In my presentation we will go over the importance of coaching, the skills required to be a coach, bad coaching habits, communication methods between athletes and coaches, and dealing with parents as a coach.
Importance of CoachingCoaches are everywhere in sports and also in life, and they are vital in life and in sports. They work to encourage players, motivate athletes and inspire them. Without coaches, players would stay content with their skills and have no knowledge of how to improve. More than 20 million children in America compete in youth sports and these athletes need dedicated coaches to help them be successful in playing a desired sport.Gilbert, Wade D; Gilbert, Jenelle N; Trudel, Pierre. "Coaching strategies for youth sports, part 1: Athletic behavior and athletic performance." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 4(2001):29. eLibrary. Web. 17 May. 2010.Davis, Kimberly. "Sports and your child: What every parent should know." Ebony. 01 Jun. 2000: 86. eLibrary. Web. 17 May. 2010.
This quote describes a little bit about how challenging and involved coaching is It also describes what desirablecharacteristicsteam sports can build in a child.Toner, James M. "The Design of a Volunteer Coaches Training Program." Parks & Recreation. 01 Aug. 2004: 48. eLibrary. Web. 10 May. 2010.
Think back to the activities and sports that you played when you were young. I’m sure some of you have memories about the sports and team activities. These memories can either be great ones or bad ones to look back on. Some of the success or failure of these activities comsefrom the coaches of these sports or activities. Having a great coach can make an enjoyable memory and a fun experience.
SkillsBeing a coach at the youth level requires many skills. Before coaching the players, coaches have to do many other things as seen in this quote. When you think back to when you played sports at a younger age and remember your coach, they were more than just a coach. They motivate you, teach you, and become your friend. Players need their coaches for many things that they go through during that age, not just to develop skills in the sport the athlete is playing.
This is a picture of the men’s Olympic volleyball coach, Hugh McCutcheon I see him as one of the most successful coaches because he has lead the Olympic team to many victories at such a high level. Tobe a successful youth coach there is certain knowledge that one should possess. The first is sport specific knowledge. This is “ techniques and strategies of a particular sport”. (Martens, 1990)The second knowledge base needed is general coaching knowledge. General coaching knowledge is ”Information used to obtain an optimal learning environment” (Martens,1990)Martens, R. (1990). Successful coaching (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Leisure Press.
In youth sports, the actuality is most of the coaches are volunteers. They are sometimes just people who have just played the sport or parents of one of the players on the team. Some even have little knowledge of the sport. it is rare that the coach, when they start out, has extensive knowledge of the sport. To help them out, youth coaches sometimes observe other successful coaches such as college coaches and professional team coaches.
There are many qualities that make coaches successful. These are basic guidelines and qualities that coaches for any level should possess. Steve Pavlovic "Ten qualities of a successful coach". Coach and Athletic Director. FindArticles.com. 29 Apr, 2010. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FIH/is_9_76/ai_n27214800/
PatienceEspecially with young players a coach must have patience. A coach can’t expect everyone to learn a skill when itsbeing taught to all players at once, especially when players are young.It will be a challenge getting the players to pay attention to you and to catchon to what is being taught. These things take patience.http://westislandgazette.com/files/westisland/imagecache/large/images/coach01.JPG.jpg
In addition to patience, you must also maintain control of the team, which is where discipline comes in. You don't want anyone goofing around and distracting the rest of the team. The main objective of playing a sport is to learn how to play the game.For those who are misbehaving, you can add extra drills or talk with their parents about their behavior. Addressing the situation immediately will let the players know you take discipline seriously.Disrespectful behaviors that should be disciplined include; verbal or physical abuse of others and refusal to cooperate during team events.A form of discipline with the athletes is:Individual meetingsDiscuss the incidentin private with the athleteAnd then get the parents involved“These individual meetings are very effective because they open a forum for discussion. They are also a non threatening way of dealing with the athlete and discussing their behaviors because it is in private. This method demonstrates the democratic coaching style and it is preferred most by athletes and parents.” (Martin, Jackson, Richardson, & Weiller, 1999)Gilbert, Wade D; Gilbert, Jenelle N; Trudel, Pierre. "Coaching strategies for youth sports, part 1: Athletic behavior and athletic performance." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 4(2001):29. eLibrary. Web. 17 May. 2010.“Baseball, coach talking to young player (6-8), close-up”, Zoran, Millch
While trying to discipline a team, some coaches find physical fines appropriate and effective. Some see it as public humiliation and say that it will only fuel the athletes bad behavior. Physical fines include sprints, push ups, sit ups, and other physical activities. Some youth athletes act out because they want extra attention. Doing a physical fine in front of the athletes teammates might just make a player upset and cause them to act out more. The goal of a successful act of discipline is for the coach to maintain a positive attitude, while addressing the players attitude. Some coaches find it uncomfortable to discipline the athlete, so they assign an assistant coach as the disciplinarian.
