ATOMIC STRUCTURE
1. Relate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom (including
   isotopes) or a monatomic...
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Term            Definition   GLOSSARY 1
crystal
lattice
melting
boiling




Thursday, 22 April 2010
Term            Definition   GLOSSARY 1
atom
element
proton
electron
neutron
neutral
atomic number
mass number
group
row
v...
Term            Definition              GLOSSARY 1 - MATCH UP
A. geology                1. natural substances with a defin...
Term            Definition   GLOSSARY 2
Lewis structure
lone pair
single bond
double bond
triple bond
anion
cation



grou...
REVISION

Thursday, 22 April 2010
BASICS

Thursday, 22 April 2010
Elements                                 THE BASICS                            Complete:

 Elements are like the letters o...
Element names

         H                                           Na

        He                                        ...
ELECTRON
ARRANGEMENTS

Thursday, 22 April 2010
THE PERIODIC TABLE


Hydrogen - not a metal
but here because of its
electron arrangement

   1       2                    ...
ORGANISATION OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

Atomic number
Atomic numbers are the smaller of the two numbers associated with
each e...
Thursday, 22 April 2010
MASS NUMBERS & ATOMIC NUMBERS

An element in the periodic table is described like this:
                          The mass...
An exercise done as a class:

   4
       He         This shows how Helium appears in the periodic table
   2
    Helium

...
Individual Exercise                 TRY THIS!

                                               number of
    Symbol of elem...
ELECTRON ARRANGEMENTS

 Electrons in the electron cloud are not arranged randomly around the nucleus.

 • Those close to t...
CONFIGURE THIS!

Use your knowledge of electron
arrangement to complete the
table below. The electron                     ...
SHELL DIAGRAMS

    Electrons fill up an atoms shell in order, first they fill up the
    inner shell (first electron shel...
Individual Exercise                        A DIFFERENT WAY OF SHOWING IT!                       Key: p = proton
          ...
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
ATOMS
       TO IONS
Thursday, 22 April 2010
ATOMS TO IONS
An ion is an atom that has lost or gained electrons
“Ions are more stable than atoms. IONS HAVE AN OUTER SHE...
IRONING OUT THE IONS
       “Metal atoms lose electrons. Non-metal atoms gain electrons.
       No more than 3 electrons c...
FORMULAE FOR SIMPLE IONS
Background
A chemical formula shows how atoms or ions are joined to make compounds. (A
compound c...
GETTING TO KNOW THE “-IDES” AND “-ATES”

                                                                        “-ates” e...
ION FORMATION AND THE PERIODIC TABLE


   1       2                     Groups of the periodic table            3    4   5...
INTRODUCTION


Thursday, 22 April 2010
HISTORY of the atom

                          See “Nigel’s” ppt on the shared drive




Thursday, 22 April 2010
VIDEO
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
NOTES
Thursday, 22 April 2010
MATTER         Nature & State




Thursday, 22 April 2010
PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES BOB: Unscramble

             Appearance &        Particles       Energy          ...
http://
                          PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES          www.harcourtschool.com/
               ...
CHANGES OF STATE




Thursday, 22 April 2010
ATOMS, ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS & MIXTURES



    P
    U
    R
    E


                 Element                  Element      ...
Interactive                                                                          Complete the mind map

              ...
Copy                             ATOMS, ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS & MIXTURES

   • An atom is a particle that cannot be made sma...
SEPARATING
        MIXTURES

Thursday, 22 April 2010
SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST            (out of 8)

                   Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete ...
SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST            (out of 8)

                   Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete ...
SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST            (out of 8)

                   Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete ...
SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST            (out of 8)

                   Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete ...
SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST            (out of 8)

                   Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete ...
SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST            (out of 8)

                   Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete ...
SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST            (out of 8)

                   Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete ...
SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST            (out of 8)

                   Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete ...
SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST        (out of 8)

                   Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the ...
SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST        (out of 8)

                   Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the ...
SEPARATING MIXTURES
                          SOLUTIONS VIDEO




Thursday, 22 April 2010
Solutions                                 SEPARATING MIXTURES
                          http://phet.colorado.edu/new/simul...
SEPARATING MIXTURES

   • Separation techniques based on the differences in the physical properties of the
     substances...
ISOTOPES &
 ATOMIC MASS

Thursday, 22 April 2010
ATOMIC THEORY
            History
            1803 - Dalton’s model: “Atoms are indestructible spheres”
            1911 -...
ISOTOPES




                          16         17       18


              O                  O        O
              ...
ISOTOPES

                          Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
Example
Below are the sy...
ATOMIC MASS
           An isotope has a mass number.
           An element that consists of different isotopes will have a...
ATOMIC MASS
           An isotope has a mass number.
           An element that consists of different isotopes will have a...
ATOMIC MASS
           An isotope has a mass number.
           An element that consists of different isotopes will have a...
ATOMIC MASS
           An isotope has a mass number.
           An element that consists of different isotopes will have a...
ATOMIC MASS
           An isotope has a mass number.
           An element that consists of different isotopes will have a...
ATOMIC MASS
           An isotope has a mass number.
           An element that consists of different isotopes will have a...
ESA p41 Boron is unshaded because it does not covalently bond with itself??




     LEWIS
  STRUCTURES
Thursday, 22 April...
ELECTRON CONFIGURATION

• Electrons around the nucleus of the atom have different levels of energy:
• High energy electron...
ATOM MODELS

             Models are used to explain things that we can’t see and/or understand.



Showing only the outer...
“CAN YOU SEE THE PATTERN?”




                          Metal
          Key
                          Borderline but more...
COVALENT BONDING

            Covalent bonds are formed between non-metal atoms. The bond is
            based on the mutu...
LEWIS STRUCTURES

             The chlorine molecule drawn (above) is an example of a Lewis structure


  Other Lewis stru...
DOUBLE BONDS

              Sometimes, in order to obey the octet rule, two atoms will need to share
              two pai...
TRIPLE BONDS

                When three pairs of electrons are shared, a triple bond is formed.


 Example
 Propyne, C3H4...
IONIC
                          SOLIDS
Thursday, 22 April 2010
IONIC SOLIDS




Thursday, 22 April 2010
IONIC BONDING

                   Ionic bonds are formed between metal and non-metal ions.
                   The bond is ...
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
This is Ann Ion.




Thursday, 22 April 2010
This is Ann Ion.
                 She’s unhappy and
                      negative.



Thursday, 22 April 2010
+   +




                    This is Ann Ion.
                 She’s unhappy and
                      negative.



