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  • 1. LA TRADE TECH PSYCHOLOGY 2: THIS STUFF IS FUN!
  • 2.
    • Students:…
    • What you can do…
    • Is to remains highly motivated, and continue to do your independent reading. This material is really easy, but you need to do your reading assignments. The material used in this textbook is fascinating, and you will find that my power point lectures, and quizzes are all in your textbook. I encourage all of you to buy the book as soon as you can. In fact you can order this textbook from Amazon. COM Again, don’t get discourage, you are doing just fine, keep up the good work, and lets move forward into unit 2’s lecture.
    • Read your assigned chapters
    • Be self directed
    • Be self motivated
    • Ask questions
    Professor: Course/Section:
  • 3. James Kalat’s Biological Psychology, 9e Professor: Dr. Mendoza PSY 2 This is your required course material You will need this material for: - tests and quizzes - homework and reading assignments
  • 4. Some of the reasons why you need to use the new edition… PSY 2
    • There are many content changes such as the module on drugs has been moved to Chapter 3 (rather than in Chapter 15) to help explain synapses and their relationship to an important aspect of behavior.
    • Another change includes the module on research methods which has been consolidated to emphasize the significance of techniques such as MRI, MEG, lesions, fMRI, PET and EEG in the area of research, and has been moved from the beginning of Chapter 4 to the end.
    • In the past I have used other editions of this textbook, but this one is the best. I am certain that all of you will enjoy this book, and please review your CD that comes with your textbook, I am certain that it will help you a lot!
  • 5. More reasons why you need to use the new edition… PSY 2
    • The module on attention has been revised , expanded , and moved from Chapter 7 to Chapter 14 ("Cognitive Functions").
    • The research methods module now includes a new section on the research relating intelligence to brain anatomy.
    • After the very positive feedback about the "Try It Yourself" exercises, this new edition has expanded the online opportunities by also incorporating "Try It Yourself" into the website to help you understand concepts better.
  • 6. PSY 2
    • Featuring instant access to e-Resources selected by your instructor to help you succeed in the course, including:
    • ThomsonNow for Biological Psychology … Interactive “personalized study plan” including your text on-line!
    • vMentor … Live online tutoring help which is text-specific, one-to-one, and from a sociology expert!
    • InfoTrac College Edition … An entire on-line university library at your fingertips!
  • 7. If you purchased a used book, order ThomsonNOW with ISBN # 0495170011
    • ThomsonNow for Biological Psychology is a powerful online learning tool that helps you assess your unique study needs, and available with each new copy of Kalat’s Biological Psychology, 9e
    • Videos
    • Learning Modules
    • Case Studies
    • Primary Source Materials
    • Full e-Book
    • Animations/Interactivities
    • Exams
    • Weblinks
    study less, learn more!
  • 8. vMentor Online Tutoring
  • 9. vMentor Online Tutoring
  • 10. vMentor Online Tutoring
  • 11. Professor: Course/Section:
    • InfoTrac College Edition
    • Do your research 24/7!
    • Easy access to over 10 million full-text articles
    • Nearly 5000 academic journals, magazines, and periodicals.
    • Do your research from home, work, or your dorm room!
    • InfoTrac can be used for ALL of your courses!
    • Includes InfoWrite, a web-based training tool designed to help you develop your writing skills.
  • 12. HOW TO SEARCH THE DATABASE There are 3 ways to search: Subject Guide Keyword Search Advanced Search There is also a Limit Search function, which limits the search by date, journal, or keyword.
  • 13.
    • InfoWrite offers the following benefits:
    • Facilitates the writing process
    • Assists with the organization and presentation of ideas
    • Helps you articulate key concepts
    • Improves grammar, spelling and correct word usage
    • Aids your creativity
    • Also included:
    • Critical Thinking with InfoTrac
    • APA vs. MLA documentation style
    • Essay Topics
    • Research and the Internet
    • … and much more!
    INFOWRITE InfoTrac College Edition, your Online Research and Learning Center, includes InfoWrite, a web-based training tool designed to help you develop your writing skills.
  • 14. Student Companion Website
  • 15. Buy ISBN # 0495090808
    • Yes, we still have study guides!
    • Chapter introductions
    • Learning objectives
    • Key terms and concepts
    • Short-answer questions
    • Approximately 30 multiple-choice test items for each chapter.
    • Many chapters include informational diagrams, and crossword puzzles to test key terms and ideas.