Be fair and treat everyone on your team equally. Team rules are meant for everyone, not just some players. The quickest way to causeproblems within a teamis to let one player get away with something, and then punish another who has done the same thing.This rule is especially important to coaches who have a child on the team. They must remember that rules apply to everyone and your child is not exempt.http://www.kidpower.org/images/articles/baseball-coach.jpghttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/_qi1vpmmaL6s/So7hRhpVgKI/AAAAAAAABjU/zkNz99jgEWc/s400/soccer-coach+talking+to+team.jpg
Being tough but fairIt is really hard for coaches to always be fair and sometime a coach has to give players bad news and this can be tough. Coaches who are realistic and honest about what a person can achieveare the kinds of coaches someone can look up to.For example if a young athlete doesn’t make the team, a coach should tell the player what they can do to improve and make the team next year. http://www.recreation.slco.org/holladaylions/youthSports/images/800px-Youth-soccer-i.jpghttp://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/sports/good_coach.html
When you decide to become a coach, you are making a commitment to a team. Your team depends on you and looks at you as its leader and "expert" on the sport. Since you are making the decisions to become a coach you should be committed and be at every practice on time or even arrive early. These pictures are of Alice who was one of the coaches of the 12’s team. She came to every practice even though she had to bring her 6 year old daughter Tristan with her. I thought that really showed commitment.
Being on time to practices and games is a good way to lead by example. Also athletes pick up on if your always yelling at officials and referees and if they see it they might start doing this. Leading by example also includes language used, yelling, and maintaining composure.
Keep Everyone InvolvedMake sure every player is involved in a set activity at one point. When a player is not involved they might get upset, but this action can also hurt the team. It hurts the team because if a player gets thrown in the game and gets into a situation where they weren't involved in the drill, they might not know how to react.
Players and parents may criticize a coach especially when the season begins. It can hurt a coach’s feelings but when someone might doubt your actions just make sure you are doing what is in the best interest of the team and players. If you are then don’t worry if people disagree.Pictures:http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/handle-parents-while-coaching-2.jpg
Have a practice planThe last thing that makes a coach successful is practice planning. Sometimes a coach may feel like their team isn’t getting enough practice time so they should be very sure that they don’t waste any. Make a plan and write it up before you practice. This is a table from a book “Effective Coaching Techniques”.It was taken from the website http://www.howtoplay.com/coaches-effective-coaching-techniques.html
While planning a practice, some coaches experiment with the drills and practice designs done at practice. Another strategy is to divide practice into blocks of time to specialize in the objective for the day. After practice the coaches are open to feedback from the players and assistant coaches.Gilbert, Wade D; Gilbert, Jenelle N; Trudel, Pierre. "Coaching strategies for youth sports: Part 2: Personal characteristics, parental influence, and team organization." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 5(2001):41. eLibrary. Web. 04 Mar. 2010.
Practice is important because the player and coaches get to know each other through the time they spend together at practice. Practice is where players develop and perfect their skills and where they get to know the coaches, and their coaching style. It is important for an athlete to have confidence in their coach and for the coach to have confidence in the athlete.
These 7 bad habits can make a coach unsuccessful. Doing these things can hurt the team and the athletes you are coaching. I’m going to go over a couple of the more important habits. http://ezinearticles.com/?Coaching-Little-League-Baseball---Bad-Habits-Make-For-Bad-Coaching&id=2952181
A coach that overreacts can really hurt a team. Being impatient and overreacting can make a player upset and can lower the team moral. This can put additional pressure on the players and make them scared to make mistakes. http://images.veer.com/IMG/PIMG/CBP/CBP1000235_P.JPGhttp://www.goswim.tv/system/uploads/Image/coach31.jpghttp://www.cbc.ca/radio2/programs/0_61_coach_yelling_320.jpg
This is another trait of a poor coach. If a coach doesn’t have enough knowledge of the game, they wont know how to properly teach the players. The easiest way to fix this is to study the game, study the sport and learn the correct terminology, fundamentals, and techniques of the game.