Thurs...
+     +




                    This is Ann Ion.   This is a cat-ion.
                 She’s unhappy and
                 ...
+     +




                    This is Ann Ion.   This is a cat-ion.
                 She’s unhappy and     He’s a “pluss...
PERIODIC
                   TRENDS
Thursday, 22 April 2010
THE PERIODIC TABLE

                                                     (numbers given to columns)




                  ...
REACTIVITY OF METALS

The reactivity of a metal is a measure of the metal’s ability to participate in a
chemical reaction....
REACTIVITY OF NON-METALS

      The reactivity trends of non-metals can be explained by the ease with which
      they can...
PHYSICAL
    PROPERTIES
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Ionic vs covalent                      FORMULAE                      Comparing & contrasting



   Examples: Sodium Chlori...
Ionic vs covalent      PHYSICAL PROPERTIES          Comparing & contrasting


            Properties      Sodium Chloride ...
PHET animation showing solubility




Thursday, 22 April 2010
Ionic vs covalent   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE                Comparing &
                                         ...
ESA
EXERCISES
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
OTHER
Thursday, 22 April 2010
5. IDENTIFY COMPOUNDS
 Term                     Definition                     Example


 Elements                 have on...
The following table is not correct UN-MIXING THE TABLE
Copy the following table but match the term with its correct diagra...
Demo                        MAKING A COMPOUND

            Iron heated with sulphur



                                   ...
MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    1                                              2
                              Magnet

          ...
Drawing                                 A CLOSER LOOK




    P
    U
    R
    E


                 Element              ...
MIND MAP

                                                        All substances



                          ...............
6. EXPLAIN HOW MANY ATOMS ARE PRESENT IN THE
   FORMULA OF A COMPOUND
Study the pictures below and copy and complete the s...
Process for counting up atoms
1. Start inside the bracket.
2. Add up the numbers behind each symbol. No number counts as o...
COUNTING ATOMS     Count the atoms in the
                                                    following formulae:




    ...
EX
O ER
 R   CI
   HW S
     K  ES
Thursday, 22 April 2010
ELEMENTARY CROSSWORD




Thursday, 22 April 2010
PUT THOSE ELECTRONS IN THEIR PLACES
1. COMPLETE THE TABLE (BELOW)                2. Draw shell diagrams for the following ...
COMPOUND FRACTURE
For each of the following descriptions , write the word “mixture” or “compound” to
describe which catego...
Complete the table:


        Chemical formula   Total number of atoms in each formula




Thursday, 22 April 2010
ELEMENT CUBES Each side of the cube:
                                                                     1. Name & symbol...
Name these scientists:
1. The Greek philosopher who first thought of the idea of atoms _________________
2. The English cl...
ST
            AR
                          TE
                             R   S
Thursday, 22 April 2010
READING  SEPARATION OF MIXTURES




Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Thursday, 22 April 2010
EXERCISES           SEPARATION OF MIXTURES




Thursday, 22 April 2010
SEPARATING MIXTURES


A solution is made by mixing a solid and a liquid.
Initially:

Particles in the solid are __________...
SEPARATING MIXTURES


A suspension is __________ from a solution because the solid particles in the
suspension are _______...
SEPARATING MIXTURES



                Term                                   Definition


   A. solution              1. ...
SEPARATING MIXTURES


 Word                                      Meaning

 Dilute

 Concentrated

 Solubility

 Saturated
...
SEPARATING MIXTURES                               Lab 8

Filtration and decanting are used to make
milk glue




 Decantin...
SEPARATING MIXTURES

• Evaporation occurs when a ______ changes into a ____.               Word List
• Evaporation is a go...
SEPARATING MIXTURES


                                                                          Word List
Solution        ...
SEPARATING MIXTURES


             Mixture                                 Method of separation

                         ...
CHEMICAL BINGO
  From your periodic table of elements, choose any 14 symbols from the first 20 and fit them
  into the uns...
QUICK QUESTIONS

1. What is the name of the particle that cannot easily be made smaller?

2. Name 2 objects in the room th...
THE TE PUKE KID

The Te Puke kid mounted his trusty steed, old (Au) ________. He strapped
his shooting (Fe) __________ to ...
QUICK TEST - 1         Name _________________

1. What is the name of the particle that cannot easily be made smaller?
___...
QUICK QUESTIONS

 Test yourself by copying and answering the FIRST FIVE QUESTIONS into the back
 of your book
  1. Explain...
THE LANGUAGE OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

The atomic number
The atomic number of an atom is the number of ..................
in ...
TE
                   M   AC
                    AT H
                       ER  ER
                          IA
         ...
Material World (level 5)
• Properties of Materials MW props: Investigate the physical and chemical properties of different...
BC HISTORY OF THE ATOM                                As you watch the video (22 min) complete the
                       ...
0
AD



500




1000




1500
    1641 Pierre Gassandi - “Atoms exist but they are God’s building blocks
    1661 Boyle & ...
Thursday, 22 April 2010
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Atomic Structure

3,047

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,047
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Atomic Structure"

