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The Middle Kingdom's Western Medical Disciples By Stanley Crawford

The Middle Kingdom's Western Medical Disciples By Stanley Crawford



Chinese City History, Chinese Western Medical History, Religious Studies, Woman's Studies, Dr.Virgil Hart , Dr. Edgerton Hart, Caroline Maddock Hart, Dr. Mary Stone, Shi Mei yu, Dr. Ida Kahn, ...

Chinese City History, Chinese Western Medical History, Religious Studies, Woman's Studies, Dr.Virgil Hart , Dr. Edgerton Hart, Caroline Maddock Hart, Dr. Mary Stone, Shi Mei yu, Dr. Ida Kahn, Cheng Kang, and Jenny Hughes

Chinese City & location history of, Chengdu, Chongqing, Kaiting / Leshan, Jiujiang, Nanchang, Lushan, Kuling Boyang Lake, the Yangtze River, Little Shoe Island / Xie Xia, Big Shoe Island / Shou Gou Shan, Anqing, Wuhu, Nanjing, Shanghai and Tzeliutsing China.

Stan Crawford Photo Collection, Hart & Stone Nursing Scholarship Fund Awards Ceremony, mission statement description and photos.



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    The Middle Kingdom's Western Medical Disciples By Stanley Crawford The Middle Kingdom's Western Medical Disciples By Stanley Crawford Document Transcript

    • The Middle Kingdom's Western Medical Disciples Volume I: The life of Dr. Virgil Hart / with stories about Dr. Edgerton Hart & Caroline Maddock Hart Volume II: The life of Dr. Mary Stone, Jenny Hughes, Dr. Ida Kahn & Mariam Wong Volume III: The History Of Kuling & Historic Lushan Chinese version Preface I want to thank all those who have been a big part of helping me in creating this book with special mentions going to my Aunt Cathy Green, Aunt Carol and Uncle Ken Eikelmann and my older brother Steve & his wife Terri Crawford, who tolerated my rants to help contribute/edit the Hart work. To the KAS members (Kuling American School), Peter Burt and his wife Adrienne for their editing efforts on the Dr. Mary Stone and Dr. Ida Kahn portions too. To the Jiujiang To-Win Translation Co., who are responsible for the Chinese version page and the Jiujiang Public Library for all its work in page layout and publication help. With a special thanks going to the verbal translation services of Samuel Shui, Nick He Guang, Huang Xiao Kui, and others that without their assistance, much of my information gathered would have been more of a challenge than it was. The years of stories I was told by my grandmother, my great aunts Helen and Rose and what snippets of memories I have of my great grandmother whom we visited every Sunday afternoon until her death. I also want to thank the authors of the books which provided much of the information I used in writing my own. Thanks also go to my Hart relatives who kept such rich and detailed writings of the things they observed while providing medical care and educational training to the Chinese people. This future book and present site is to provide the reader with a pictorial glimpse into the past through the eye of an American family that committed itself through three generations of building and providing western medical care and education to the Chinese people from 1866-1924, with my own photos of the same places today. The book tells of the lives of two remarkable Chinese women: Dr. Mary Stone and Dr. Ida Kahn, the first western educated female Chinese doctors to hail from what is the city now known as Jiujiang, one of many pearls along the ever flowing and sometimes over-flowing Yangtze River. Included are now three more additional generations of people, one my grandmother and her sisters and brothers, who lived a part of their early lives in Wuhu, traveling to Kiukiang and Kuling for holidays spent with many other mission families gathered for festive occasions. I was introduced to Mariam Wong by a newspaper reporter who did the article on the Hwa Feng Chiao Bridge at the end of the page. The
    • brief things she described after I gave her pictures of Wuhu and Dr. Stone, pictures that she had lost in a house fire, brought many tears of joy once again to recall stories of her life to and share with her family, I expect to add in the future. These never ending stories as a child would weave my imagination into mystic lands of exotic people and wonderful things to behold. Now living in China as a teacher of English at Jiujiang University has allowed me to seek out these places my family once trod, and to meet people who know about my former relatives. Their memories and interpretations have provided me the information to re-tell the stories to a new generation of family and Chinese people who are interested to know who personally represented the Methodist's Missions and others which had so much impetus to facilitate what are the medical and teaching colleges of some of the cities within China today. Half of the revenues generated from sales of this book are going to the Caroline Maddock Hart, Dr. Mary Stone and Dr. Ida Kahn Nurses Scholarship Funds at Jiujiang University. If revenue warrants additional scholarships will be created in the name of Dr.Virgil Hart and Dr. Edgerton Hart at both Jiujiang and Wuhu medical colleges. There is a U.S. donation account that will manage and forward these monies to the students awarded. Scholarship selections will be based on their submitting a life story of their future intentions and of their need, based on their family's annual income. A similar account will be available to accept Chinese donations and be awarded to the chosen recipients too. If interested, your donation is greatly appreciated and will serve a needed student's desire to continue the cause begun many years ago. It currently costs just under 10,000 RMB or $1,250 for tuition, books and dorm expenses per year: a good bargain compared to many western institutions. Jiujiang University also accepts applicants from western students and currently hosts medical students from: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Malawi, Niger and Pakistan, with foreign teachers from: Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, England, Italy, Hong Kong, Japan, Mexico, Nepal and the U.S.A.. Website: Jiujiang University E-mail:fao@jju.edu.cn Another 10% of revenue will go to the Jiujiang Public Library for children's programs (local & rural) and books needed to fill their shelves. Dr. Virgil Hart saw the need to begin the education of children at an early age to provide future students to attend the medical schools and teachers colleges that were created out of the mission stations. The goal was to help China with her desire to develop and become a brother of nations all the world should be striving towards. Your contributions and sharing of this book will broaden the development of these opportunities for children who desperately want to improve the quality of their lives.