Negative coaches are always expecting the worst of their team. Players will pick up on a coach that is being negative and they will become negative and not want to go to practice or play in the games. Players need encouragement and negative coaches don’t give that. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_IOaEewD4p9w/S70zHFTTO4I/AAAAAAAAAhg/EryU4yqjfzI/s1600/Head-coach-Al-Skinner-questions-a-call-with-an-official.jpg
Parents, Players and Playing TimePlayers and parents often have problems with the playing time. To avoid this conflict, coaches can address this issue as well as other issues, through letters given to each player and parent at the beginning of the year. When the parents are upset with the coach, they should set up an appointment to discuss their problems and work out a solution.
When playing on a team at the youth level team building is very important. It plays a large role in a team’s success. (Carr&#243;n, Brawley, &amp; Widmeyer, 1998).
Despite its intuitive appeal, many coaches and athletes are still unclear about the proper use of team-building activities (Bloom, Stevens, &amp; Wickwire, 2003)When a team doesn’t blend and accept everyone, the development of cliques and alienation occurs. This can make players upset who are being excluded and make them not want to be part of the team. This happens so often in sports because coaches do not properly blend teams with team building.
Goals Of Team BuildingWhen doing these activities coaches have goals in mind. The individual goals are to:Avoid social cliquesGet to know each team member, especially new onesClarify the role of each playerEstablish long term goalsCreate comfortable environment The overall goal of the activities is to mend the team into a group that enjoys each other and is comfortable with each other. Team building is a beneficial aspect of team development. (Bloom 2003)Stevens, D. E., St Bloom, G. A. (2003). The effect of a team building program on cohesion. Avante, 9, 43-54.
There are six main benefits of team building. It creates leadership, establishes roles of each member, builds dedication, an energetic environment, efficient group meetings, and reduces negative team influences.“Team-building programs have been designed to enhance the perceptions of cohesiveness through team improvement” (Carron &amp; Hausenblas, 1998)
Balance Beam- The athletes are instructed to stand on the beam in any order, with no more than 10 on the beam at a time. They are then instructed to position themselves on the beam from youngest to oldest. If any person touches a mat or the legs of the beam, or if anyone in the group uses a put-down, the entire group must get off the beam and get back in their original order to start over.
According to (http://www.brianmac.co.uk/styles.htm) there are two different coaching styles.
Players are encouraged to give ideas for the activities and drills done at practice. The coach then makes the decision based on the suggestions of the athletes. The coach still defines what to do and how to do it.http://www.brianmac.co.uk/styles.htm
The coach is more of a guide here than a dictator. The coach outlines the training requirements to the athlete but the coach allows the players to explore possibilities for drills and they make the decision amongst themselves.http://www.brianmac.co.uk/styles.htm
Autocratic coaching is a “do what I say” style of coaching. The coach is the only person who has a say in what is involved in practice. The athletes aren’t involved but the athletes are still encouraged to ask questions about the activities, but they don’t get to decide what activities are being done.http://www.brianmac.co.uk/styles.htm
Players learn by creating a motor program for a given activity. This “motor program” is what allows athletes to perform a skill on demand. A motor program is created through practicing a skill repetitively. Then the action is made automatic by repeating this in many practices. Then the athlete should further refine the skill by using it in game situations.http://www.howtoplay.com/coaches-effective-coaching-techniques.html
This quote has to do with communication with athletes at a young age. Because in youth sports athletes vary in skill level, emotionally, and physical development coaches have to figure out different ways to communicate with players. This can be hard because the coach has to observe and figure out which way will work best to get through to the athlete.
This is a three step communication system. Many coaches use this during practices because of the fact that players vary in many different aspects such as age and learning style. The first step is to verbally communicate what needs to be done. If that doesn’t work than the coach should graphically display it, and then demonstrate the act. The medium the coach communicates through depends on the athletes’ preferences and ability.For example if an athlete learns better when shown a skill, the coach should demonstrate it.Gilbert, Wade D; Gilbert, Jenelle N; Trudel, Pierre. "Coaching strategies for youth sports: Part 2: Personal characteristics, parental influence, and team organization." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 5(2001):41. eLibrary. Web. 04 Mar. 2010.