  1. 1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1. Relate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom (including isotopes) or a monatomic ion, to the atomic number, mass number and charge. 2. State the electron arrangement of atoms and/or ions of the first 20 elements in the Periodic Table. 3. Relate the charge on monatomic ions to the position of the element on the Periodic Table. 4. State the electron arrangement of atoms and/or ions of the first 20 elements in the Periodic Table. 5. Relate the charge on monatomic ions to the position of the element in the Periodic Table 6. Draw Lewis diagrams of : • atoms selected from the first 20 elements • molecules including those with single bonds, e.g. H2O, CH4, H2, Cl2 & PCl3 and those with multiple bonds Thursday, 22 April 2010
  2. 2. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  3. 3. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  4. 4. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  5. 5. Term Definition GLOSSARY 1 crystal lattice melting boiling Thursday, 22 April 2010
  6. 6. Term Definition GLOSSARY 1 atom element proton electron neutron neutral atomic number mass number group row valence relative isotope octet rule duet rule valence molecule Thursday, 22 April 2010
  7. 7. Term Definition GLOSSARY 1 - MATCH UP A. geology 1. natural substances with a definite composition and structure B. rock 2. formation of crystals from molten rock or solution C. minerals 3. describes solids which do not have a crystalline structure D. elements 4. solid substances showing definite geometrical shapes 5. mass of an object compared to the mass of the same volume E. compounds of water F. crystals 6. substances made of identical atoms G. solidify 7. the degree of shine on the surface of a solid H. crystallise 8. light does not pass through I. amorphous 9. changing from a molten to as solid state J. lustre 10. study of the Earth’s structure and its rocks K. relative 11. used to describe an object which will affect a nearby density compass needle L. magnetic 12. made out of crystals M. crystalline 13. light passes through but not clearly N. transparent 14. substances made of non-identical atoms bonded together O. translucent 15. light passes through clearly P. opaque 16. solid, non-living material that forms the earth’s crust Thursday, 22 April 2010
  8. 8. Term Definition GLOSSARY 2 Lewis structure lone pair single bond double bond triple bond anion cation group period reactivity solubility electric current Thursday, 22 April 2010
  9. 9. REVISION Thursday, 22 April 2010
  10. 10. BASICS Thursday, 22 April 2010
  11. 11. Elements THE BASICS Complete: Elements are like the letters of the alphabet. There are 26 letters and these can be joined together in different ways to make up to 750 000 different words. Letters cannot be split into anything simpler. • Elements are substances that contain particles called . • An element consists of only one type of atom only. • Atoms cannot be easily into anything . • There are 90 different elements and these can be . to make all the other in the world Atoms Part of Where Electrical atom found Charge Proton + + Neutron Proton Electron Word list: substances, atoms, simpler, split, joined, proton, electron, empty space, negative, positive, neutral, neutron, in the “History of the atom” nucleus, outside the nucleus. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  12. 12. Element names H Na He Mg Li Al Be Si B P C S N Cl O Ar F K Ne Ca An easy way to remember the first 20 elements Flashcards (in exercises) Harry He Likes Beer By Cupfuls Not Over Flowing Never Natter Magic Although Science Possesses Some Clues Arthur Kicks Cats “Element Bingo” (in starters) Thursday, 22 April 2010
  13. 13. ELECTRON ARRANGEMENTS Thursday, 22 April 2010
  14. 14. THE PERIODIC TABLE Hydrogen - not a metal but here because of its electron arrangement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Non-metals Less reactive More reactive metals Inert gases metals Thursday, 22 April 2010
  15. 15. ORGANISATION OF THE PERIODIC TABLE Atomic number Atomic numbers are the smaller of the two numbers associated with each element. Atomic numbers increase by one from left to right of the table Rows The atoms get larger in size from left to right across a row as their mass increases Columns The atoms get larger in size and increase in mass from top to bottom of a column. Elements in a column have similar properties. Columns are often called groups. Groups start at 1 (at the left) and finish with group 8 (at the right of the table) Thursday, 22 April 2010
  16. 16. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  17. 17. MASS NUMBERS & ATOMIC NUMBERS An element in the periodic table is described like this: The mass number is 19. 19 The number of protons plus neutrons =19 9 F Fluorine The atomic number is 9. There are 9 protons in the nucleus and 9 electrons around it In this example: The 19 particles in the nucleus are protons or neutrons I’m lost! 9 of these particles are protons therefore there are 10 neutrons in the nucleus Summary For an atom: • The atomic number gives the number of protons • The atomic number is also gives the number of electrons • The mass number is the number of protons plus neutrons • neutron number = mass number - atomic number Thursday, 22 April 2010
  18. 18. An exercise done as a class: 4 He This shows how Helium appears in the periodic table 2 Helium This means: The atomic number is ___. so there are: 2 protons in the nucleus and 2 electrons surrounding it The mass number is ____. so the number of protons plus neutrons =4 Therefore the number of neutrons must be ___ ( = __ - __) number of Symbol of element number of protons number of neutrons electrons 11 B 5 16 O 8 28 Si 14 35 Cl 20 31 P 15 Thursday, 22 April 2010
  19. 19. Individual Exercise TRY THIS! number of Symbol of element number of protons number of neutrons electrons 9 Be 4 21 Ne 10 27 Al 13 39 K 20 15P 16 42 Ca 20 12 C 6 7 Li 3 23 Na 11 24 Mg 12 14 N 7 16S 16 Thursday, 22 April 2010
  20. 20. ELECTRON ARRANGEMENTS Electrons in the electron cloud are not arranged randomly around the nucleus. • Those close to the nucleus have low energy • Those far away from the nucleus have high energy Electrons are arranged in energy levels For the 1st 20 elements there are 4 energy levels: Level 1 can hold a maximum of 2 electrons Level 2 “ “ “ “ “ 8 electrons Level 3 “ “ “ “ “ 8 electrons Level 4 “ “ “ “ “ 2 electrons Example 1 20 protons in the nucleus 20 (the atomic number) Ca => 20 electrons around the 40 nucleus 2.8.8.2 Electron arrangement: “ 2 in the 1st shell, 8 in the 2nd shell, ....... Thursday, 22 April 2010
  21. 21. CONFIGURE THIS! Use your knowledge of electron arrangement to complete the table below. The electron 1 arrangements are shown below H 1 the element names Hydrogen 1 4 2 He Helium 2 7 9 11 12 14 16 19 20 3 Li 4 Be 5 B 6 C 7 N 8 O 9 F 10 Ne Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 23 24 27 28 31 32 37 40 11 Na 12 Mg 13 Al 14 Si P S Cl Ar Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine Argon 2.8.1 39 40 K Ca Potassium Calcium Thursday, 22 April 2010
  22. 22. SHELL DIAGRAMS Electrons fill up an atoms shell in order, first they fill up the inner shell (first electron shell) then the next shell and so on An exercise done as a class: Process: 40 x 1. Use your periodic table to find the atomic Ca x x x x x x number. x x Calcium x x x 2. The atomic number will tell you how x x x many electrons there are x x x x x Ca 3. Fill the electrons according to the rule: Level 1 can hold a maximum of 2 electrons Example 2 - Silicon Level 2 “ “ “ “ “ 8 electrons Level 3 “ “ “ “ “ 8 electrons 14 28 Level 4 “ “ “ “ “ 2 electrons Si 28 4. Start filling the levels from level 1. 2.8.4 5. When level 1 is full start filling level 2. When Si level 2 is full start filling level 3 and so on. 6. Stop filling the levels when you have used all the electrons that the atom has. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  23. 23. Individual Exercise A DIFFERENT WAY OF SHOWING IT! Key: p = proton n = neutron Example: Fluorine, 9 19F has 9p, 10n, 9e e = electron e e For each of the following atoms draw the electron shell diagram. Show the nucleus as a solid circle. n p e e e n p p n p n n p A second example n p p p n n n e n p 1. 13 27Al x 2. 11 23Na x e x x x x x x x e x x x e x 3. 14 28Si 4. 15 31P 5. 16 32S Homework (in science books): (i) Be (ii) F (iii) Ne (iv) Ar Thursday, 22 April 2010
  24. 24. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  25. 25. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  26. 26. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  27. 27. ATOMS TO IONS Thursday, 22 April 2010
  28. 28. ATOMS TO IONS An ion is an atom that has lost or gained electrons “Ions are more stable than atoms. IONS HAVE AN OUTER SHELL THAT IS FULL... Using this knowledge it is possible to work out the arrangement of electrons in ions.” Sodium atom --> Sodium ion 1 electron E x x x x x lost x X x x x x x x x x A x x x x x x x 1+ charge M Na Na+ P Chlorine atom --> Chloride ion 1 electron L x x x x x x x x x gained x x x x x E x x x x x x x x x x x S x x x x x x x x x x Cl Cl- 1- charge Thursday, 22 April 2010