    • I want to acknowledge that I borrowed heavily, re-writing from Virgil Hart Missionary Statesman, Notable Women of Modern China, The History of Kuling and Historical Lushan. Many mission news references and stories told by my grandmother and great aunts are all combined together with my own personal observations and experiences. This is not an accurate historical record, merely a work of entertainment with added actual historical events and circumstances observed by myself. Photos displayed are a combination of the Hart Family collection, digitized copies from old mission news notes and family books that are available also on-line with links below, and my own. These photos are not to be used for personal monetary gain by unauthorized individuals. Virgil Hart Missionary Statesman by E. I. Hart Our Western Mission by Dr. Virgil Hart Notable Women of Modern China by Margret Burton Western China by Dr. Virgil Hart Historic Lushan by Albert Hendrix Stone The Temple and the Sage by Dr. Virgil Hart The History of Kuling by Edward Little The Chinese Government: A Manual For Chinese Titles by William Fredrick Mayers _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Table Of Contents
    • Volume I Dr Virgil Hart: Man On a Mission I & II "The Call" "Fellow Farers True" XVII "The Re-Established Mission" III & IV "Outward bound" "The first field" XVIII "One Step From Heaven" V & VI "Central China" " On Furlough" XXIV "Appeal unto Caesar" VII "By River & Lake" XX "The First Contingent" VIII "A Movement Forward" XXI "Beginnings" IX "Ichi san / Pheasant Hill" XXII "The Work Expanding" X "The Porcelain city" XXIII "Bolt From the Blue" XI "Change but No Rest" XXIV "The Work Resumed" XIII "Turned Back" XXV "Visit To An Outstation"
    • XIV "For Canada" XXVI "Two Eventful Years" XV "The Chinese Tartarus" XXVII "Worn Out" XVI "The Seductive Viper" Dr. Edgerton Hart: In His Fathers Footsteps Caroline Maddock Hart: Note: The Chinese words for cities or titles are from Dr. Virgil Hart's writings and used throughout the book. The names used today can be ascertained by replacing the K's with a J, Example Kiukiang / Jiujiang. The exception is with the name Kuling, Edward Little chopped the English word cool, created a modified Chinese twist to it Kul and added ing to finish it off. _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _
    • _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Dr. Virgil Hart: Man On A Mission by Stanley Crawford
    • Seated: Dr Virgil Hart, daughter: Estella Hart (Hare), 2nd son: Edgerton Haskell, wife: Adeline Gilliland Hart; Standing: 4th son: Virgil Ross, 1st son: Evanston Ives, 3rd son: Maynard Manson I "The Call" II "Fellow-Farers True" My great-great-grandfather Dr. Virgil C. Hart felt a calling to serve his fellow human as a young man in upstate New York, U.S.A., in 1854. After graduation from Garrett Biblical Institute in 1865, he accepted an appointment from the Methodist Episcopal Church to serve as a missionary in Foochow, China. He proposed to his sweetheart of only a few months named Adeline Gilliland, who had been told by a fortune teller that she would travel to far away places and have five children, four of them boys, a prophecy later fulfilled. Virgil told her to only consider his proposal if she was willing to spend her life in China.
    • III "Outward Bound" IV "The First Field" After spending a harrowing six month trip aboard a schooner, Mr. and Mrs. Hart spent a year in Fuzhou, Fujin learning the Chinese language. Then they were told their first place of residence would be Kiukiang, Kiangsi, which had become a treaty port in 1860. Upon arrival, there were only 30 Americans and English nationals mainly involved in the customs and Consular office affairs who were occupying a concession of land by the river facing the western walls of the city. Kiukiang was where the Methodist Missions of Central China built the first western hospital in the province that is today the #1 People's Hospital. V "Central China" VI "On Furlough" There was a Scottish preacher who spent more time consoling a liquor bottle on Saturday night, than amongst his lowei flock and the Chinese people that came to St Paul’s Church on Sunday. Virgil Hart was asked to relieve this tormented soul and thus he began to eagerly discharge the sermons there for the next 20 years. The anti-foreigner sentiment was strong but there were three Chinese families that aided Virgil Hart greatly. A day school was quickly organized and begun with 3 students that swelled to 14 after a few days of the word getting out about its existence. This was contested by evil men who gossiped that the foreigner would whip the children and cut their eyes out, to be used as telescope lenses, so that to continue a native teacher was hired to educate the children. Soon after arriving in Kiukiang, Mr. Hart was sought by a Chinese man who had heard about his being there and requested he make a journey inland to meet other men anxious to see him. After a day's travel south, they came upon a temple where many had gathered to hear the “Mu Si” or great foreign teacher. Virgil Hart made five journeys similar to this his first year in Kiukiang. These journeys into the countryside were by no means easily undertaken for the Chinese road system was unlike today. Boats were the easiest when water was available or where the road on land was broad and fairly level, a sedan
    • chair was the main mode of transportation offered. As the pathway narrowed a wheel barrow became an alternative means, and when the gradient became steep, a horse was the most efficient mode of moving forward, if available. Enclosed Sedan Chair (NWMC) Photo Chinese Wheelbarrow (NG) photo Accompanying him were one or two coolies to carry the food, bedding and supply of books on forays. Sleep would be found in a temple or accommodating home for the “Foreign Devil”. Passing though hamlets was not an easy task as agitators who held a
    • grudge against a lowei (foreigner), could entice stone throwing or physical harassing of the coolies, to bring on injury. One such instance occurred when they were ambushed while trying to cross a long bridge. After getting away from the mob they required a convalescence stay in a temple for several days before Virgil Hart could return from the journey. Not being easily intimidated Virgil Hart would return to the very spot upon where the altercation had taken place just to prove he could not be driven from the field, and through humor and reason gained the respect of the Chinese natives.
