be more effective. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  132. 132. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  133. 133. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  134. 134. BREATHING PROCESS Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  135. 135. “Check out the bell jar” DIAPHRAGM Glass tube Ribs Rubber bung Balloon Diaphragm Rubber sheet (represents the diaphragm) PULL DOWN Observation Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  136. 136. The diaphragm is a sheet of _______. When the diaphragm __________ it flattens out and __________ the space inside the chest cavity. Air rushes in to fill this space (you breathe in). When the diaphragm relaxes it arches up and __________ the space so air must leave the chest cavity (you breathe out) INTERCOSTALS These are the muscles between the ribs. When you breathe in the diaphragm contracts and flattens while these muscles contract to ______ the rib cage. When you breathe out the intercostals _________. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  137. 137. PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW Copy • Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a measure of the maximum speed that air can be blown out from your lungs. • It is useful for helping doctors to find out how serious someone’s asthma symptoms are. • The doctor has a record of the patient’s PEF when that person is well. • If the person arrives at the surgery complaining of problems with breathing the doctor measures the PEF. • A 15 to 20% drop in the person’s PEF shows that the problem is significant. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  138. 138. HOW TO USE A PEAK FLOW METER Step 3: “Make sure the indicator is at the bottom of the meter 1. Stand up straight. 2. Make sure the indicator is at the bottom of the meter. 3. Take a deep breath filling your lungs completely. 4. Place the mouthpiece in your mouth; lightly bite with your teeth, and close your lips on it. 5. Blast the air out as hard and as fast as possible in a single blow. 6. Record the number that appears on the meter. 7. Repeat these steps three times. 8. Record the highest of the three readings My results: Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  139. 139. BREATHING RATE & FACTORS AFFECTING IT Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  140. 140. Practical THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON BREATHING RATE Copy My breathing rate is the number of times I inhale or exhale in 1 minute. My breathing rate before exercise = breaths per minute after exercise = breaths per minute Notes “Copy and complete the following notes” 1. My breathing rate increases during exercise because ... 2. The process which uses the extra oxygen to make chemical energy in the cells is called 3. During exercise this process occurs more Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  141. 141. RESPIRATION Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  142. 142. BREATHING, GAS EXCHANGE and RESPIRATION Copy Breathing How air gets into and out of the lungs Gas exchange How gases get into and out of the blood stream Respiration How oxygen is used to make energy Respiration • Respiration is the process which occurs inside cells that uses glucose and oxygen to make chemical potential energy. This energy can be used for growth and movement. • Carbon dioxide and water are products of respiration. The equation which summarises respiration is: Carried to cells by the blood Carried away from cells by the blood Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water Breathed in Breathed out Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  143. 143. STARTERS Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  144. 144. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  145. 145. MICROSCOPE PARTS Your teacher will show you a microscope and explain how it works 1. Cut and Paste the microscope picture into your book 2. Label the picture using the list of parts shown below. Arm List of microscope parts: base, objective lenses, stage, course focusing knob, fine focusing knob, eyepiece lens light source, body tube, stage clips. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  146. 146. Focus Knob, Mirror, Eyepiece lens, Condenser, Objective lens, Stage Use the words given to label the diagram: (a) LABEL THE PARTS OF A MICROSCOPE (b) (c) (e) • (f) Use some of the same words to complete the sentences below: The (g)....................... is used to get a clear picture. The (h)....................... is used to support the object you are looking at. The (i)...................... is used to reflect the light. The (j)...................... is what you look through. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  147. 147. USING THE MICROSCOPE A Change to the E Focus the microscope big lens using the large knob B Put a drop of water F Turn the lenses till between the two you are on the sheets of glass smallest. G Put the sheets of C Focus using the glass on the stage small knob H Put a cover slip over the top D Adjust the light source Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  148. 