  29. 29. IRONING OUT THE IONS “Metal atoms lose electrons. Non-metal atoms gain electrons. No more than 3 electrons can be lost or gained” Copy & complete the following table showing the electron arrangements of the atoms and their ions: Metal atom Metal ion Non-metal atom Non-metal ion C: 2, 4 no ion formed Cl: 2, 8, 7 Cl-: 2, 8, 8 Mg: 2, 8, 2 Mg2+: 2, 8 N: 2, 5 N3-: 2, 8 Li: 2, 1 Li+: 2 Ar: 2, 8, 8 No ion formed Be O Ca S Al F Na P Draw small Beryllium Sulphide Aluminium shell diagrams for the following ions Thursday, 22 April 2010
  30. 30. FORMULAE FOR SIMPLE IONS Background A chemical formula shows how atoms or ions are joined to make compounds. (A compound consists of two or more different atoms that are joined chemically). An ionic compound is formed when positive and negative ions are attracted to each other. Some ions comprise groups of atoms that have gained or lost electrons. These groups are the “-ides” or “-ates”. A table of common ions is shown below: +1 +2 +3 _,, -1 H* Mg2* Al3+ c1- gz- hydrogen magnesium aluminium chloride oxide Li* Ca2* Fe3* oH- COr'- lithium calcium iron(III) hydroxide carbonate Na+ Fe2* No,* Soo'- sodium iron(II) nitrate sulfate K+ Cu2* HCO3- PO43- potasslum copper(II) hydrogen carbonate Phosphate Zn2* zinc Pb2+ lead Thursday, 22 April 2010
  31. 31. GETTING TO KNOW THE “-IDES” AND “-ATES” “-ates” end in O4 and O3 An exercise done as a class: the rest are “-ides” + ion - ion Formula + ion - ron Formula Znzr N3- ZneNz Ca2* NOs- Ca(NOs)z Pb2* Br PbBrz Fe3* SO+2- Fe2(S04)3 I Ag* s2- Li* COs2- LizCOs ) Fe3* cl- 6 Ag* PO+3- 3 Na* 02- 7 NH+* SO+2- K+ t- KI 8 Pbz* COs2- Cu2* SO+2- CuSOa 9 Al3* oH- 4 Mgz+ COs2- 10 Cu2* s2- 5 Zn2* 02- 11 (+ HCOg- On the table (above): 1. Circle the “-ates” using a red pen 2. Circle the “-ides” using a blue pen 3. and name them Exercises: “-ide or -ate” Thursday, 22 April 2010
  32. 32. ION FORMATION AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 1 2 Groups of the periodic table 3 4 5 6 7 8 1+ 2+ Charge on ions formed by atoms in each group 3+ 3- 2- 1- Do not form ions Thursday, 22 April 2010
  33. 33. INTRODUCTION Thursday, 22 April 2010
  34. 34. HISTORY of the atom See “Nigel’s” ppt on the shared drive Thursday, 22 April 2010
  35. 35. VIDEO Thursday, 22 April 2010
  36. 36. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  37. 37. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  38. 38. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  39. 39. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  40. 40. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  41. 41. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  42. 42. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  43. 43. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  44. 44. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  45. 45. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  46. 46. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  47. 47. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  48. 48. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  49. 49. NOTES Thursday, 22 April 2010
  50. 50. MATTER Nature & State Thursday, 22 April 2010
  51. 51. PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES BOB: Unscramble Appearance & Particles Energy Compressibility Melting & behaviour in a arrangement boiling container points A D. Particles are G. The very high J. high M. Moderate disordered energy of the and widely particles SOLID spaced causes random & rapid E. Particles H. The low K. very little N. High closely energy of the spaced & particles arranged in causes them LIQUID B a lattice. to vibrate This explains about fixed the positions crystalline appearance F. Particles are I. The moderate L. virtually O. Low disordered energy of the none and closely particles GAS C spaced causes them to move randomly Answers: SOLID __ __ __ __ __ LIQUID __ __ __ __ __ GAS __ __ __ __ __ Thursday, 22 April 2010
  52. 52. http:// PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES www.harcourtschool.com/ activity/states_of_matter/ Appearance & Particles Energy Compressibility Melting & behaviour in a arrangement boiling container points Particles are The low energy virtually none High closely of the particles spaced and causes them to arranged in a vibrate about SOLID fixed positions lattice. This explains the crystalline appearance Particles are The moderate very little Moderate disordered energy of the LIQUID and closely particles causes spaced them to move randomly Particles are The very high high Low disordered energy of the GAS and widely particles causes spaced random & rapid movement Thursday, 22 April 2010
  53. 53. CHANGES OF STATE Thursday, 22 April 2010
  54. 54. ATOMS, ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS & MIXTURES P U R E Element Element Compound N O T P U R E Mixture Mixture of elements of element with compound Thursday, 22 April 2010
  55. 55. Interactive Complete the mind map All substances X .............. Not pure ................... Elements ................... Element ................ with Different elements compound ................. Questions 1. Explain the difference between Co and CO __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2. Explain the difference between O2 and 2O __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Thursday, 22 April 2010
  56. 56. Copy ATOMS, ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS & MIXTURES • An atom is a particle that cannot be made smaller by simple chemical methods. • An element is a substance that contains only one type of atom. • A compound is a substance that contains two or more types of atom chemically joined together in a constant ration by mass. • A mixture contains two or more different types of particle. • A solution is a special mixture where the solid particles are spread evenly throughout a liquid medium All substances Pure Not pure Mixture Elements Compounds Element Different with Different elements compound compounds Ex 3A: 1 to 4 - Answers only Thursday, 22 April 2010
  57. 57. SEPARATING MIXTURES Thursday, 22 April 2010
  58. 58. SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST (out of 8) Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the cloze exercise: 1. Salt added to water will form a ______________. 2. Salt is an example of an _________ solid 3. The ions present in salt are ___________ and _____________ . 4. Theses ions arrange themselves into a _____________. 5. Solids with __________ structures have a _____________ appearance. This means the visible particles have __________ edges and __________ faces. Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Word list lattice sodium ionic flat chloride sharp solution crystalline Thursday, 22 April 2010
  59. 59. SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST (out of 8) Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the cloze exercise: solution 1. Salt added to water will form a ______________. 2. Salt is an example of an _________ solid 3. The ions present in salt are ___________ and _____________ . 4. Theses ions arrange themselves into a _____________. 5. Solids with __________ structures have a _____________ appearance. This means the visible particles have __________ edges and __________ faces. Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Word list lattice sodium ionic flat chloride sharp crystalline Thursday, 22 April 2010
  60. 60. SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST (out of 8) Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the cloze exercise: solution 1. Salt added to water will form a ______________. ionic 2. Salt is an example of an _________ solid 3. The ions present in salt are ___________ and _____________ . 4. Theses ions arrange themselves into a _____________. 5. Solids with __________ structures have a _____________ appearance. This means the visible particles have __________ edges and __________ faces. Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Word list lattice sodium flat chloride sharp crystalline Thursday, 22 April 2010
  61. 61. SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST (out of 8) Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the cloze exercise: solution 1. Salt added to water will form a ______________. ionic 2. Salt is an example of an _________ solid sodium 3. The ions present in salt are ___________ and _____________ . 4. Theses ions arrange themselves into a _____________. 5. Solids with __________ structures have a _____________ appearance. This means the visible particles have __________ edges and __________ faces. Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Word list lattice flat chloride sharp crystalline Thursday, 22 April 2010
  62. 62. SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST (out of 8) Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the cloze exercise: solution 1. Salt added to water will form a ______________. ionic 2. Salt is an example of an _________ solid sodium chloride 3. The ions present in salt are ___________ and _____________ . 4. Theses ions arrange themselves into a _____________. 5. Solids with __________ structures have a _____________ appearance. This means the visible particles have __________ edges and __________ faces. Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Word list lattice flat sharp crystalline Thursday, 22 April 2010
  63. 63. SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST (out of 8) Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the cloze exercise: solution 1. Salt added to water will form a ______________. ionic 2. Salt is an example of an _________ solid sodium chloride 3. The ions present in salt are ___________ and _____________ . lattice 4. Theses ions arrange themselves into a _____________. 5. Solids with __________ structures have a _____________ appearance. This means the visible particles have __________ edges and __________ faces. Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Word list flat sharp crystalline Thursday, 22 April 2010