In order to be successful in communicating with their players, the coach should develop a unique approach for each athlete. “The appropriateness and effectiveness of a strategy will depend on the age and gender of the athletes, the level of competition, and individual differences in the athletes' cognitive and physical development” (Howe, 1993)Some coaches use the first couple of practices to observe and take notes on each player to get to know what style works best for them. From their the coach can make modifications to the communication method and develop a different approach for each athlete. When teaching and demonstrating skills, coaches should provide both group and individual instruction.In this picture coach Conahan is demonstrating to the team as a group. This might not work for all players, so another coach might take individual players aside to instruct them. Gilbert, Wade D; Gilbert, Jenelle N; Trudel, Pierre. "Coaching strategies for youth sports: Part 2: Personal characteristics, parental influence, and team organization." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 5(2001):41. eLibrary. Web. 04 Mar. 2010.
Anothercommunication form to get through to youth athletes is collaborative, It is used if there are multiple people on the coaching staff. Each member can contribute to communication through their unique expertise, therefore different roles can be distributed amongst the different coaches. In this form of communication, coaches can monitor each other so no coach dominates. This approach can be very effective if done right. Gilbert, Wade D; Gilbert, Jenelle N; Trudel, Pierre. "Coaching strategies for youth sports: Part 2: Personal characteristics, parental influence, and team organization." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 5(2001):41. eLibrary. Web. 04 Mar. 2010.
Parents often disagree with calls made by the umpire or referee in game situations. They can also grow frustrated with the coach. Some take the disagreement too far by confronting or even getting in an argument with the coach. On the extreme end of these kinds of incidents is the story of 42 year old Thomas Junta and his son’s hockey coach, 40 year old Michael Costin. Junta got angry when his ten-year-old son's nose was almost broken by another player's elbow. He yelled at Costin, to tone down the roughness. The two began began to argue when a rink manager made Junta leave. He later returned and confronted Costin and the two got into an argument and began to physically fight. He ended up beating Michael Costin to death because he was much larger then the coach.Junta was convicted of voluntary manslaughter when he was put on trial in 2002. http://www.bostonherald.com/blogs/news/city_desk_wired/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/junta.jpghttp://news.bbc.co.uk/olmedia/1755000/images/_1755775_junta300ap.jpg "Parental Rage" in Children's Sports (Special Report)." Encyclopedia.World News Digest. Facts On File News Services, July 2000. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://www.2facts.com/article/xn03970>.
In every sport, parents disagree with the decisions of coaches. Some coaches require parents to sign a contract that goes over the guidelines for parent behavior. This contract might include a cool down period. A cool down period is typically the 24 hours after a game and it is when parents can not discuss disagreements with the coach in hopes that the parent will cool off and think rationally.Gilbert, Wade D; Gilbert, Jenelle N; Trudel, Pierre. "Coaching strategies for youth sports: Part 2: Personal characteristics, parental influence, and team organization." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 5(2001):41. eLibrary. Web. 04 Mar. 2010.http://www.activerealtysoftware.com/products/newimages/contract.gif
Parents can play a major positive role in coaching and managing a team. Parents can help fundraise and they can also be assistant coaches if they have knowledge about the sport.A coach should design practice and fundraising strategies that involve parents. Parents might volunteer to be assistant coaches and to help out with the team so coaches should always be open to keeping parents involved.Gilbert, Wade D; Gilbert, Jenelle N; Trudel, Pierre. "Coaching strategies for youth sports: Part 2: Personal characteristics, parental influence, and team organization." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 5(2001):41. eLibrary. Web. 04 Mar. 2010.Barth, Kristen; Heinzmann, Gregg S; Casey-Doecke, Johannah; Kahan, David; Et al. "Is parental involvement a liability in youth sports?." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 3(2003):16. eLibrary. Web. 17 May. 2010.
