Joshua Brito Shawn Mooney  A.J. Fiore Adam Fraley
Introduction <ul><li>Sports involve certain levels of physical violence, but include restrictions and penalties for excess...
Sports Used <ul><li>Basketball </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Hockey </li></ul><ul><li>Lacrosse </li></ul><ul><li>Category : </li><...
Predictions <ul><li>Sports are watched due to violence </li></ul><ul><li>Men’s sports= more violence </li></ul><ul><li>Wom...
Data Description <ul><li>Sample size: 109 completed; 125 passed out, 3 tossed out due to incoherency, Sample Size= 106 </l...
Approaches to Surveys <ul><li>Surveyed Age group- 18-23 ( 7 surveyed 30 and older) </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals who watch...
Question Asked <ul><li>Do you watch sports for the pleasure of violence? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes No </li></ul><ul><li>   Do ...
Questions Asked <ul><li>Rate the following sports whether you agree they are popular for violence. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Fo...
Questions Asked <ul><li>In general, rate the violence levels in Men’s and Women’s sports.  1 less violent and 5 most viole...
Questions Asked <ul><li>Do you think that clean players attract as much attention as dirty players (meaning do players lik...
Male or Female
Age Breakdown 0.94 Percent Age Groups: 30 32 33 35 38 46 47
Watching for the Pleasure of Violence Percentage
One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>Hypothesis: 50% or more people watch sports for Violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Null: mu>= ...
One Sample Hypothesis Testing <ul><li>Test Statistic= -38.14 </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Measure= 1.66 </li></ul><ul><li>Ob...
Are contact sports more  entertaining than non-contact?
Confidence Interval for Q2 <ul><li>The population is the entire group of test takers with a 95% confidence level </li></ul...
One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>Hypothesis: 50% or more think violent sports are more entertaining than non-contact spo...
One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>Obs Statistic= 35.89 </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Measure= 1.66 </li></ul><ul><li>Obs> cr...
Do Violent Sports increase TV  ratings
Confidence Interval <ul><li>The entire group was used in the sample with a 95% confidencelevel </li></ul><ul><li>Point Est...
One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>Hypothesis   50% or more people believe that violence is condoned in sports to increas...
One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>Obs Statistic= 16.01 </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Measure= 1.66 </li></ul><ul><li>Obs> cr...
Two sample Hypothesis Testing for the proportion <ul><li>Hypothesis:  Ice Hockey(mu1) has an equal level of violence as La...
Two Sample Test <ul><li>test statistic (obs)  10.625 </li></ul><ul><li>critical measure 0.009  </li></ul><ul><li>degrees o...
Men think Women’s Basketball is more violent than Men’s Basketball <ul><li>Null: Men think Women’s Basketball is more viol...
Two Sample Test cont. <ul><li>t  test statistic (obs)  (5.866) </li></ul><ul><li>critical measure 0.014 </li></ul><ul><li>...
Does men’s ice hockey have more violence than women’s ice hockey <ul><li>Null: There is more violence in men’s hockey </li...
Linear Regression Graph
Regression results <ul><li>There is a loose positive correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Intercept P- Value:  0.465 </li></ul><u...
Is it okay to carry firearms for protection off the field? <ul><li>Hypothesis: It is okay to carry a firearm off the field...
One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>test statistic (obs)  -0.19  </li></ul><ul><li>critical measure  0.83 </li></ul><ul><li...
Does sports violence have an impact on individuals thinking its okay to be violent in the real world <ul><li>Null: Sports ...
One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>test statistic (obs)  0.00 </li></ul><ul><li>critical measure  0.83 </li></ul><ul><li>o...
Conclusion <ul><li>We found that 50% or more people do not watch sports for violence.  This does not mean that they do not...
Conclusion <ul><li>We have calculated that 50% or more think that violence is condoned in sports to increase ratings.  Thi...
Conclusion <ul><li>We also concluded that people Believe it is okay to carry Firearms off the field for Protection  </li><...