  • 16. Students Please Read… If your textbook doesn’t already come with the helpful study aids we’ve discussed, go to your local college bookstore or go on-line to the textbook URL … http:// www.thomsonedu.com/psychology/kalat PSY 2
  • 17. Chapter 2 Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses
  • 18. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • The human nervous system is comprised of two kinds of cells:
      • Neurons
      • Glia
    • The human brain contains approximately 100 billion individual neurons.
    • Behavior depends upon the communication between neurons.
  • 19. Fig. 2-1, p. 30
  • 20. Fig. 2-4, p. 32
  • 21. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • Spaniard Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934) was the first to demonstrate that the individual cells comprising the nervous system remained separate.
    • He showed that they did not grow into each other as previously believed.
  • 22. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • Like other cells in the body, neurons contain the following structures:
      • Membrane
      • Nucleus
      • Mitochondria
      • Ribosomes
      • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • 23. Fig. 2-2, p. 31
  • 24. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • The membrane refers to the structure that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment.
    • The nucleus refers to the structure that contains the chromosomes.
    • The mitochondria are the strucures that perform metabolic activities and provides energy that the cells requires.
    • Ribosomes are the sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules
  • 25. Fig. 2-3, p. 32
  • 26. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • Neuron cells are similar to other cells of the body but have a distinctive shape.
    • A motor neuron has its soma in the spinal cord and receives excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses along it axon to a muscle.
    • A sensory neuron is specialized at one end to be highly sensitive to a particular type of stimulation (touch, temperature, odor etc.)
  • 27. Fig. 2-5, p. 32
  • 28. Fig. 2-6, p. 33
  • 29. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • All neurons have the following major components:
      • Dendrites.
      • Soma/ cell body.
      • Axon.
      • Presynaptic terminals.
  • 30. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • Dendrites - branching fibers with a surface lined with synaptic receptors responsible for bringing in information from other neurons.
    • Some dendrites also contain dendritic spines that further branch out and increase the surface area of the dendrite.
  • 31. Fig. 2-7, p. 33
  • 32. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • Soma - contains the nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, and other structures found in other cells.
      • Also responsible for the metabolic work of the neuron.
  • 33. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • Axon - thin fiber of a neuron responsible fo r transmiting nerve impulses away to other neurons, glands, or muscles.
    • Some neurons are covered with an insulating material called the myelin sheath with interruptions in the sheath known as nodes of Ranvier.
  • 34. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • Presynaptic terminals refer to the end points of an axon responsible for releasing chemicals to communicate with other neurons.
  • 35. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • Terms used to describe the neuron include the following:
      • Afferent axon - refers to bringing information into a structure.
      • Efferent axon - refers to carrying information away from a structure.
      • Interneurons or Intrinsic neurons are those whose dendrites and axons are completely contained within a structure.
  • 36. Fig. 2-8, p. 34
  • 37. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • Neurons vary in size, shape, and function.
    • The shape of a neuron determines it connection with other neurons and its connections with other neurons.
    • The function is closely related to the shape of a neuron.
      • Example: Pukinje cells of the cerebellum branch extremely widely within a single plane
  • 38. Fig. 2-9, p. 34
  • 39. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • Glia are the other major component of the nervous system and include the following:
      • Astrocytes helps synchronize the activity of the axon by wrapping around the presynaptic terminal and taking up chemicals released by the axon.
      • Microglia - remove waste material and other microorganisms that could prove harmful to the neuron.
  • 40. Fig. 2-10, p. 35
  • 41. Fig. 2-11, p. 36
  • 42. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • (Types of glia continued)
      • Oligdendrocytes & Schwann cells - build the myelin sheath that surrounds the axon of some neurons.
      • Radial glia - guide the migration of neurons and the growth of their axons and dendrites during embryonic development.
  • 43. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • The blood-brain barrier is a mechanism that surrounds the brain and blocks most chemicals from entering.
    • The immune system destroys damaged or infected cells throughout the body.
    • Because neurons in the brain generally do not regenerate, it is vitally important for the blood brain barrier to block incoming viruses, bacteria or other harmful material from entering.
  • 44. Fig. 2-12, p. 37
  • 45. The Cells of the Nervous System
    • Active transport is the protein mediated process by which useful chemicals are brought into the brain.
    • Glucose, hormones, amino acids, and vitamins are brought into the brain via active transport.
    • Glucose is a simple sugar that is the primary source of nutrition for neurons.
      • Thiamine is a chemical that is necessary for the use of glucose.
  • 46. The Nerve Impulse
    • A nerve impulse is the electrical message that is transmitted down the axon of a neuron.