    • The first western medical dispensary in Kiukiang VII "By River & Lake"
    • In order to fulfill his duties of building missions along the Yangtze River, it was necessary for Virgil Hart to travel by boat, but using local transportation was both tedious and unsafe. So when the opportunity unveiled itself in the mid 1870’s, he took it. He had heard of an unfortunate sportsman who had lost a sailing ship in a card game to a friend of his who had no interest in the craft. The man knew Virgil Hart was looking for such a boat. Formerly named “The Mad Cap”, Virgil had it rechristened the Stella, after the name of his youngest child and only daughter. It was 13 m long and had a beam of 3m and could accommodate six passengers easily. Many a long and interesting trip was made on it along the Yangtze River, around Boyang Lake and its tributaries. In 1877, it was decided the whole family would attend the mission conference held in Shanghai by sailing the Stella the 700 klms there. Sailing down the rushing Yangtze River and back again would require many weeks and all were excited to take the risk. After everything was tucked away, the boat cast off from Kiukiang port and for two days the sailing was smooth, but the morning of the third day brought ominous signs of headwinds and dark clouds.
    • Seeking shelter in a small creek to wait out the time for more welcome quarter one can be deceived at anchor as to how strong the wind is actually blowing. It was no sooner they were on their way when they wished they were back again. They were in the center of the river and tacking towards the north bank, when horror struck by the mast snapping at its base, crashing towards the stern, bringing the saturated sail down into the river with the rain coming down in torrents. The boat was turned onto its side, spilling all the contents and people into the water. What was to be done with no other boats on the river, in a fast treacherous current with winds approaching a gale force? The crew, stricken with fear, lay prone-like on the deck moaning and clinging to what they could. The children were in the cabin with wife Adeline by the tiller, while Virgil Hart leaped upon the cabin roof and ordered the sail be cut from the mast and make it secure. This action helped to right the boat, but as the storm increased directing the boat by rudder was futile, being driven by the mercy of the wind and waves. Imagine to their delight when spying down river the trimmed cut sails of a foreign schooner! It appeared at first to not see the distressed sailboat flying the stars and stripes, but after passing came about and lowered her sails. After a tow rope was secured they were pulled to a creek and let off to ascertain the damage to put the little sailing ship back into condition once again. Luckily a cargo of camphor logs was found nearby with a carpenter hired for two days to resume their stalled journey down the river. Many great cities were passed, all important stopping places for supplies and shelter, making late the arrival of the Hart family to the conference. A house was rented and coolies hired to bring water by shoulder pole from the “Bubbling Spring” well a mile away to be poured into large jars or tanks in the back of the house. These coolies were not honest men and on hot days would not trek to the well. Instead they drew water directly from Sochow Creek in which flowed the drainage of hundreds of houses, filthy streets and miles of shipping waste, with just the thought of it making one weak. The result was Virgil Hart and two members of the family were smitten with malaria, which for weeks kept them alternatively convulsing with burning fever and shaking chills. Thought to be cured of this disease, it was to return upon Virgil Hart in his later years and a more virulent form sapped his vitality and shortened his life. Later it was decided by the mission headquarters to have a steam boat built to carry out work by its force. Money was collected to commission an English shipbuilder to make the craft and it was transported on the deck of an ocean liner to Shanghai. However, Chinese officials notified the American counsul they would not allow the “Glad Tidings” to ply the inland waters as planned. The reason advanced was if the missions were allowed to operate their own steamers, then soon foreign merchants and local ones would demand the right also, thus increasing the smuggling and cheating the customs and duty fees already denied the government. For four years the “Glad Tidings” lay in dry dock till Virgil Hart suggested it be sold before its depreciating value made it worthless. After it was sold, three sailboats similar in design to the Stella were ordered with the name
    • “Glad Tidings” with the city of the home port they hailed from included. For a score of years these sailboats plied the inland waterways of central China to deliver mission medical supplies and gospel where needed. VIII "A Forward Movement" In an article written in 1874, Virgil Hart wrote, “I frequently climb the hills for inspiration and to get a wide sweep of the broad, rich fields given us to cultivate. I return to the dirty, noisy streets refreshed and encouraged to plod along and continue the work of assisting the local people. When shall railroads and carriage ways wind through these broad valleys carrying the the riches of the this great State to and from its metropolis? Will it be in my day? My judgment says no, but my faith pierces to a higher flight as my heart beats quicker for the coming of China". Before many a year had past, Virgil Hart was able to see his deep longing dream of medical missions materialize. It was through countless hours of meeting with mission superintendents and repeat letters of petitions to mission Secretaries to encourage the recruitment of teachers, medical missionaries, physicians, and nurses; and for building dispensaries, hospitals, schools and colleges. In one letter he exclaims, “Experience has taught us some valuable lessons in that to open new stations in China and prosecute vigorous work there is no influence so powerful as that of the art of healing”. “If ones' spiritual work is to be effective, what more effectual means than to heal the sick, and alleviate the pain of suffering, for the doctor and teacher are welcome where the preacher is scarcely tolerated....To allay prejudice, to inspire confidence and to produce gratitude, there is nothing to compare with the healing art”. In what seemed excruciating long time there came the reply from the mission rooms in New York that large appropriations for Central China had been approved and reinforcements would soon be on the way so the long desired plan could be put into action. The first place to be occupied was Chinkiang a city of four hundred thousand souls at the junction of the Yangtze River and the Grand Imperial Canal, giving it direct communication with most of the principle cities and provinces in central China. A few hours sail north was the city of Yangchow with a population of a half a million. The story of the founding of the Chunkiang mission would not be complete if no reference was made to the important contributions Superintendent Virgil Hart made in