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Sports Violence

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  • Sports Violence

    1. 1. Joshua Brito Shawn Mooney A.J. Fiore Adam Fraley
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Sports involve certain levels of physical violence, but include restrictions and penalties for excessive and dangerous use of force. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence in sports may include threats, or physical harm and may be carried out by athletes, coaches, fans, spectators, or the parents of younger athletes. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Sports Used <ul><li>Basketball </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Hockey </li></ul><ul><li>Lacrosse </li></ul><ul><li>Category : </li></ul><ul><li>Men’s Sport </li></ul><ul><li>Women Sports </li></ul>
    4. 4. Predictions <ul><li>Sports are watched due to violence </li></ul><ul><li>Men’s sports= more violence </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s sports = less contact </li></ul><ul><li>Not okay for athlete to carry firearms on or off the field </li></ul><ul><li>Sports and the violence do have an affect on individuals watching </li></ul>
    5. 5. Data Description <ul><li>Sample size: 109 completed; 125 passed out, 3 tossed out due to incoherency, Sample Size= 106 </li></ul><ul><li>Paper Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Random Sampling </li></ul>
    6. 6. Approaches to Surveys <ul><li>Surveyed Age group- 18-23 ( 7 surveyed 30 and older) </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals who watch sports </li></ul><ul><li>Locations: Library, Student Center, Wilkes Fitness Center (Gym) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Question Asked <ul><li>Do you watch sports for the pleasure of violence? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes No </li></ul><ul><li>  Do you think more violent sports are more entertaining than non contact sport? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes No </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think that violence in sports is condoned to increase ratings in less popular sports? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes No </li></ul>
    8. 8. Questions Asked <ul><li>Rate the following sports whether you agree they are popular for violence. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Football </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree </li></ul><ul><li>B. Baseball </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree </li></ul><ul><li>C. Basketball </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree </li></ul><ul><li>D. Ice Hockey </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree </li></ul><ul><li>E. Boxing </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree </li></ul><ul><li>F. Mixed Martial Arts </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree </li></ul><ul><li>G. Lacrosse </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    9. 9. Questions Asked <ul><li>In general, rate the violence levels in Men’s and Women’s sports. 1 less violent and 5 most violent </li></ul><ul><li>Men’s Sports  1 2 3 4 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s Sports  1 2 3 4 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Rate the following sports in terms of violence levels between men’s and women’s sports. (1 being less violent, 5 being most violent) </li></ul><ul><li>A. Men’s Basketball 1 2 3 4 5 b. Women’s Basketball 1 2 3 4 5 </li></ul><ul><li>A. Men’s Ice Hockey 1 2 3 4 5 b. Women’s Ice Hockey 1 2 3 4 5 </li></ul><ul><li>A. Men’s Soccer 1 2 3 4 5 b. Women’s Soccer 1 2 3 4 5 </li></ul><ul><li>A. Men’s lacrosse 1 2 3 4 5 b. Women’s lacrosse 1 2 3 4 5 </li></ul>
    10. 10. Questions Asked <ul><li>Do you think that clean players attract as much attention as dirty players (meaning do players like Wes Welker have as many fans as players like Terrell Owens) </li></ul><ul><li>Yes No </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think it is okay for athletes to carry firearms off the field for protection (Such as Plaxico Burress carrying a firearm into a night club) </li></ul><ul><li>Yes No </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think sports violence has an impact on individuals thinking it is okay to be violent in the real world? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes No </li></ul>
    11. 11. Male or Female
    12. 12. Age Breakdown 0.94 Percent Age Groups: 30 32 33 35 38 46 47
    13. 13. Watching for the Pleasure of Violence Percentage
    14. 14. One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>Hypothesis: 50% or more people watch sports for Violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Null: mu>= 0.50, People watch sports for Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative mu< 0.50People do not watch sports for violence 1 tailed test </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Mean  0.33 </li></ul><ul><li>Population Mean  0.50 </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Deviation  0.05 </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Size  106 </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees Freedom  105 </li></ul>
    15. 15. One Sample Hypothesis Testing <ul><li>Test Statistic= -38.14 </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Measure= 1.66 </li></ul><ul><li>Observed<critical Reject the null </li></ul><ul><li>P-value= 1.22E-63 </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha Level= .05 </li></ul><ul><li>P-value < alpha level Reject the null </li></ul><ul><li>50% or more people do not watch sports for violence. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Are contact sports more entertaining than non-contact?