148. STEPS IN USING A MICROSCOPE IN THE BACK OF YOUR BOOKS. Write out the steps that you would follow when you use a microscope in the correct order. (the steps below are jumbled) 1. Change to the medium power objective and adjust using the fine focus knob 2. Turn the light on. 3. Place the specimen on the stage 4. Check that the microscope is set to low power. 5. Plug the electrical lead of the microscope into the wall socket. 6. Adjust using the course focus knob 7. Adjust the amount of light entering the microscope by adjusting the condenser. 8. Carry the microscope to the bench with one hand on the arm and the other hand under the base of the microscope. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  149. 149. BLOOD BITS REVISION Name three substances transported by the blood. 1. _____________________________________ 2. _____________________________________ 3. _____________________________________ Use the following terms to complete the sentences below: plasma, haemoglobin, red blood cells, antibodies, white blood cells, platelets, oxygen (a) There are 600 ……………………. to every one ……………………. in the blood (b) The clear liquid in blood is called ………………………….. (c) The red colour of blood is caused by ……………………………… (d) White blood cells make ……………………… which destroy ‘germs’ in the blood (e) Haemoglobin carries ………………………. around the body (f) The cell fragments that make blood clots to heal wounds are called …………………………. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  150. 150. LABEL THE BLOOD VESSELS Name of vessel Word list (you may use some words more than once) Valve Vein Strong muscular layer Weak muscular layer Thin wall Outer layer Lining of vessel Artery Capillary Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  151. 151. QUESTIONS 1. Explain why capillaries have thin walls? 2. Explain why arteries have elastic fibres in their walls? 3. Explain why veins have valves? Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  152. 152. THE HEART AND CIRCULATION • The heart is labelled from the point of view of the animal from which the heart is taken so the left side of the heart is on the ............. side of the animal’s body. • The left ventricle has thicker walls because ........... • The human heart acts as a .................... • It pumps blood to the lungs where blood is ...................... • Oxygenated blood returns to the heart and from there it is pumped to the rest of the body. (............. and ....................) • Blood flows away from the heart through .................... • Blood flows back to the heart through .................... • The heart never stops pumping. It is made up of a special muscle that never fatigues called ............... .................. . Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  153. 153. AN INCREDIBLE JOURNEY http://subscription.echalk.co.uk/index.htm Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  154. 154. A MIXED BAG OF WORDS Use after teaching SLO’s 1 and 2 Match the term with its correct definition Term Definition 1. oxygen A. blood proteins that act against foreign substances in the blood 2. carbon dioxide B. the speed with which something moves or changes 3. hormones C. the rectangular sheet of glass upon which a sample is placed in preparation for it to be viewed microscopically 4. antibodies D. a colourless odourless gas produced by burning and respiration 5. circulates E. an optical instrument used for viewing very small objects 6. rate F. moves continuously around a closed circuit in the body 7. plasma G. a small thin slither of glass used to cover a sample that is being viewed under a microscope 8. platelets H. the colourless part of the blood 9. cells I. disc - shaped fragments which have no nucleus. They are found in blood and are involved in clotting 10. microscope J. the building blocks of living things 11. cover slip K. a colourless odourless gas that is essential for life 12. slide L. substances that stimulate cells into action Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  155. 155. BLOOD BITS Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  156. 156. THE BIG HEART CROSSWORD CHALLENGE Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  157. 157. CLUES Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  158. 158. ANSWERS Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  159. 159. HEART PARTS 1. The heart is a hollow ball of muscle which sits to the left side of the chest _____________. 2. The heart is connected to the lungs by the ____________ arteries and veins. 3. Arteries carry blood ______ from the heart and veins carry blood back to the heart. 4. The pulmonary arteries supply the ________ with blood and the pulmonary veins return blood from the ________ to the heart. 5. The heart has ________ chambers. 6. These are the left and right _________ and the left and right ___________. 7. The left and right sides of the heart are separated by a thick muscular wall. 8. _________ separate each atrium from each ventricle and ensure that blood flows in the right direction as it flows through the heart. 9. Blood flow is powered by the ____________ of the atria and ventricles. 10. Atria contract to force blood into the __________. Valves close to prevent blood flowing ________ ______ ___ _________. 