  64. 64. SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST (out of 8) Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the cloze exercise: solution 1. Salt added to water will form a ______________. ionic 2. Salt is an example of an _________ solid sodium chloride 3. The ions present in salt are ___________ and _____________ . 4. Theses ions arrange themselves into a _____________. lattice 5. Solids with __________ structures have a _____________ appearance. This means the visible particles have __________ edges and __________ faces. Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Word list flat sharp crystalline Thursday, 22 April 2010
  65. 65. SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST (out of 8) Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the cloze exercise: solution 1. Salt added to water will form a ______________. ionic 2. Salt is an example of an _________ solid sodium chloride 3. The ions present in salt are ___________ and _____________ . 4. Theses ions arrange themselves into a _____________. lattice crystalline 5. Solids with __________ structures have a _____________ appearance. This means the visible particles have __________ edges and __________ faces. Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Word list flat sharp Thursday, 22 April 2010
  66. 66. SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST (out of 8) Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the cloze exercise: solution 1. Salt added to water will form a ______________. ionic 2. Salt is an example of an _________ solid sodium chloride 3. The ions present in salt are ___________ and _____________ . 4. Theses ions arrange themselves into a _____________. lattice crystalline 5. Solids with __________ structures have a _____________ appearance. This sharp means the visible particles have __________ edges and __________ faces. Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Word list flat Thursday, 22 April 2010
  67. 67. SOLUTIONS PRE - TEST (out of 8) Use the diagram, word list and prior knowledge to complete the cloze exercise: solution 1. Salt added to water will form a ______________. ionic 2. Salt is an example of an _________ solid sodium chloride 3. The ions present in salt are ___________ and _____________ . 4. Theses ions arrange themselves into a _____________. lattice crystalline 5. Solids with __________ structures have a _____________ appearance. This sharp flat means the visible particles have __________ edges and __________ faces. Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Word list Thursday, 22 April 2010
  68. 68. SEPARATING MIXTURES SOLUTIONS VIDEO Thursday, 22 April 2010
  69. 69. Solutions SEPARATING MIXTURES http://phet.colorado.edu/new/simulations/sims.php?sim=Salts_and_Solubility An animation showing how substances dissolve: Solvent Solute Solution Reading with exercises -> Thursday, 22 April 2010
  70. 70. SEPARATING MIXTURES • Separation techniques based on the differences in the physical properties of the substances making up the mixture. Separation Why it can be separated using this Type of mixture technique technique Decanting The particles in the mixture are different Suspension (Liquid & sizes. Small liquid and solid particles insoluble solid) pass through whilst larger solid particles Filtration do not The solvent has a lower boiling point and evaporates away. In the case of two Solution (containing a Evaporation liquids that are mixed, the liquid with the solvent & a solute or lower boiling point will evaporate away two liquids that are mixed) Based on evaporation but allows the Distillation solvent or high boiling point liquid to be kept Different solvents have different Solutions that contain solubility in the solvent used so they Chromatography travel at different speeds alont the many solutes chromatography paper Thursday, 22 April 2010
  71. 71. ISOTOPES & ATOMIC MASS Thursday, 22 April 2010
  72. 72. ATOMIC THEORY History 1803 - Dalton’s model: “Atoms are indestructible spheres” 1911 - Rutherford: An atom is mainly empty space. It has a central dense, positively charged nucleus. The nucleus is tiny compared to the overall size of the atom. 1932 - Chadwick shows that neutrons exist Atoms Electron + Neutron + Proton Part of Where Relative Electrical atom found mass Charge Proton nucleus 1 positive Neutron nucleus 1 neutral outside Electron 0.0005 negative nucleus p31 & 32 - ESA -> Ex. 4A: Q.1 to 4 - answers only Thursday, 22 April 2010
  73. 73. ISOTOPES 16 17 18 O O O 8 8 8 Thursday, 22 April 2010
  74. 74. ISOTOPES Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers. Example Below are the symbols of the common isotopes of Oxygen. Notice that the mass numbers are different 16 17 18 O O O 8 8 8 Each isotope has 8 protons 8 neutrons 9 neutrons 10 neutrons Each different isotope has different numbers of neutrons Thursday, 22 April 2010
  75. 75. ATOMIC MASS An isotope has a mass number. An element that consists of different isotopes will have an atomic mass. Ex 4B Q.1 to 3 - answers only Thursday, 22 April 2010
  76. 76. ATOMIC MASS An isotope has a mass number. An element that consists of different isotopes will have an atomic mass. The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes in that element. Ex 4B Q.1 to 3 - answers only Thursday, 22 April 2010
  77. 77. ATOMIC MASS An isotope has a mass number. An element that consists of different isotopes will have an atomic mass. The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes in that element. Example A naturally occurring sample of Copper has 3 atoms of 63 Cu to each one atom of 65 Cu: 63 Cu 63 Cu 63 Cu 65 Cu Ex 4B Q.1 to 3 - answers only Thursday, 22 April 2010
  78. 78. ATOMIC MASS An isotope has a mass number. An element that consists of different isotopes will have an atomic mass. The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes in that element. Example A naturally occurring sample of Copper has 3 atoms of 63 Cu to each one atom of 65 Cu: Atomic mass = 63 + 63 + 63 + 65 63 Cu 63 Cu 63 Cu 65 Cu 4 = 63.5 (or “3 x 63 + 65”) Ex 4B Q.1 to 3 - answers only Thursday, 22 April 2010
  79. 79. ATOMIC MASS An isotope has a mass number. An element that consists of different isotopes will have an atomic mass. The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes in that element. Example A naturally occurring sample of Copper has 3 atoms of 63 Cu to each one atom of 65 Cu: Atomic mass = 63 + 63 + 63 + 65 63 Cu 63 Cu 63 Cu 65 Cu 4 = 63.5 (or “3 x 63 + 65”) Chlorine is another element which consists of different isotopes. It has an atomic mass of 35.5 Ex 4B Q.1 to 3 - answers only Thursday, 22 April 2010
  80. 80. ATOMIC MASS An isotope has a mass number. An element that consists of different isotopes will have an atomic mass. The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes in that element. Example A naturally occurring sample of Copper has 3 atoms of 63 Cu to each one atom of 65 Cu: Atomic mass = 63 + 63 + 63 + 65 63 Cu 63 Cu 63 Cu 65 Cu 4 = 63.5 (or “3 x 63 + 65”) Chlorine is another element which consists of different isotopes. It has an atomic mass of 35.5 Most elements consist mainly of one isotope and therefore their atomic mass is close to a whole number. Ex 4B Q.1 to 3 - answers only Thursday, 22 April 2010
  81. 81. ESA p41 Boron is unshaded because it does not covalently bond with itself?? LEWIS STRUCTURES Thursday, 22 April 2010
  82. 82. ELECTRON CONFIGURATION • Electrons around the nucleus of the atom have different levels of energy: • High energy electrons move in regions which are further away from the nucleus than low energy electrons. Level 1 can hold a maximum of 2 electrons Level 2 “ “ “ “ “ 8 electrons Level 3 “ “ “ “ “ 8 electrons Level 4 “ “ “ “ “ 2 electrons • Greater stability is achieved when the outer energy level is fully occupied by electrons (usually 8) - this is the octet rule. Ion formation occurs according to this rule Example Sodium atom GREATER Sodium ion STABILITY Na Na+ 1 electron is lost Note: Inert gases are stable because the outer level is fully occupied by electrons Thursday, 22 April 2010
  83. 83. ATOM MODELS Models are used to explain things that we can’t see and/or understand. Showing only the outer electrons (valence electrons) is a useful model. Examples - “electron dot diagrams” Electron configuration is 2.5 but only the 5 valence electrons N are shown (the 7 protons and 7 neutrons are not shown in this model) Electrons are displayed as dots and shown in pairs as they are thought to occupy the same region in an energy level. Cl Thursday, 22 April 2010
  84. 84. “CAN YOU SEE THE PATTERN?” Metal Key Borderline but more non - metal Non - metal “Which atoms will bond covalently to form molecules?” Thursday, 22 April 2010
  85. 85. COVALENT BONDING Covalent bonds are formed between non-metal atoms. The bond is based on the mutual attraction of 2 different positively charged nuclei to the same pair of negatively charged electrons. Molecules are formed. Example: Chlorine, Cl2 Chlorine does not normally exist as individual atoms. Two chlorine atoms pair up to make a molecule. A pair of electrons is shared between the two atoms: Each chlorine atom 7 valence Cl + Cl Cl Cl now has 8 valence electrons electrons A lone pair of electrons A shared pair “The octet rule is nearly always obeyed except where Hydrogen is involved in a covalent bond. The outer energy level of hydrogen is fully occupied when it contains 2 electrons. Hydrogen obeys the duet rule” Thursday, 22 April 2010