    17. 17. Confidence Interval for Q2 <ul><li>The population is the entire group of test takers with a 95% confidence level </li></ul><ul><li>Point Estimate = .6698 </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Measure= 1.959 </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Error= .0458 </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Limit= .7597 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Limit= .5798 </li></ul><ul><li>The average in a range with the calculated error in both directions is (.5798-.7597) Meaning the average is between 57% and 75% </li></ul>
    18. 18. One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>Hypothesis: 50% or more think violent sports are more entertaining than non-contact sports </li></ul><ul><li>Null: mu>=0.5, Violent sports are more entertaining </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative mu<0.5, Violent sports are not more entertaining </li></ul><ul><li>One-tail </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Mean= .66 </li></ul><ul><li>Pop. Mean = 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>St Dev= .05 </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Size=106 </li></ul>
    19. 19. One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>Obs Statistic= 35.89 </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Measure= 1.66 </li></ul><ul><li>Obs> critical Accept the Null </li></ul><ul><li>P-value= 4.53E-61 </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha Level 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>P-value< a-level Accept the Null </li></ul><ul><li>50% or more think violent sports are more entertaining than non-contact sports </li></ul>
    20. 20. Do Violent Sports increase TV ratings
    21. 21. Confidence Interval <ul><li>The entire group was used in the sample with a 95% confidencelevel </li></ul><ul><li>Point Estimate= 0.575 </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Measure= 1.9599 </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Error= .0482 </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Limit= .669 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Limit= .4804 </li></ul><ul><li>The average is in between the range of (0.4804-0.669) </li></ul>
    22. 22. One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>Hypothesis  50% or more people believe that violence is condoned in sports to increase ratings in less popular sports </li></ul><ul><li>Null: mu>=0.5, Sports violence is condoned </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative mu<0.5, Sports Violence is not condoned </li></ul><ul><li>One-tail </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Mean= .575 </li></ul><ul><li>Pop. Mean = 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>St Dev= .05 </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Size=106 </li></ul>
    23. 23. One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>Obs Statistic= 16.01 </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Measure= 1.66 </li></ul><ul><li>Obs> critical Accept the Null </li></ul><ul><li>P-value= 3.08E-30 </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha Level 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>P-value< a-level Accept the Null </li></ul><ul><li>50% or more think that violence is condoned in sports to increase ratings </li></ul>
    24. 24. Two sample Hypothesis Testing for the proportion <ul><li>Hypothesis: Ice Hockey(mu1) has an equal level of violence as Lacrosse(mu2) </li></ul><ul><li>Null: mu1=mu2, There is no difference </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative: mu1<>mu2, There is a difference </li></ul><ul><li>sample mean 1 4.44 stdev 1 81.6% sample size 1 106 </li></ul><ul><li>sample mean 2 3.25 stdev 2 81.9% sample size 2 106 </li></ul>
    25. 25. Two Sample Test <ul><li>test statistic (obs) 10.625 </li></ul><ul><li>critical measure 0.009 </li></ul><ul><li>degrees of freedom 2 </li></ul><ul><li>|obs| > critical?? yes Reject The Null </li></ul><ul><li>p-value 0.009 </li></ul><ul><li>a-level 0.050 </li></ul><ul><li>p-value < a-level?? yes Reject The null </li></ul><ul><li>There is a difference </li></ul>
    26. 26. Men think Women’s Basketball is more violent than Men’s Basketball <ul><li>Null: Men think Women’s Basketball is more violent or equal to Men’s Basketball mu1>=mu2 </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative: Men believe that Women’s Basketball is not more violent than Men’s Basketball, mu1<mu2 </li></ul><ul><li>sample mean 1 1.87 stdev 1 93.1% sample size 1 106 </li></ul><ul><li>sample mean 2 2.61 stdev 2 90.3% sample size 2 106 </li></ul><ul><li>one-tailed or two tailed? 1 </li></ul><ul><li>t -Test </li></ul>
