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Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
Population Structure
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Population Structure

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  • 1. Demographic Change focusing on the UK
  • 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Be able to use Spearman’s Rank to evaluate the relationship between 2 variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how the population of the UK has changed over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to give detailed reasons for the change in birth and death rates in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Know how the population structure of the UK has changed over time. </li></ul>
  • 3. Population as a system migration natural change TOTAL POPULATION births immigrants emigrants deaths INPUTS PROCESSES OUTPUTS
  • 4. Population as a system migration natural change TOTAL POPULATION births immigrants emigrants deaths
  • 5. Population as a system migration natural change TOTAL POPULATION births immigrants emigrants deaths
  • 6. Population as a system migration natural change TOTAL POPULATION births immigrants emigrants deaths
  • 7. Year Birth Rate (per 1000) Death Rate (per 1000) 1700 32 31.5 1720 32.5 32 1740 36 36 1760 37 30 1780 38 29 1800 37 25 1820 36 21 1840 33 24 1860 35 23 1880 33 20 1900 28 17 1920 21 14 1940 15 13.5 1960 18 12 1980 12 12.5 2000 13 10
  • 8. Demographic change in the UK
  • 9. Population Change in the UK
  • 10. Factors affecting death rates <ul><li>1720-1740 : The widespread availability of cheap gin caused a period of very high mortality. This was ended by the introduction of a ‘gin tax’. </li></ul><ul><li>1770 : Dispensary movement began in cities. London was largely free from major epidemics of infectious diseases. ‘The plague’ had receded in the C17th and cholera only became more severe once the Empire was extended. </li></ul><ul><li>1798 : Jenners discovered smallpox vaccination. </li></ul>
  • 11. Factors affecting death rates <ul><li>1800–1850 : The Industrial Revolution is in full-flow. Living and working conditions for many were very poor. The high population density caused diseases to spread more rapidly. Atmospheric pollution and dirty and dangerous jobs kept death rates high. </li></ul><ul><li>Some significant improvements were also made during this time. </li></ul>
  • 12. Manchester, 1840
  • 13. Child pulling coal up a tunnel
  • 14. Over London by Rail by Gustave Dore, c. 1870. shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities
  • 15. Industrial Revolution - improvements <ul><li>1833 and 1844 : Factory Acts were passed to ban child labour – children under the age of 9 no longer allowed to work and the under 18s were limited to 12 hours a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial workers were better paid than those in agriculture. With more money, women ate better and had healthier babies, who were themselves better fed. </li></ul>
  • 16. Industrial Revolution - improvements <ul><li>1848 : Public Health Act – supply of water and drainage </li></ul><ul><li>1868 : Local authorities begin to condemn unfit buildings </li></ul><ul><li>The Industrial Revolution created a larger middle class of professionals such as lawyers and doctors who benefited from better living conditions. </li></ul>
  • 17. Factors affecting death rates <ul><li>1914-1918 : First World War – 994, 138 UK deaths </li></ul><ul><li>1939-1945 : Second World War – 450, 400 UK deaths (0.94% of the population) </li></ul><ul><li>1921 : Local councils begin to treat tuberculosis </li></ul>
  • 18. Factors affecting birth rates <ul><li>Prior to 1840 : Most people worked as farmers. Many children worked for their parents as labourers. </li></ul><ul><li>Medical conditions and sanitation were also very poor, so there was a high rate of infant mortality. </li></ul><ul><li>1833 : Factories ban child labour – children no longer seen as economically beneficial </li></ul>
  • 19. Factors affecting birth rates <ul><li>After 1875 : medical science improved, there were more doctors and a better understanding and availability of drug treatments. Surgery became more available and anaesthesia became available. </li></ul><ul><li>1876 : Charles Bradlaugh and Annie Besant published a controversial book about birth control. </li></ul><ul><li>1899 : Education became compulsory to age 13. </li></ul>
  • 20. Factors affecting birth rates <ul><li>1914-1918 : World War I – large numbers of young males are serving in the military. </li></ul><ul><li>1929-1933 : The effects of the Great Depression were felt in the UK. Affecting much of the world, this economic downturn led to instability. Unemployment had doubled by 1930. People living in poverty put off having children. </li></ul>
  • 21. Factors affecting birth rates <ul><li>1939-1945 : World War II – again, many young males are serving in the military. Plus, political instability mean fewer births. </li></ul><ul><li>1946-1964 : Men returned from the army and replaced women in the workplace. Marriage once again became a cultural norm for women. The post-war ‘baby-boom’. </li></ul><ul><li>1946 : NHS established by new Labour government. </li></ul>
  • 22. Factors affecting birth rates <ul><li>The development of a ‘consumer society’ meant people began to prioritise homes, cars, holidays and other material possessions. </li></ul><ul><li>1974 : Contraception was made available free of charge on the NHS. </li></ul><ul><li>The status of women continues to rise. More women go to university and prioritise their careers. </li></ul>
  • 23. Percentage of population in different age categories in the UK, 1840-2000 1840 1880 1920 1940 2000 0-14 36 36 26 19 19 15-29 28 26 28 22 20 30-44 18 18 21 21 22 45-59 11 13 15 20 20 60-74 6 6 8 12 12 75+ 1 1 2 6 7
  • 24. Economic, political and social factors

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