  86. 86. LEWIS STRUCTURES The chlorine molecule drawn (above) is an example of a Lewis structure Other Lewis structures Water H2O O H H Hydrogen chloride HCl H Cl Note Both the octet and duet rules are both obeyed in the examples (above) The attraction between atoms is called a bond A bond can be drawn as a line: H H - Cl O O Thursday, 22 April 2010
  87. 87. DOUBLE BONDS Sometimes, in order to obey the octet rule, two atoms will need to share two pairs of electrons. This TWO shared pair of electrons forms the basis of a double bond. Examples Silicon dioxide, SiO2 contains 2 double bonds O Si O O Si O TWO pairs are shared The octet rule is satisfied for each atom Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 contains only in the molecule single bonds Cl Cl Cl C Cl Cl C Cl Cl Cl Thursday, 22 April 2010
  88. 88. TRIPLE BONDS When three pairs of electrons are shared, a triple bond is formed. Example Propyne, C3H4 H H C C C H H THREE pairs are shared Note • Two atoms joined by a double bond are closer together than two atoms joined by a single bond. The double bond is shorter and stronger but allows the molecule to be more reactive because there are more electrons concentrated there. • The same applies for a triple bond compared to a double bond. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  89. 89. IONIC SOLIDS Thursday, 22 April 2010
  90. 90. IONIC SOLIDS Thursday, 22 April 2010
  91. 91. IONIC BONDING Ionic bonds are formed between metal and non-metal ions. The bond is based on the attraction between positively and negatively charged ions. Ionic compounds are formed. Cl- Na+ Cl- “Negative ions are called anions” Na+ Cl- Na+ “Positive ions are Cl- Na+ Cl- called cations” Note • Because they are oppositely charged, Sodium and Chloride ions are attracted to each other. • This attraction extends in 3 dimensions and results in a huge cubic arrangement of ions. This arrangement is called a lattice. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  92. 92. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  93. 93. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  94. 94. This is Ann Ion. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  95. 95. This is Ann Ion. She’s unhappy and negative. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  96. 96. + + This is Ann Ion. She’s unhappy and negative. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  97. 97. + + This is Ann Ion. This is a cat-ion. She’s unhappy and negative. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  98. 98. + + This is Ann Ion. This is a cat-ion. She’s unhappy and He’s a “plussy” cat! negative. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  99. 99. PERIODIC TRENDS Thursday, 22 April 2010
  100. 100. THE PERIODIC TABLE (numbers given to columns) 3 4 (numbers given to rows) Key: show relative atomic size. Size increases across a row & decreases down a column. Note • There are columns of less reactive metals (transition elements) between groups 2 and 13 • The dotted line separates metals from non-metals Thursday, 22 April 2010
  101. 101. REACTIVITY OF METALS The reactivity of a metal is a measure of the metal’s ability to participate in a chemical reaction. Metals react when their atoms lose their valence electrons. The easier the electrons are lost, the more reactive they will be. Decreasing reactivity As we move down As we move across a the group the Li Be period (left to valence electrons get Lithium Beryllium right),the positive Increasing reactivity further from the 2.1 2.2 nucleus increases in nucleus so they charge so the become easier to attractive force on remove. Na Mg Al the valence electrons Sodium Magnesium Aluminium increases. Valence 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 electrons become Highly more difficult to reactive Ca remove. K Potassium Calcium 2.8.8.1 2.8.8.2 Thursday, 22 April 2010
  102. 102. REACTIVITY OF NON-METALS The reactivity trends of non-metals can be explained by the ease with which they can gain electrons to form ions. As we move across a period (left to right),the size of the atom decreases so the attractive force on valence electrons increases. Electrons are gained more easily. He Increasing reactivity Helium 2 Highly B C N O Ne Decreasing reactivity reactive Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen F Neon Fluorine 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Si P S Cl Ar Silicon Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine Argon 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7 2.8.8 As we move down the group the atoms increase in size as the number of energy levels increases. It becomes more difficult to gain electrons. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  103. 103. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Thursday, 22 April 2010
  104. 104. Ionic vs covalent FORMULAE Comparing & contrasting Examples: Sodium Chloride, NaCl and Carbon dioxide, CO2 O C O Cl- Na+ Cl- • a molecule - a small particle Na+ Cl- Na+ • a group of atoms joined. 2 atoms of oxygen joined to 1 atom of carbon Cl- Na+ Cl- O C O • a lattice (a huge group of positive and negative ions joined to each other in an organised The formula for an ionic compound way) has quite a different meaning to the • Sodium and chloride ions are formula for a covalently bonded present in a 1:1 ratio compound. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  105. 105. Ionic vs covalent PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Comparing & contrasting Properties Sodium Chloride Carbon dioxide White solid at room State Colourless gas temperature Melting point high low Solubility in water High low None when solid but conducts well when in Electrical conductivity None the molten state or when in solution Thursday, 22 April 2010
  106. 106. PHET animation showing solubility Thursday, 22 April 2010
  107. 107. Ionic vs covalent PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE Comparing & contrasting Ionic compounds are formed by the strong attraction between positive and negative ions. This makes it difficult to separate the ions by heating the compound so most ionic compounds are solid at room temperature. Covalently bonded compounds usually have very weak forces of attraction between molecules since each molecule is neutral. Separating the particles (molecules) is easy. Most of them are already separated at room temperature (making them solids or liquids). Note - it is possible to have molecules that are ions - dealt with later Solubility requires water molecules to surround each particle of a compound. Water molecules have a positive end and a negative end. The water molecule’s negative end will be attracted to a positive ion and its positive end to a negative ion. Because molecules are uncharged this attraction to water molecules does not take place. An electric current is the flow of charged particles. Ionic solids contain charges that can be free to move and so can conduct electricity. Covalently bonded compounds can not because they consist of molecules that are neutral. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  108. 108. ESA EXERCISES Thursday, 22 April 2010
  109. 109. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  110. 110. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  111. 111. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  112. 112. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  113. 113. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  114. 114. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  115. 115. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  116. 116. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  117. 117. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  118. 118. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  119. 119. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  120. 120. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  121. 121. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  122. 122. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  123. 123. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  124. 124. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  125. 125. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  126. 126. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  127. 127. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  128. 128. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  129. 129. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  130. 130. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  131. 131. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  132. 132. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  133. 133. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  134. 134. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  135. 135. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  136. 136. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  137. 137. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  138. 138. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  139. 139. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  140. 140. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  141. 141. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  142. 142. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  143. 143. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  144. 144. OTHER Thursday, 22 April 2010