At the beginning of the season, coaches should have a meeting with the parents of the athletes. During the meeting, topics such as playing time and proper places and times for meetings will be discussed. Coaches sometimes write letters to the parents outlining their expectations for player and parents during the season. ”The pre-season letter may include the past history of the program, expectations, and the upcoming preseason and regular season schedules.” (Brubaker, Ken)“The post-season letter may contain the team's accomplishments, a thank you to the parents for their support, and the future outlook and expectations.” (Brubaker, Ken)If parents have disagreements with coaches they can make an appointment to discuss it. The best time for a meeting is before practice.Brubaker, Ken. "Coaching & Teaching Our Athletes." Coach and Athletic Director. 01 Oct. 2007: 30. eLibrary. Web. 05 Apr. 2010.http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3144/2630163338_849abcb5c8.jpghttp://www.haldimandcountyhydro.ca/hch/assets/Pictures/Other%20Pics/contract.bmp
For my application I went for 10 weeks to Valley Forge’s 12’s team’s practice on Thursday nights from 6 to 8 pm. I helped them out at practice, helped run drills and demonstrated skills for the players. I also observed the coaching styles of the four coaches of the 12’s team and saw how they split the practice time up into drills. Class Activity!!!
In conclusion I have learned the techniques that make a coach successful. I have also been able to apply some of the techniques and qualities I learned and observe coaches using them. I have realized how important coaching is to athletes everywhere, especially at the youth level.
Senior Graduation Project
Coaching Youth Sports<br />Liz DiValerio<br />
Thesis<br /> To be successful in coaching youth sports, one must serve many different roles, be able to gainthe confidence of their athletes, and make proper<br />decisions in difficult situations.<br />Coaches also have the power to make <br />sport experiences enjoyable<br />for young athletes.<br />
Personal Relevance<br />This topic is important to me because I have had many great coaches that made my athletic experiences fantastic. They improved my skills and court manner and shaped me into the player and <br />person I<br /> am today.<br />
Audience Relevance<br />Many people have had team experiences and have had a sports coach. <br />Make people aware of how a good coach can make a team experience enjoyable and the opposite.<br />
Presentation Outline<br />Importance of coaching<br />Skills Required<br />Bad Coaching Habits<br />Communication <br />Dealing with parents<br />
"Coaches are crucial for sport at all levels - on the school pitch, in the local club or for a major international team. They are the people who motivate, encourage and inspire." <br />Richard Caborn MP, UK Minister for Sport<br />“Millions of young people participate in organized sports during a period of their lives that is critical to their personal development.”<br /> -Campbell, Ewing, Seefeldt, & Brown<br />
“Coaching presents a tremendous challenge because it demands a life of service to youth, in particular, and society in general. Parents of young athletes believe sports are good for their children because the activity builds character, and develops socially desirable characteristics such as achievement, motivation, cooperativeness and sportsmanship.”<br /> -James M Toner<br />
“Team sports have the potential to furnish the most enjoyable memories of youth.”<br /> -(Peter Ogle)<br />
“Coaches at the youth level have been found to assume at least 13 different roles: instructor, teacher, trainer, motivator, disciplinarian, substitute parent, social worker, friend, scientist, student, manager, administrator, and publicity fundraiser” <br />-(Gummerson)<br />
“Although coaches are expected to have an extensive knowledge base, in reality the majority of youth sport coaches are volunteers with little or no formal training.”<br /> - (DeKnop, Engstrom, Skirstad, & Weiss, 1996; Smith & Smoll, 1997)<br />
What Makes a Coach Successful?<br />Discipline <br />Patience<br />Be Fair<br />Lead By Example<br />Have a Thick Skin<br />Commitment<br />Keep Everyone Involved<br />Make Practice Plans<br />
How To Plan Practice<br />Experiment<br />Divide into blocks of time<br />Feedback<br />
“A successful coach is one who gains the confidence of his athletes, which can only be achieved through training.”<br /> -Toner, James M. "The Design of a Volunteer Coaches Training Program." <br />Practice and Training<br />
Bad Coaching Habits<br />Laziness<br />Lack of Knowledge<br />Not being Organized<br />Negativity <br />Being late<br />Overreacting<br />Not Consistent<br />