    • establishing the Woman’s Foreign Missionary Society. The purchasing of property from the Chinese was always a difficult matter especially in those days, but particularly it was so if the negotiations were to be carried out by the foreign women which were contrary to normal Chinese etiquette. Virgil Hart was called upon by the Woman’s Missionary Society to render help by protecting them against extortion or fraud for land and the contracts for buildings. In Chunkiang today sits the splendid site of the Girls' Boarding School and Woman’s Hospital, an eloquent testament to his foresight and good judgment. Chunkiang is 170 klms. upriver from Shanghai and all up-river ferries made ports stop there. It once used to be the most heavily fortified city in central China, but a few hours of shelling by the British gun-boats leveled its forts in 1842 and the Chinese were slow to forget the damage inflicted upon its ego. This retarded the progress of successful mission work in the area. Soon after the British bombardment, the city suffered severely from the Taiping Rebellion with its population being reduced to 25,000. Yet Chunkiang was phoenix-like rising from its ashes to become a important commercial center. A treaty port with about 200 foreign residents and the Gold & Silver Islands, the city was covered with ancient temples and monasteries. One of the most interesting is the Iron Pagoda cast and erected over 2,000 years ago. It was believed that by placing a stick or twig at the base of the pagoda a person would be immune from back pain. When Virgil Hart arrived in Chunkiang in 1880, there was a dedicated Dr. White and his wife who built a dispensary and small school, but after five years were ready to migrate to Europe. IX "Ichi san/Pheasant Hill" Three hundred miles upriver from Shanghai where the Yangtze River makes a broad sweeping curve westwards, nestling in a fertile valley is the city of Wuhu, one of the chief rice exporting centers of China. Its massive walls surrounding it and the weather worn pagoda facing the anchorage were built some fifteen centuries before. From this “Peaceful” city came the notorious Koo Sou Whai whose crimes plunged more than one foreign persons home into mourning. There were few places in China where the anti- foreign sentiment was as pronounced or bitter as found in Wuhu. So hostile were its citizens to foreigners residing there they could not obtain life insurance policies as their risks were too great a gamble.
    • Though Wuhu was made a treaty port in 1877, it was not until 1881 that Virgil Hart and the Rev. M.L. Taft arrived to rent a house on a main thorough-fare with the intent for the Rev. James Jackson and his wife to occupy it. Virgil Hart wrote he was like a “steam engine”, wishing the mission had more men like him. Two years later a choice location a mile from the center of town, just upstream from the port was secured. It was a wooded hill lot that was surrounded on two sides by the meandering Yangtze River named Ichi san or Pheasant hill. The area around was known as a sportsman’s paradise with foreigners gathering from different parts of the river to explore the hills and streams for wild bore, deer, and fowl. Virgil Hart said if he had a gun in the boat he could have shot and retrieved them off the river. "Pure breezes cool its heights and porpoises frolic in waves along its rocky shores" is a poetic description once given. After contracts were signed it was realized the British counsul had its eyes on it for a long time, working through Chinese officials to secure it as a future British consulate, but were too late. The alert actions of Virgil Hart cut through the red-tape of officialism.
    • The hospital was built at the crest of the hill and at its base were the Girl’s Boarding School and residences for the mission staff. Travelers after learning the hill was occupied by missionaries were known to exclaim they live like royalty. Though it is doubtful one of these globe-trotting travelers would be willing to trade their life for a day with those faithful servants, some who spent twenty years or more upon a solidarity piece of real-estate on the banks of the Middle Kingdom's greatest river. The names of three physicians admired by the people of Wuhu should be remembered with the hospital at Ichi san, that is still the largest hospital complex in all of Anhui. One is Dr. Stuart, the original mission doctor when the hospital began, who was also the first president of the University of Nanking. Another is Dr. Chung a native who declined an offer of the Chinese Imperial government for a salary five times what he received from the mission, being forever thankful to be delivered from his paganism. The last person to note is Edgerton Haskell Hart who was the second son of the great Superintendent of the Methodist Mission in China, Dr. Virgil Hart. X "The Porcelain City" It was said that Kiangsi was completely independent from the rest of China, supplying it with five times more rice than it consumed. It had the largest lumber mart in the country, exported more tea than any other province, and was the original place and one of the few places in the world to manufacture porcelain. For more than 2,000 years the city of Chintekching (Jingdezhen) has produced porcelain of such magnificence it was the only material to touch the emperors lips besides gold, silver or precious stones. The capital city of Nanchang, across Boyang Lake is where the staging of porcelain began its trade route distribution points to places outside of China. It is therefore obvious why Virgil Hart steered the Stella in its direction, though on one occasion the local people spanned the width of the river with a cable to hinder his progress, and threw stones while shouting “Kill the Foreign Devil!” Finally they gave up on expecting to sway Virgil Hart from his intentions and a telegram was sent to the New York mission offices declaring a house had been rented in Nanchang Foo. "We have reached the center from which we can go in every direction throughout the province". In 1882 as the plans were being drawn up, Mr. Hart requested several hearty men to be sent there. Little did anyone know that this call would go unheeded for some twenty years and it would not be a man doctor, but a native Chinese woman named Dr. Ida Kahn that answered the call to become the dominating mission personality for this great city.