  145. 145. 5. IDENTIFY COMPOUNDS Term Definition Example Elements have only one kind of atom. have two or more types of Compounds atom that are chemically joined have elements and/or “Remember Mixtures compounds that are not this!!!” chemically joined Elements can exist as molecules. Molecules are groups of atoms that are joined Examples Oxygen, O2 Hydrogen, H2 Helium, He Chlorine, Cl2 Carbon, C Elements Water, H2O Hydrogen Chloride, HCl Carbon Dioxide, CO2 Compounds Thursday, 22 April 2010
  146. 146. The following table is not correct UN-MIXING THE TABLE Copy the following table but match the term with its correct diagram A. mixture of 1. (i) Hydrogen and different elements Oxygen B. mixture of 2. (ii) Water and different compounds Hydrogen Chloride 3. C. mixture of an (iii) Oxygen and element with a compound water The following word equations describe Answers _____ ______ ______ chemical reactions. CIRCLE THE _____ ______ ______ COMPOUNDS _____ ______ ______ A chemical reaction is a non-reversible change in which new substances are formed. (a) Aluminium + Iodine ----> Aluminium Iodide (b) Sulfur + Oxygen ------> Sulfur Dioxide Thursday, 22 April 2010
  147. 147. Demo MAKING A COMPOUND Iron heated with sulphur test-tube mixture of powdered sulphur and iron Bunsen burner (blue flame) Appearance of the elements before heating: Iron _______________________________________________________ Sulphur _______________________________________________________ Appearance of the compound formed after heating: ______________________________________________________________ Name of compound formed: _______________ Thursday, 22 April 2010
  148. 148. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES 1 2 Magnet Sulphur Iron filings 3 Observations: ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Iron Sulphide (the product) ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Thursday, 22 April 2010
  149. 149. Drawing A CLOSER LOOK P U R E Element Element Compound N O T P U R E Mixture Mixture of elements of element with compound Thursday, 22 April 2010
  150. 150. MIND MAP All substances .............. Not pure ................... Elements ................... Element ................ with Different elements compound ................. Questions 1. Explain the difference between Co and CO __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2. Explain the difference between O2 and 2O __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Thursday, 22 April 2010
  151. 151. 6. EXPLAIN HOW MANY ATOMS ARE PRESENT IN THE FORMULA OF A COMPOUND Study the pictures below and copy and complete the sentences below: Oxygen, O2 Oxygen is an element, it consists of two oxygen atoms that are chemically joined. Hydrogen Chloride, HCl Hydrogen Chloride is a compound. It exists as molecules. The molecules are not joined to each other and move around randomly. Each molecule consists of one atom of hydrogen and one atom of Chlorine. Water, H2O Water is a compound. It exists as molecules. The molecules are not joined to each other and move around randomly. Each molecule consists of one atom of oxygen and two atoms of Hydrogen. Each molecule is shaped like a “V”. This information can be summarised in a table. Complete the table (below): Name of the molecule Is it a compound Number of atoms Thursday, 22 April 2010
  152. 152. Process for counting up atoms 1. Start inside the bracket. 2. Add up the numbers behind each symbol. No number counts as one atom. 3. Multiply this number by the number behind the bracket. 4. Add this to any other atoms in the formula. 5. Then multiply this total by the number in front of the formula. 1 EXAMPLE 2 Cu(OH)3 2 3 1 O and 1 H 4 x3 = 6 = 2 Atoms = 7 5 1 Cu = 14 x2 OTHER EXAMPLES How many atoms of each element are there in each of the following compounds: KCl _____ KNO3 _____ Ca(OH)2 _____ AlPO4 _____ CuCO3 _____ CuSO4 _____ 2 Al2(SO4)3 _____ FeCl3 _____ Zn(NO3)2 _____ PbI2 _____ 3HNO3 _____ Na2CO3 _____ Thursday, 22 April 2010
  153. 153. COUNTING ATOMS Count the atoms in the following formulae: INSERT ANOTHER EXERCISE/PUZZLE Thursday, 22 April 2010
  154. 154. EX O ER R CI HW S K ES Thursday, 22 April 2010
  155. 155. ELEMENTARY CROSSWORD Thursday, 22 April 2010
  156. 156. PUT THOSE ELECTRONS IN THEIR PLACES 1. COMPLETE THE TABLE (BELOW) 2. Draw shell diagrams for the following atoms: (i) Be (ii) F (iii) Ne (iv) Ar Use the Metal atom Non-metal atom Use the spaces spaces providedprovided C: 2, 4 Cl: 2, 8, 7 (i) Be (ii)F Mg: 2, 8, 2 N: 2, 5 Li: 2, 1 Ar: 2, 8, 8 Be: O: Ca: S: Al: F: Na: P: Si: B: (iii) Ne (iv) Ar Thursday, 22 April 2010
  157. 157. COMPOUND FRACTURE For each of the following descriptions , write the word “mixture” or “compound” to describe which category it fits into: • Properties depend on the amount of each particle present ________________ • Consist of one type of particle only ________________ • Have a variable collection of elements ________________ • Have a fixed ratio of different elements ________________ • Consist of several different types of particle ________________ • Properties are always the same ________________ Each of the following is a compound made up of two elements combined. Starting at sodium chloride, connect it to another compound that contains one of its elements. Do the same for the second compound until you connect to lead sulfate. Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminium Chloride Sulfide Oxide Bromide Magnesium Sodium Potassium Iodide Fluoride Oxide Calcium Potassium Aluminium Lead Sulfide Bromide fluoride Iodide Thursday, 22 April 2010
  158. 158. Complete the table: Chemical formula Total number of atoms in each formula Thursday, 22 April 2010
  159. 159. ELEMENT CUBES Each side of the cube: 1. Name & symbol of Each student allocated a different element. Put into letter box. Reallocate. element Research -> element cube (book computers, 2. Uses of the element finish for Hwk) 3. Classification (metal/non-metal) 4. Physical properties (colour, s/l/g) 5. History - discovery 6. Extraction 138 Thursday, 22 April 2010
  160. 160. Name these scientists: 1. The Greek philosopher who first thought of the idea of atoms _________________ 2. The English clergyman who thought atoms were like tiny billiard balls of different sizes. ______________________________________ 3. The English physicist who discovered the electron. ___________________ 4. The New Zealander who discovered that the atoms have a nucleus surrounded by electrons. ______________________________________ 5. The English physicist who found that the atomic number is the same as the number of protons _____________________________________ 6. The English physicist the proof of existence of neutrons ______________________ Thursday, 22 April 2010
  161. 161. ST AR TE R S Thursday, 22 April 2010
  162. 162. READING SEPARATION OF MIXTURES Thursday, 22 April 2010
  163. 163. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  164. 164. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  165. 165. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  166. 166. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  167. 167. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  168. 168. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  169. 169. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  170. 170. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  171. 171. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  172. 172. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  173. 173. EXERCISES SEPARATION OF MIXTURES Thursday, 22 April 2010
  174. 174. SEPARATING MIXTURES A solution is made by mixing a solid and a liquid. Initially: Particles in the solid are ___________ around fixed positions with the liquid particles moving about _____________ . After a while: _____________ forces between liquid particles and solid particles allow the liquid particles to pull the solid particles away from their fixed positions to __________ amongst the liquid ones. The solid particles in a solution are very s _ _ _ _ . A solution is a mixture of a solid in a liquid where the solid particles are very small and are evenly spread amongst the liquid particles. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  175. 175. SEPARATING MIXTURES A suspension is __________ from a solution because the solid particles in the suspension are ________ and _________ to the bottom. Because the solid particles are ________ it is not possible to _______ through a suspension. Word List: settle, different, bigger, see Examples of suspensions in everyday life Animation: (Filtration) http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/ elements_com_mix_8.shtml Thursday, 22 April 2010
  176. 176. SEPARATING MIXTURES Term Definition A. solution 1. the substance that does the dissolving B. solute 2. the substance that dissolves 3. a mixture of a solid with a liquid where the solid particles do not spread evenly through the liquid but instead sink to C. solvent the bottom. 4. a special mixture that looks and behaves like a single D. suspension substance A _____ B _____ C _____ D _____ Thursday, 22 April 2010