11. The left ventricle consists of muscular walls that are ___________ than the right ventricle because _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  160. 160. EXERCISES Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  161. 161. Hwk 1 Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  162. 162. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  163. 163. Hwk 2 Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  164. 164. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  165. 165. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  166. 166. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  167. 167. OTHER STUFF Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  168. 168. THE HEART OF THE MATTER H/O: “How the heart pumps blood” 1. Research the following questions. 2. Answer them as full sentences on a sheet of A4 3. Hand your work in for marking Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  169. 169. QUESTIONS (a) What is cholesterol, LDL and HDL? (b) Describe what is meant by heredity? (c) Explain how smoking makes it difficult for the heart to get enough oxygen? (d) Explain how hypertension increases the workload on the heart. (e) Discuss the difference between a major risk factor and a contributing risk factor. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  170. 170. QUESTIONS Answer the following questions as full sentences. 1. Explain in words how the breathing tubes branch. (Hint: start from the trachea) 2. The trachea has rings of cartilage as part of its structure. Explain the function of these rings of cartilage. (Hint: think of a vacuum cleaner tube) 3. Alveoli have a large, moist surface area. Explain why this is necessary. (Hint: use the words “sticking” and “diffuses”) Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  171. 171. CRITERIA EVIDENCE Judgement √ or x Names the part of the can affect all large and medium-sized arteries, including the Need 2 A circulatory system that is coronary, carotid, and cerebral arteries, the aorta, its branches, out of 3 and major arteries of the extremities affected A grades States how this is affected Atherosclerosis is patchy intimal plaques (atheromas) in A medium-sized and large arteries; the plaques contain lipids, inflammatory cells, smooth muscle cells, and connective tissue. Describes the cause of the Causal/Risk factors include dyslipidemia, diabetes, cigarette A disease smoking, family history, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and hypertension. Describes symptoms Symptoms develop when growth or rupture of the plaque Must M reduces or obstructs blood flow; symptoms vary by artery have affected. (angina if coronary arteries affected) Discusses how the disease Reduction of Causal/Risk factors: ie. correction of Must M might be prevented dyslipidemia with sensible diet low in saturated fats and high in have polyunsaturated fatty acids, controlling diabetes, stop cigarette smoking, exercise, eating moderately, and controlling hypertension. Work is in the students own Must E words have There is at least one picture Need 2 A or diagram out of 3 A grades A bibliography is included A The work is well presented A Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  172. 172. Teacher resource READING ABOUT ATHEROSCLEROSIS Atherosclerosis is patchy intimal plaques (atheromas) in medium-sized and large arteries; the plaques contain lipids, inflammatory cells, smooth muscle cells, and connective tissue. Risk factors include dyslipidemia, diabetes, cigarette smoking, family history, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and hypertension. Symptoms develop when growth or rupture of the plaque reduces or obstructs blood flow; symptoms vary by artery affected. Diagnosis is clinical and confirmed by angiography, ultrasonography, or other imaging tests. Treatment includes risk factor and dietary modification, physical activity, antiplatelet drugs, and antiatherogenic drugs. Atherosclerosis can affect all large and medium-sized arteries, including the coronary, carotid, and cerebral arteries, the aorta, its branches, and major arteries of the extremities. It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and in most developed countries. In recent years, age- related mortality attributable to atherosclerosis has been decreasing, but in 2005, cardiovascular disease, primarily coronary and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis still caused almost 870,000 deaths in the US (more than cancer and almost 9 times more than injuries). Atherosclerosis is rapidly increasing in prevalence in developing countries, and as people in developed countries live longer, incidence will increase. By 2020, atherosclerosis is expected to be the leading cause of death worldwide. Tuesday, 27 April 2010
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  174. 174. DEVELOP INTO A CLOSE EXERCISE Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  175. 175. DEVELOP INTO A CLOSE EXERCISE Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  176. 176. DEVELOP INTO A CLOSE EXERCISE Tuesday, 27 April 2010
  177. 177. DEVELOP INTO Red Blood cells are made A CLOSE inside bones ( the bone marrow). EXERCISE Tuesday, 27 April 2010

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