    • Nanchang City Arch, one of many surrounding it. XI "Change But No Rest" It was unfortunate that Virgil Hart did not go back to Nanchang many years later, to see the fruit of the seeds he planted that became one of the marvels of mission history in China. The one little rented home became a Woman’s and Children’s hospital directed
    • by the great Dr. Ida Kahn, a girl’s boarding school and the embryonic beginnings of what was to become the University of Nanchang. In 1881 after frequent bouts with malaria, Virgil Hart decided he needed a year of furlough and left for the United States via Europe. While in London he had estimates solicited for the “Glad Tidings” steamship mentioned earlier and one month later he was in upstate New York with his family. XII "The Pride of the Yangtze" "Here Virgil, you should establish a hospital," exclaimed Adeline to her husband in 1881, as they were standing on the deck of a steamer at Nanking. This was the inspiration for what became a future Hospital, girl’s boarding school, the University of Nanking with its famous medical and theological colleges and other important institutions. The Nanking mission became the crowning ambition of his Superintendency for central China. It was strange that so important a city had been neglected by the great missionary bodies of China. Chinese officials had employed several foreigners in the manufacture of weapons and ammunition there, but of the missionary societies possessed no arsenal of members or a battle plan devised when it came to send out the doctrines to win the hearts and minds of Nanking residents.
    • Nanking is halfway between Kiukiang and Shanghai, with easy access by both ship and carriage, and for eight generations was the capitol of China. It was one of the largest and most cultural of Chinese cities with its art and literature, and thriving satin and silk business, produced by one hundred thousand weavers on twenty thousand looms. Mr. Hart imagined that Nanking might once again become by its geographical location the capitol city of a rejuvenated people and modern China. It was the site of numerous magnificent temples with its shining star being the Porcelain Pagoda, the pride of the Yangtze, glory of the nation with its nine shining stories, casting a shadow of over four hundred feet and costing more than three point five million taels of silver to erect the world’s first skyscraper. This important city should not be left to grope in pagan darkness. While he was home on a much needed furlough he attended the Methodist Mission annual conference in New York where he addressed the committee with a proposal for ten thousand dollars to build and equip a hospital. Dr. Fowler wrote to Virgil Hart by letter to meet in San Francisco with a Mr. Blackstone who was willing to furnish the required funds requested. The Superintendent had his prayers answered with a great burden lifted from his heart. En-route he stopped in Salt Lake City where he had an experience he would never forget. The police chief had been shot by a black man who was lynched within less than ten minutes of the murder. His dead body was dragged around the streets being kicked and pounded by the angry mob, resulting in swift and retributive dispensation of western justice. About Mormonism, which was dominant in the city, he commented, “No transient visitor can measure the effects of an evil upon the lives of a people”. It required some sort of redeeming quality towards its institutions or it would be like a rose with no water, "shrivel up and die in the desert sun”. He found it strange women were content to live under such conditions that Mormons required at the time. He sat through a sermon which he said was full of bombast, making little sense with the preacher stopping in mid sermon to eat and drink. On the morning of September, 6th, Virgil Hart embarked in San Francisco upon the “City of Peking” steamer with over six hundred China men being crammed like sheep into steerage with the berths so taxed that over 100 of them could not find any sleeping quarters the entire voyage. Every man had to show his poll-tax ticket. Although the people of California were anxious to get rid of the Chinese in those days, wishing him to
    • return to his native land, they still taxed him for going-an inconsistency that was hard to explain. When the day comes that Joe China-man can retaliate and get his revenge for indignities heaped upon him by the political and commercial representatives of our much- vaunted western civilizations. "What a hue and a cry will be raised throughout North America when our citizens will be subjugated to the same humiliations we throw upon the incoming and resident Chinese". While the ship was being tossed about the ocean several amusing occurrences happened after two missionaries (husband & wife), who took sodium bromide for their sea- sickness. Their appearance throughout the voyage of matted hair, swollen lips and nodding off on a moments notice was most entertaining. One day the good doctor staggered up to Virgil and said “bromide is good for sea-sickness; I haven’t been home- sick yet”. Virgil Hart closes his bromide encounter with,” I’d rather be sea-sick for a month, than act like an idiot for a week" and be recalled as an one for a lifetime. After visiting Japan for several days, Virgil took a steamer to Shanghai and then on to Kiukiang where the annual mission meeting was going on. Not only did he get a warm welcome from his fellow mission brothers, but especially his old friend and tutor Tai Sien Sen, whom he had not seen for ages. He held a feast in Virgil Hart’s honor and after the fifty plus course meal that took several hours to consume, all felt like anacondas that had just eaten water buffaloes. The months that followed were busy ones for the superintendent making his home on the Stella and then on the “Glad Tidings” sister city sailboats, going up and down the Yangtze River searching for more land for hospitals, signing contracts and supervising the construction of the buildings, this being the most fruitful and meaningful time of his life in central China. Now that Virgil Hart had the money to build the mission hospital at Nanking the only thing missing from the grand plan was property on which to build it, which proved to be a real challenge. "What could nations and its citizens learn from others that were born just yesterday in comparison? Is it a curse amongst the impudent and unsettling foreigner? No they must not be allowed to get a foothold in the city! Any citizen that will part with their property for personal gain to the 'Foreign Devil' will be treated as a criminal and traitor." This was the attitude of the little world the Nanking official and literati when Virgil Hart was in search of a piece of property within the sacred precincts of the city. He knew that treaty rights gave him legitimate reasons to purchase property within the confines of the city and he was determined to stand fast even if it meant the rest of his natural life. He suggested to his tutor that he act as the go-between him and the deed holder of property parcels near the south gate. Tai was terrified at the thought of this endeavor as he knew it placed a bounty on his head for whatever it was worth.