  177. 177. SEPARATING MIXTURES Word Meaning Dilute Concentrated Solubility Saturated 1. When sugar is mixed with water it ____________ . This shows the sugar is ____________ in water. 2. Sand is ______________ in water. 3. Salty water is a _____________, bud muddy water is not. 4. In salt water, the salt is the ____________, and the water is the ____________ . 5. The solute in a solution does not settle out, but the solid in a _______________ does. 6. A solution that can dissolve no more solute is ____________ . 7. Most solids are more ___________ in hot water than in __________ water. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  178. 178. SEPARATING MIXTURES Lab 8 Filtration and decanting are used to make milk glue Decanting into a small beaker. Try not Filtering out the curds. The clear to lose any of the curds. The small liquid (or filtrate) goes down the beaker will ____________any that get sink. The __________ remains in past the stirring rod. the filter paper. Word list Funnel Curds Beaker Filter paper catch residue Sink Stirring rod Thursday, 22 April 2010
  179. 179. SEPARATING MIXTURES • Evaporation occurs when a ______ changes into a ____. Word List • Evaporation is a good way of separating a solution because cool _____________________________________________________ gas _____________________________________________________ • If you separate a solution but also want to keep the liquid then condensation you have to _____ it. This process is called ____________. liquid • Condensation occurs when a _____ changes into a _______. Example Write a short paragraph to explain what is happening in the above example _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Thursday, 22 April 2010
  180. 180. SEPARATING MIXTURES Word List Solution _____________ distillate (Ethanol vapour and water) condenser boils _____________ thermometer liquid _____________ round bottom flask water cooled _____________ We were able to separate the ethanol from the water because the ethanol _____________ at a lower temperature than the ________. The ethanol _________ passes into the ____________ where it is ___________ to become a __________ . http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemistry/elements_com_mix_8.shtml Thursday, 22 April 2010
  181. 181. SEPARATING MIXTURES Mixture Method of separation Add _________. The soluble substance ____________ . The ____________ substance does not dissolve. Filtering the Salt and sand mixture will collect the _____________ substance in the filter paper. This is called the ____________ . hold a magnet to the mixture. The _____________ Iron filings and substance collects on the magnet. The other substance is left sulphur behind. Add water. The sawdust __________. The sand _________. You can scoop the sawdust off the top. Sawdust and sand Swirling the mixture in a shallow pan. The ___________ mud and sand fly out of the pan. The ______________ gold Gold, mud and sand gets left behind. Word List: sinks heavier water dissolves insoluble lighter residue magnetic floats Thursday, 22 April 2010
  182. 182. CHEMICAL BINGO From your periodic table of elements, choose any 14 symbols from the first 20 and fit them into the unshaded squares. When the name of the element is called out cross it out using a pen. When all the symbols have been crossed off, call “bingo”. CHEMICAL BINGO From your periodic table of elements, choose any 14 symbols from the first 20 and fit them into the unshaded squares. When the name of the element is called out cross it out using a pen. When all the symbols have been crossed off, call “bingo”. Thursday, 22 April 2010
  183. 183. QUICK QUESTIONS 1. What is the name of the particle that cannot easily be made smaller? 2. Name 2 objects in the room that contain carbon. 3. Air is made up mainly of which element? 4. Explain the difference between an element and a compound. 5. Name one particle that can be found inside the nucleus of the atom. (Challenge!) Thursday, 22 April 2010
  184. 184. THE TE PUKE KID The Te Puke kid mounted his trusty steed, old (Au) ________. He strapped his shooting (Fe) __________ to his side and headed out from the bright (Ne) _________ lights. He was determined to rob the stage of its precious (U) _________ load. He inhaled a deep breath of (O) ___________ and coughed on the (S) ____________ from the nearby factories. It really was hot, the (Hg) ___________ was rising. He took a drink of (H2O) __________ and spat as he tasted the (Cl) ___________ . He rode north, his bones aching from (Ca) __________ deposits built up from years of riding the (Zn) trail. Overhead he saw the stage coach. It was guarded by an old sheriff with a (Sn) ___________ badge. “Stop”, the kid yelled, “or I’ll fill you full of (Pb) _________.” The sheriff went for his gun but was too slow. Kid’s gun blazed like flaming (Mg) ________________ and the (Cu) ____________ fell to the ground. Anyone who drew on the kid should have known that his life was not worth a plugged (Ni) ____________ . A pretty (Pt) ________________ blonde on the stage screamed as the Kid pulled out some (N) _____________ compounds to blow the strongbox. Suddenly a shout rang out. “Hi Ho (Ag) ____________” . A masked man on a white horse raced across the (Si) _______________ sands like (Na) ___________ skittering on water. There’s a (Rn) __________, “ he cried. The Kid was captured and was put behind (Co) ______________ steel bars. Don’t let you life be a (C) ______________ of the Kid’s. Learn your Chemistry!! Thursday, 22 April 2010
  185. 185. QUICK TEST - 1 Name _________________ 1. What is the name of the particle that cannot easily be made smaller? _____________________ 2. Name 2 objects in the room that contain carbon. ________ , __________ 3. Air is made up mainly of which element? _________ 4. Explain the difference between an element and a compound. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 5. Write the symbols for the following elements: (a) Lithium ____ (b) Boron ____ (c) Fluorine ____ (d) Argon (e) Silicon ____ (f) Phosphorus _____ (g) Chlorine ____ (h) Sodium _____ (i) Potassium ____ 6. Name the following elements: (a) H __________(b) He __________ (c) Be __________ (d) C __________ (e) N __________ (f) O __________ (g) Ne __________ (h) Mg __________ (i) Al __________ (j) S __________(k) Ca __________ Thursday, 22 April 2010
  186. 186. QUICK QUESTIONS Test yourself by copying and answering the FIRST FIVE QUESTIONS into the back of your book 1. Explain why elements are like the letters of the alphabet. 2. Elements are made up of only ......... ............. .... ........... . 3. A compound (like an element) is a ............ substance but a compound will contain ...(several words)....... which are ............... . 4. What is the main difference between a compound and a mixture. 5. Explain why air is a mixture of elements and compounds. Explain the following statement: “The nucleus is like a flea in the Yankee Stadium” Thursday, 22 April 2010
  187. 187. THE LANGUAGE OF THE PERIODIC TABLE The atomic number The atomic number of an atom is the number of .................. in the ..................... of that atom. An atom of the same element will always have the same ................. number. The number of electrons Because protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged and an atom is electrically neutral then the number of electrons surrounding an atom is always be ............. ..... the number of protons in the nucleus. The mass number The mass number is equal to the number of .................. plus the number of ..................... . Thursday, 22 April 2010
  188. 188. TE M AC AT H ER ER IA L Thursday, 22 April 2010
  189. 189. Material World (level 5) • Properties of Materials MW props: Investigate the physical and chemical properties of different groups of substances. For example acids and bases, fuels and metals. Distinguish between pure substances and mixtures and between elements and compounds. • Structure of matter MW struct: Describe the structure of the atoms of different elements. Distinguish between an element and a compound, a pure substance and a mixture at particle level. • Chemistry and society MW soc: Link the properties of different groups of substances to the way they are used in society or occur in nature. SCHEME Thursday, 22 April 2010
  190. 190. BC HISTORY OF THE ATOM As you watch the video (22 min) complete the following timeline with the exact year, name of the person with the idea and the explanation of the theory Name Explanation 400 Ancient babylon - Gold from other elements (Zinc & Copper = Bronze ...) Ancient Greece - (5th Cent BC) Alchemy - All matter = “Fire, water, air & earth” 384-322 Aristotle - “Atomless view” Empedocles & Leucippus - believed in atoms 342 300 Epicurus - also believed in atoms, “ God is the prime mover” 270 200 100 95 Leucretius - “Romans didn’t care” about science (Alchemy) = The Dark Age of Alchemy 0 Thursday, 22 April 2010
  191. 191. 0 AD 500 1000 1500 1641 Pierre Gassandi - “Atoms exist but they are God’s building blocks 1661 Boyle & Newton - Gases are particles that move --> Pressure 1774 Joseph Priestly - “When things burn they lose mass” Lavoisier - Discovered air. Metals take up Oxygen when burnt -> an increase in mass (Mercury) 1803 Dalton - Elements exist as atoms. Different atoms => different atomic weights. Combinations in different ratios. In 1808 “Atomic theory” was published by Dalton. No alchemy & no 2000 atomic conversions Thursday, 22 April 2010
  192. 192. Thursday, 22 April 2010

×