    • The impulse does not travel directly down the axon but is regenerated at points along the axon.
    • The speed of nerve impulses ranges from approximately 1 m/s to 100 m/s.
  • 47. The Nerve Impulse
    • The resting potential of a neuron refers to the state of the neuron prior to the sending of a nerve impulse.
    • The membrane of a neuron maintains an electrical gradient which is a difference in the electrical charge inside and outside of the cell.
  • 48. Fig. 2-13, p. 40
  • 49. The Nerve Impulse
    • At rest, the membrane maintains an electrical polarization or a difference in the electrical charge of two locations.
      • the inside of the membrane is slightly negative with respect to the outside. (approximately -70 millivolts)
  • 50. The Nerve Impulse
    • The membrane is selectively permeable, allowing some chemicals to pass more freely than others.
    • Sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride pass through channels in the membrane.
    • When the membrane is at rest:
      • Sodium channels are closed.
      • Potassium channels are partially closed allowing the slow passage of sodium.
  • 51. Fig. 2-14, p. 40
  • 52. The Nerve Impulse
    • The sodium-potassium pump is a protein complex that continually pumps three sodium ions out of the cells while drawing two potassium ions into the cell.
      • helps to maintain the electrical gradient.
    • The electrical gradient and the concentration gradient work to pull sodium ions into the cell.
    • The electrical gradient tends to pull potassium ions into the cells.
  • 53. Fig. 2-15, p. 41
  • 54. The Nerve Impulse
    • The resting potential remains stable until the neuron is stimulated.
    • Hyperpolarization refers to increasing the polarization or the difference between the electrical charge of two places.
    • Depolarization refers to decreasing the polarization towards zero.
    • The threshold of excitement refers any stimulation beyond a certain level and results in a massive depolarization.
  • 55. The Nerve Impulse
    • An action potential is a rapid depolarization of the neuron.
    • Stimulation of the neuron past the threshold of excitation triggers a nerve impulse or action potential.
  • 56. The Nerve Impulse
    • Voltage-activated channels are membrane channels whose permeabililty depends upon the voltage difference across the membrane.
      • Sodium channels are voltage activated channels.
    • When sodium channels are opened, positively charged sodium ions rush in and a subsequent nerve impulse occurs.
  • 57. Fig. 2-16, p. 43
  • 58. The Nerve Impulse
    • After an action potential occurs, sodium channels are quickly closed.
    • The neuron is returned to its resting state by the opening of potassium channels.
      • potassium ions flow out due to the concentration gradient and take with them their positive charge.
    • The sodium-potassium pump later restores the original distribution of ions.
  • 59. The Nerve Impulse
    • Local anesthetic drugs block sodium channels and therefore prevent action potentials from occurring.
      • Example: Novocain
  • 60. The Nerve Impulse
    • The all-or-none law states that the amplitude and velocity of an action potential are independent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated it.
      • Action potentials are equal in intensity and speed within a given neuron.
  • 61. The Nerve Impulse
    • After an action potential, a neuron has a refractory period during which time the neuron resists another action potential.
    • The absolute refractory period is the first part of the period in which the membrane can not produce an action potential.
    • The relative refractory period is the second part in which it take a stronger than usual stimulus to trigger an action potential.
  • 62. The Nerve Impulse
    • In a motor neuron, the action potential begins at the axon hillock (a swelling where the axon exits the soma).
    • Propagation of the action potential is the term used to describe the transmission of the action potential down the axon.
      • the action potential does not directly travel down the axon.
  • 63. Fig. 2-17, p. 45
  • 64. The Nerve Impulse
    • The myelin sheath of axons are interrupted by short unmyelinated sections called nodes of Ranvier.
    • At each node of Ranvier, the action potential is regenerated by a chain of positively charged ion pushed along by the previous segment.
  • 65. Fig. 2-18, p. 46
  • 66. The Nerve Impulse
    • Saltatory conduction is the word used to describe this “jumping” of the action potential from node to node.
      • Provides rapid conduction of impulses
      • Conserves energy for the cell
    • Multiple sclerosis is disease in which the myelin sheath is destroyed and associated with poor muscle coordination.
  • 67. Fig. 2-19, p. 46
  • 68. The Nerve Impulse
    • Not all neurons have lengthy axons.
    • Local neurons have short axons, exchange information with only close neighbors, and do not produce action potentials.
    • When stimulated, local neurons produce graded potentials which are membrane potentials that vary in magnitude and do not follow the all-or-none law,.
    • A local neuron depolarizes or hyperpolarizes in proportion to the stimulation.