    • Nanking Methodist Hospital Soon two native men came to inform Virgil Hart there were two properties matching his needs and a couple of nights later, with the shadows concealing true intent, he went to inspect their boundaries and set fire under Tai’s feet to begin negotiations with its owners. Four months later Virgil Hart had the deeds in his hands on small yet valuable properties between the Arsenal and Powder Mills road intersection. When Tai’s skills were no longer needed he hurriedly left the city and returned to the safety of Kiukiang. Several months later another valuable parcel was acquired near the North Gate. But the battle had just begun as the deeds required registration and official stamps of the Viceroy and be presented by the proper official, which took months to figure out just who this person might be. Some thought it was the Tao Tai of Chunking while others claimed it was the Tao Tai of Nanking who had the authority and after this matter cleared up there was a wait of several more months to get him to act. There were meetings scheduled with no-shows, arrests, intimidation and incarceration of the poor men who sold the property and even officials feigning illness to avoid the continuance of the matter. Every time the Superintendent was shafted or insulted, he demanded an apology from the Viceroy's office until it sunk into the cranial depths of these officials that this lowei was not to be deceived by their stalling tricks or turned aside from his purpose. At last they capitulated and met the “Foreign Devil” to meet at a sight more agreeable to the Superintendent to get down to business. A letter Virgil Hart wrote to Mr. Blackstone who the hospital would be named after relates the magistrates met to hammer out the land bounties and all matters concerned therewith amicably settled. Whereby the mission received more than twice the amount of land as described on the original deeds, resting less than a quarter mile from the Confucian Temple which is the finest structure of its kind in all of China. With negotiations settled Virgil Hart turned his attention to contracting the materials and workers needed to complete the hospital by the end of the year. By personally managing the process of construction, he was able to save thousands of dollars that otherwise would have gone into the pockets of a Chinese contractor and his middlemen. With a command of the Chinese language there could be no misunderstanding between boss and laborer. Old Nanking, the “Devil’s” stronghold, shall yield! Just when Virgil Hart thought his most pressing problems were over new ones cropped up. There was the issue of half the workmen coming form another province causing dissension amongst the Nanking artisans who strenuously objected to workers employed
    • alongside them. One day a fight broke out between the opposing groups and for a couple of hours bedlam was unleashed with the pulling of braided hair and bloody disfigurement of faces. A missionary attempted to intervene, yet he too suffered the wrath and was pulled badly beaten from the chaos. Soldiers finally came to quell the riot. Virgil Hart was unfortunately away on pressing issues in Chunkiang and quickly returned and began an investigation, demanding the ringleaders be punished and compensation for damages done to both the building and missionary injured. A day later when Virgil Hart came to see if retribution was carried out he was assured by his foreman those who were guilty each faced two hundred lashes with a cat-of-9-tails before being fired for insubordination. The men did not leave on their own accordance, but where hauled out by stretcher as the pain of punishment set in. When Virgil Hart arrived later and offered to mend the men’s wounds, all feigned to be in too excruciating a pain, but after he removed the girdle from one and seeing not so much as a scratch on the mans flesh, realized the master trickery and charade being a bunch of humbug. Virgil Hart’s troubles did not end with the workmen; those higher up the chain of command gave trouble and demanded a share for their efforts. "Even his trusted tutor Tai had to be dismissed after it was learned he was squeezing everyone from the hod carrier, gate-man, carpenter, mason and even the tattered beggar asking for alms out front had to pay for the privilege to this Chinese Shylock....The Tammany Braves of New York in their halcyon days are but just children in comparison with the Nanking grafters”. The red letter day arrived on May, 28 1886, when the hospital opened its doors to receive its first patients. Thirteen high Chinese mandarins graced the occasion with their presence along with the Honorable Commander Charles Denby, the United States Minister to China, Mr. E.S. Smithers who was the Consular General of the U.S. in Shanghai, along with the officers and sailors of the USS Marion, as its brass band provided the musical accompaniment. As everyone sat for the feast it was the mandarin delegation that provided the entertainment with their unfamiliarity in the use of western tableware or manners. It was a shocking surprise to have women not only at the table, but seated next to them with their own wives and daughters denied this simple western etiquette. Two days after the banquet, Dr Beebe was called upon to the home of one of the mandarins where two of his wives attempted to commit suicide by swallowing opium. Without the missionary’s care the two women would have certainly died, proving the wealth of relief the new mission hospital did provide the native Chinese. XIII "Turned Back"
    • In the spring of 1887, after four years' absence from his wife and family, Virgil Hart boarded a steamer to return to the United States for only a second time in the twenty one years of being away. As he was walked the ships gangplank he received a telegram from Bishop C.H. Fowler which informed him of his new role as superintendent of the West China Methodist Missions, and requested him to return to Chunking at once to re- establish the mission there which was so tragically brought to a close by the anti- foreigner riots. Torn between the a well deserved furlough and the pressing plea from his associate, he prayed for a few minutes, then had his baggage withdrawn to shore, his ticket canceled and preparations made for the long, tedious and perilous journey to Chunking. Virgil Hart was accompanied by three other men whose steadfastness of mission work took precedent over matters personal. At Hankow they spent several days with fellow mission members before continuing on their trip. The ship was the antiquated “Kaiting” which was at a disadvantage with the rapids of the upper Yangtze, for every time it blew its whistle the boat would cease its forward momentum. The boat was a considerable amount of amusement or irritation depending upon the mood of the passengers. The distance between Hankow and Ichang where steamers are halted is three times longer by river than air, and the captain declared it would take between five to ten days depending on the fogs, with no mention about the possible delays on account of the worn-out tub they were aboard. People walking alongside the road near the river, would gain forward ground at a quicker pace than the wheezing, coughing and sputtering steam engine. The head engineer came on deck pleased to see how she was tacking at about four knots per hour. The year previous when the boat was full during high water season he commented on how the boat was falling astern from the load it was hauling. Just after saying those words a pyrotechnic explosion was heard from the engine room as the engineer raced frantically back to the aft parts of the ship to find out its cause. Virgil Hart threw his hands into the air in disgust to return to his cabin and attempted to sleep off the frustration. Another story about the cruise was when the “Kaiting” was hugging the shore due to high water and as the boat began falling astern, all hands were called on deck as people jumped ashore with lines thrown to them, pulling the boat forward to round a bend in the river. The scenery above Hankow is dotted with the occasional hill, its fertile plains annually deposited with silt from the previous years flooding spread on them. As one approaches Ichang, the hills close in upon the river, constricting its channel by walls of limestone and granite. Fleets of Chinese junks sauntered in motion or at anchor gave the appearance of resource-thrift management rarely seen anywhere else on the river. The men observed oxcarts with loads of timber weighing down heavily on their rough hewn beds, as wheels big as a man slowly turn with the rotating joints crying out in pain through the spikes and rims made of iron as wooden dowels fasten the spindles together. Ascending narrow, steep water rutted pathways to hug the fog-blanketed cliffs till recesses within its walls were reached and a turn of several rocking agitations brought the team to reverse the
    • process till the summit was attained. Not another large valley or plain was seen for over several hundred miles until reaching the Chengtu plains. They saw nothing but mountains or every type of configuration one can imagine. Nestled between karst rock formations were the temples, dagobas and pagodas protruding from their recesses. The ear splitting drum and cymbals pounded, mouth organs and bamboo flutes squelched out uneven staccatos of rhythm with chimes tuning in when their delicate notes were required like a songbird.
