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Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois: Washington Du Bois The Debate Over African-American Higher Education
The Development of Black Colleges I. Three types of Black CollegeS: A. Church related B. Privately Endowed C. Public D. 1854 - 1 Black College (Lincoln Univ. PA) E. 1865 - 1895 – More than 30 black colleges established in the south D. 1900 - New Growth for Black Colleges – Southern States and cities established or took over black colleges after 1900
Black College Funding II. Funding Sources: A. State funding B. Church funding C. Tuition D. Northern Business E. Schools and colleges -school choirs Fisk Jubilee Singers, The Moorehouse College Glee Club, later the NCCU Concert and Touring Choirs F. White phlanthropists 1. Ford 2. Rosenwald 3. Rockerfeller 4. Carnegie
Booker Taliaferro Washington:Early Years Childhood A. Born April 5, 1856 to a slave woman named Jane in Hale’s Ford, Virginia B. White father, name unknown C. Middle name Taliaferro was his master’s name (TAH-li-ver) D. Took the last name of Washington after his step- father, Washington Ferguson. E. Classified as a slave despite his heritage F. Worked in salt furnaces and coal mines in West Virginia after Emancipation
Booker Taliaferro Washington:Education and early Adult Life Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute A. Washington enrolled in 1872 B. Learned the importance of self-reliance C. Became an apprentice teacher in 1876 D. Left for Wayland Seminary (Washington, D.C.) in 1878 F. Returned to Hampton to teach in 1879
Booker Taliaferro Washington:Education and early Adult Life (Continued) II. Tuskegee Normal and Agricultural Institute A. Hampton president Samuel C. Armstrong recommended Washington to become the first principal at Tuskegee Institute, a similar school to Hampton in Alabama. (Washington’s home)
Washington as a Leader: President/Principal of Tuskegee Institute A. Tuskegee opened July 4, 1881 B. Washington was one of the first black leaders of such an institution C. Bought a plantation in 1882 that became the permanent site of the campus C. Students literally built their school from the ground up, and raised their own food D. Both men and women learned a trade along with their coursework E. Tuskegee embodied Washington’s belief that African- Americans could become self-reliant with a little help and guidance
Washington’s Rise to Prominence: II. Political/Industrial Connections A. Washington worked and socialized with many white politicians and industry leaders. Andrew Carnegie William Howard Taft John D. Rockefeller Henry Huttleston Rogers III. The 1895 Atlanta Compromise Address A. Given at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia B. Stated that he valued "industrial“ education oriented toward the jobs then available to the majority of African Americans.
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois: “W.E.B. Du Bois” Early Life: A. Born Feb. 23, 1868 in Great Barrington, MA B. Father deserted the family in 1870 C. Du Bois’s mother suffered a stroke when he was young, which prevented her from working, family gave them money to survive on D. Du Bois decided that he could improve their lives best if he got an education
W. E. B. Du Bois Education and Travels: A. Regarded as very bright and intellectual at a young age, encouraged by his teachers to further his education B. His success led him to believe that he could use his knowledge to empower African-Americans and encourage them to become educated C. Attended Fisk University, graduated in 1888 D. Earned a second bachelor’s degree from Harvard University in 1890 E. Received a stipend to attend the University of Berlin in 1892, traveled extensively throughout Europe and became a Marxist F. Became the first African-American to receive a Ph. D. from Harvard in 1895
W. E. B. Du Bois Academic Career and Public Service A. Taught at Wilberforce University and the University of Pennsylvania B. Later established the Sociology Department at Atlanta University C. Became a prolific author: The Philadelphia Negro, The Souls of Black Folk D. Along with Booker T. Washington he helped organize the "Negro exhibition" at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. The exhibition aimed at showing African-Americans’ positive contributions to American society. F. Founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909
Du Bois’s African-American Criminology Theory Three Part Theory: A. Negro crime is caused by the strain of the “social revolution” experienced by black Americans as they began to adapt to their newfound freedom and position in the nation B. Black crime declined as the African- American population moved towards a more equal status. C. The “Talented Tenth” or the "exceptional men" of the black race would be the ones to lead the race and save it from its criminal problems
Washington and Du Bois First Encounter A. Du Bois present at the Atlanta Compromise speech, and gave it its name B. Opposed the speech on the grounds that it was insufficiently committed to the pursuit of social and political equality for Blacks. C. Both sought to define the best means to improve the conditions of the post-Civil War African- American community.
Washington and Du Bois (continued) II. Beliefs and Differences: A. Washington: 1. Believed the two races should remain segregated 2. Believed assimilating and fitting into the "American" culture was the best way for blacks to move up in society 3. Saw the importance of higher education, but felt blacks should become teachers (their duty) and/or work in trades instead of confronting whites in their own world. B. Du Bois: 1. Thought blacks should seek higher education, preferably liberal arts. 2. Believed blacks should challenge and question whites on all grounds 3. Saw teaching as a calling, not a duty, the “Talented Tenth” should be the primary advocates for black rights
Washington and Du Bois Final Contributions A. Both men worked tirelessly towards the advancement of African-Americans B. Washington privately supported legal action against segregation C. Became first African- American leader to visit the White House in 1901, but died in 1915 from hypertension at age 59 D. Dubois lived to be 96 years old, wrote 22 books (five novels) and helped establish four journals