    27. 27. Two Sample Test cont. <ul><li>t test statistic (obs) (5.866) </li></ul><ul><li>critical measure 0.014 </li></ul><ul><li>degrees of freedom 2 </li></ul><ul><li>|obs| > critical?? Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Reject The Null </li></ul><ul><li>p-value 0.014 </li></ul><ul><li>a-level .05 </li></ul><ul><li>p-value < a-level?? yes Reject The null Men do not think women’s basketball is more violent than men’s basketball </li></ul>
    28. 28. Does men’s ice hockey have more violence than women’s ice hockey <ul><li>Null: There is more violence in men’s hockey </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative: There is not more violence in men’s hockey </li></ul><ul><li>correlation 0.125555888 </li></ul><ul><li>slope 0.075180483 </li></ul><ul><li>intercept 4.2480707 </li></ul><ul><li>R squared 0.015764281 </li></ul><ul><li>Steyx 0.7171812 </li></ul><ul><li>Graph  y = 0.0361x + 4.3945 </li></ul><ul><li>R² = 0.002 </li></ul>
    29. 29. Linear Regression Graph
    30. 30. Regression results <ul><li>There is a loose positive correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Intercept P- Value: 0.465 </li></ul><ul><li>X Variable P- Value: 0.383 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, we accept the null; men’s hockey has more violence than women’s hockey </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Is it okay to carry firearms for protection off the field? <ul><li>Hypothesis: It is okay to carry a firearm off the field for protection. Mu>=50% </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative: It is not okay to carry a firearm off the field for protection. Mu<50%, One Tail </li></ul><ul><li>sample proportion 0.49 </li></ul><ul><li>population proportion 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>std error 0.048564293 </li></ul><ul><li>sample size 106 </li></ul>
    32. 32. One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>test statistic (obs) -0.19 </li></ul><ul><li>critical measure 0.83 </li></ul><ul><li>obs > critical? no Accept the Null </li></ul><ul><li>p-value 0.4229 </li></ul><ul><li>a-level 0.05 </li></ul><ul><li>p-value < a-level? no Accept the null </li></ul><ul><li>People Believe it is okay to carry Firearms off the field for Protection </li></ul>
    33. 33. Does sports violence have an impact on individuals thinking its okay to be violent in the real world <ul><li>Null: Sports has an impact on peoples violence levels, Mu>=50% </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative: Sports do not have an impact on peoples violence levels, MU<50% </li></ul><ul><li>sample proportion 0.50 </li></ul><ul><li>population proportion 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>std error 0.048564293 </li></ul><ul><li>sample size 106 </li></ul>
    34. 34. One Sample Hypothesis Test <ul><li>test statistic (obs) 0.00 </li></ul><ul><li>critical measure 0.83 </li></ul><ul><li>obs > critical? no Accept the Null </li></ul><ul><li>p-value 0.5000 </li></ul><ul><li>a-level 0.05 </li></ul><ul><li>p-value < a-level? no Accept the null </li></ul><ul><li>People believe that sports violence has an impact on people being violent in the real world. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Conclusion <ul><li>We found that 50% or more people do not watch sports for violence. This does not mean that they do not watch violent sports, but they do not watch sports to see violence. </li></ul><ul><li>We have determined that 50% or more think violent sports are more entertaining than non-contact sports. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Conclusion <ul><li>We have calculated that 50% or more think that violence is condoned in sports to increase ratings. This means that the less popular sports do use violence to attract people to watch the sport. </li></ul><ul><li>We found that men believe that Men’s Basketball is more violent than Women’s Basketball. </li></ul><ul><li>We concluded that men’s hockey has more violence than women’s hockey. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Conclusion <ul><li>We also concluded that people Believe it is okay to carry Firearms off the field for Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, we found that people believe that sports violence has an impact on people being violent in the real world. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Questions?
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