    • Yangtze river Chinese sailors Virgil Hart arrived in Ichang on an evening of festivities with red lanterns studded for miles, suspended from any resource capable of their support to resist the pull of gravity. Loud-reporting strands of fire-crackers were a constant agitation to the ear. Ichang had been an open port since 1877 with a population of one hundred thousand natives and 50 foreigners of which a dozen are of mission stock representing three or four different societies. Several days were passed as a nerve-wracked Virgil Hart searched for a river worthy flat bottomed boat suitable to take them past the remaining rapids and up to Chunking. It was about seventy feet long, eleven wide with a draft of four feet, low and flat at the bow with a grotesquely carved stern. It had two aft cabins, one for the “louban” (Captain & family), the other for the foreign guests. The thirty crew-mates, cargo and any other native passengers aboard rode out on the open deck. It had a bamboo awning which could be spread out at night under the safety of anchor, but it was ill advised to keep it so during the day to impede the suns rays, in case quick rope handling was needed to assure the boat didn’t capsize. The bow held a huge coil of rope to pull the boat through the rapids and a long oar to facilitate direction. Along its sides were two yiu lo (oars), that required the strength of several men to manipulate and at the stern a rudder of several timbers lashed and spiked together that protruded several feet below the keel. The strange craft would be home for the missionaries for a month after the captain walked every inch inspecting it to assure its readiness. A chicken was killed as an offering to the river gods, its blood and feathers smeared along the bow, incense was lighted, gongs beaten and sails hoisted. The little launch eased away from port to face the eighty five rapids above them. The glories of the upper Yangtze are its gorges; its torments are the rapids. Its awe- inspiring walls sculpted by water and wind climb some three thousand feet from the depths of their foundations of where the Yangtze breeches them, with foliage clinging to their sides for miles at a stretch. The upper end of Bellows Gorge had evidence of offensive and defensive military maneuvers done over a thousand years before. Huge iron cables were strung across the gorge supported by equally massive posts, to impede any boat that dared to challenge it. Men Lang the Hupeh military commander ordered the drilling of holes into the perpendicular cliff of seven hundred feet so beams could be fitted into them and thus made a zigzag ladder his men could climb up the precipice and surprise the enemy. Thus Wolfe at Quebec was preceded and surpassed many centuries before his time. Those holes of six inches square and fourteen deep remained visible until the recent creation of the Yangtze River reservoir.
    • The ascent of the rapids was a life entrusting experience that could never be forgotten. The boat pitched to and fro while bobbing up and down as in a pot of boiling water. A man on deck beat a gong as if his very life depended on it while another set off fire- crackers to scare away the river demons. Another two men were at the bow working its oar and shouting commands between the shore and tiller operators. A team of men called trackers, whose only clothing was a loin-cloth, pulled like mules on the tow rope a thousand feet in length. They jumped from rock to rock with the agility of squirrels, creeping along the cliff-sides hundreds of feet above the river like mountain goats. A man called the whipper with a split cane of bamboo raced along the line of trackers and beat the rope at appropriate times, though seldom striking any man. He would rush ahead of the team and kowtows to them; then jump to his feet and frantically yell from the top of his lungs flying past them, beating his stick about and acting like howling Dervisher in heat. You would enjoy a repeat of this performance over and again till gaining the heights these menacing obstacles of rock confronted. A tracker's reward for their services was $2.00 each trip, a bowl of rice per meal and a boat ride on down river traffic to once again flex their muscles. Western coaches and those who are bodybuilders could take a bit of advice from these “appreciative” occupations of labor. Rudyard Kipling was correct in saying, “the yellow clay the China-man is made from has much iron in it”. A wreck on the Yangtze was an everyday occurrence as accidents between slow ascending ships and quick descending ones on a confined space of water. Hundreds of lives were lost at a time as trackers with strained muscles and set faces tugged with every ounce of strength they possessed. Suddenly an eddy would tack the boat uncontrollably or rip a seam open, pulling all involved into the depths of the raging torrent, never to be seen or heard from again. It is no wonder as to the superstitions and odd customs the river-men acquired, such as beating instruments of music, employing gun-powder and even bribing these river demons with cash as they tossed it overboard, along with the occasional piece of fruit to satiate their hunger.