“Coaches also have to make everyone understand that playing time is a decision made by the coaching staff and only the coaching staff.”<br />-Brubaker, Ken. "Coaching & Teaching Our Athletes." <br />
Team Building<br />“A team's environment or atmosphere can also play a role in determining whether or not children enjoy their sport experience.”<br /> -(Carr)<br />
“Many people are unaware that improper team activities can result in the development of cliques and the alienation of individuals for various reasons.”<br /> -(Bloom 2008)<br />
Democratic (Sharing)<br />Coach outlines the training requirements to the athletes<br />Coach invites ideas/suggestions from the athletes<br />Coach makes the decision based on the athletes' suggestions<br />Coach still defines what to do and how to do it<br />
Democratic (allowing)<br />Coach outlines the training requirements to the athletes<br />Coach defines the training conditions<br />Athletes brainstorm to explore possible solutions<br />Athletes make the decision<br />Athletes define what to do and how to do it<br />
Autocratic<br />Coach defines what to do and how to do it<br />Coach decides what is to be done<br />Coach explains what is required<br />
Dealing with Parents<br />Disagreement <br />Cool down period<br />Contract<br />
Parent Involvement<br />“Youth sports would cease to exist, if not for the significant contributions of parents who serve as coaches, officials, and league administrators.”<br /> -Gregg S. Heinzmann, director, Youth Sports Research Council, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. <br />
Works Cited<br /> "Parental Rage" in Children's Sports (Special Report)." Encyclopedia.World News Digest. Facts On File News Services, July 2000. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. http://www.2facts.com/article/xn03970<br />Gilbert, Wade D; Gilbert, Jenelle N; Trudel, Pierre. "Coaching strategies for youth sports: Part 2: Personal characteristics, parental influence, and team organization." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 5(2001):41. eLibrary. Web. 04 Mar. 2010<br />Table from: http://www.howtoplay.com/coaches-effective-coaching-techniques.html<br />http://www.brianmac.co.uk/styles.htm<br />de Souza, Adriano; Oslin, Judy. "A PLAYER-CENTERED APPROACH TO COACHING." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 6(2008):24. eLibrary. Web. 10 May. 2010.<br />Brubaker, Ken. "Coaching & Teaching Our Athletes." Coach and Athletic Director. 01 Oct. 2007: 30. eLibrary. Web. 05 Apr. 2010.<br />http://archives.cnn.com/2002/LAW/01/25/hockey.death.verdict/index.html<br />http://www.thebostonchannel.com/news/1206817/detail.html<br />http://www.bostonherald.com/blogs/news/city_desk_wired/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/junta.jpg<br />http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/sports/good_coach.html<br />
http://www.naso.org/sportsmanship/badsports.html<br />Brubaker, Ken. "Coaching & Teaching Our Athletes." Coach and Athletic Director. 01 Oct. 2007: 30. eLibrary. Web. 10 May. 2010.<br />Toner, James M. "The Design of a Volunteer Coaches Training Program." Parks & Recreation. 01 Aug. 2004: 48. eLibrary. Web. 10 May. 2010.<br />Gilbert, Wade D; Gilbert, Jenelle N; Trudel, Pierre. "Coaching strategies for youth sports, part 1: Athletic behavior and athletic performance." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 4(2001):29. eLibrary. Web. 10 May. 2010.<br />http://www.teambuildingactivities.net/<br />Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll. “Coaching the Coaches: Youth Sports as a Scientific and Applied Behavioral Setting” Current Directions in Psychological Science.<br />Alexander S. Frazier “Teaching-Coaching” English Journal, Vol. 75, NO. 1 (Jan., 1986)<br /> pp 69-70<br />
Ruth Wageman “How Leaders Foster Self-Managing Team Effectiveness: Design Choices versus Coaching” Organization Science, Vol. 12, No. 5 2001<br />Jenson, Julie “Fundamental Volleyball” Leaner Publications Company 1995<br />Ditchfield, Christin “A True Book: Volleyball” Children’s Press, 2003<br />Giddens, Sandra and Owen “Volleyball; Rules, Tips, Strategy, and Safety.” The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc 2005<br />"Volleyball Drills." Youth Coaching Information. Y‐Coach, 2009. Web. 3 Dec.2009. <http://www.y‐coach.com/CD/Volleyball_Drills.htm><br />Davis, Kimberly. "Sports and your child: What every parent should know." Ebony. 01 Jun. 2000: 86. eLibrary. Web. 17 May. 2010.<br />Barth, Kristen; Heinzmann, Gregg S; Casey-Doecke, Johannah; Kahan, David; Et al. "Is parental involvement a liability in youth sports?." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 3(2003):16. eLibrary. Web. 17 May. 2010.<br />