    • The Chinese government had at strategic points along the river a coast guard to provide things like clothing, food, bedding and coffins at their stations. Only once in the many assents Virgil Hart made of the gorges was the boat he was prone to any real danger. The skipper made a terrible blunder at the height of one rapid that caused the boat to turn on its side, nearly capsizing it. The cargo shifted, bottles smashed, tables overturned and wood splintered with food, red-hot stove ash and personal possessions were all mixed together. Every three to four miles the skyline was breeched by white pagodas that were built more than five hundred years before Christ. These were smoke tower beacons in times of war to warn of advancing enemy. These towers are still religiously kept in repair and strangely served as lines of communication with the then modern telegraph wire strung between them, its operator and courier residing next to the Buddha. It could be jokingly said that the messages were divine transmissions delivered at lightning speed. There were days to wait out in ascending the rapids and forays to see the botany and geological formations of the surrounding hills as a way to kill time. One day after spying a small home high up on the hill, the three missionaries decided to make a call and found an old man and young boy scratching at the soil trying to encourage the meager vegetables to grow. How surprised with fear to have white men come falling out of the sky to startle and harass them! Their fears were allayed after a few words of Chinese were spoken, but not understanding the local dialect, Virgil Hart could only make himself partially understood. They were intrigued by the silver watch and chain and were convinced it allowed one to see over one thousand li. Attempts were made to explain, but the natives assured each other they were not to be fooled so easily. When Virgil held the watch up to the man’s ear, the efforts to summit the hill were worth it to see the facial expressions the man and boy shared after listening to it. They were directed to a spring where the Chinese were entertained by the means at which the lowei drank. The young boy ran to a tree and picked its leaves to fashion them into a cup. Virgil Hart attempted to duplicate the boys’ efforts in vain and how content the boy was after he saw he could do something the foreigner with the living clock could not. XIV "The Chinese Tartarus" After the perilous rapids were passed, the river widened and a broad valley was found with the city of Fengtu at its shores. A well worn footpath that had been in use for over a
    • thousand years connected the temples that dot its hillsides. Virgil Hart observed in one temple nine coiled serpents whose bodies were draped over the roof beams with heads dangling above the worshipers below. The serpents were objects of homage and veneration, with eyes wide and mouths flared. The chief object of pilgrimage to Fengtu was to see Yen Lo Wang, the king of infernal regions who holds the life and destiny of every mortal in his hands. Before his image were many species and types of varied offerings including eyes, paws, hands and other parts as thankful tributes for miraculous cures. Another unique feature was the incarnation of Yen Lo Wang’s wife who is said to have been a beautiful maiden who came to pay homage and lost one earring exquisitely wrought and inlaid from precious metals and stones, emblematic of her purity. She searched in vain with the aid of a priest and after she left the priest returned and found it in the hand of Yen Lo Wang. He also received a revelation that the maiden's fate was tied to the sacred Yen. After returning home she told her parents how she was to become the spiritual bride of the god. The time of her death announced and she was made ready as if it was a wedding. As she became weaker towards the appointed time a violent storm frightened her parents out of the home and when they returned, she was gone. Remembering her words they ran to the temple to see their daughter’s body in possession by the priests who recognized it by the earring and now was spiritualized flesh which must be enshrined in the temple as Yen’s wife. She was presented with fine robes of satin and gilded her face to preserve it from contamination. Every year thereafter descendants of the Chen family made a pilgrimage to the shrine to replace the robes with new and remove the old ones. Also inside this temple were two Taoist genii who flourished two thousand years ago, sitting playing chess with a young boy by their side watching the game. The story goes he was a wood cutter that climbed the hill one day and found the genii at their game, and became caught up in their play. It was said he watched the game for over two hundred years and when he descended the hill found time had not stood still in his village. When he opened the door of his home he did not recognize anyone, his clothes were in tatters and he had the appearance of an old man instead of a boy. This is an eastern version of the Rip-Van-Winkle legend. Many superstitious Chinese over the centuries have believed that Fengtu is where the gates of Purgatory reside. A legend relates that a fifteenth century magistrate came into port and saw an identical boat flying his colors next to his. "How can this be?" Cried out the magistrate, "Have I been replaced?" He sent a card demanding an interview and yes he was the other magistrate, but of Tartarus, the city below. A time was arranged for the city above magistrate to visit the one below and the gates unsealed. While descending with his bearers a great tempest swarmed them, forcing his bearers to flee. The magistrate continued alone till reaching a room and requested to sit and sequestered.
    • He met the underworld magistrate face to face; The underworld magistrate was to switch places, informing the new magistrate he would forward all chains as the present ones were old and rusty. XV "The Seductive Viper" On every hand are waving fields of poppy-white, pink and dark purple flowers. A beautiful sight! But so sad to reflect that every head will help to kill some poor China- man!" Letter to Mrs. Hart Traveling from Ichang to Fengtu one was enthralled by the beauty of nature. The fields were ripe with produce even the humblest can grow, yet the people displayed a morbid shallow completion. Laborers by the score shared this death-like pallor while languishing in the terraced fields stepping up in increments till soil no longer can penetrate the rock on which it lays. Virgil Hart had entered what he thought was a field of wheat with its stalks raising from the well manicured soil. Upon closer inspection he saw it was not pods of grains at their ends, but the brown decayed head of a flower that lost its petals a month previous, with slice marks to extract the black poison they emitted. “Oh seductive viper, the curse of millions: who shall dare to stand up and present these degenerating people with an alternative", life giving force. How the ravages of opium were evident on the lower reaches of the Yangtze, yet he saw nothing equal to that of the province of Szechwan. The most fertile of fields that could feed a population four times the province's inhabitants was dedicated exclusively to the growing of the gorgeous, but poisonous poppy. So devoted to its cultivation were the local Chinese that the price of foodstuffs had reached a cost prohibitive stage. Rumor was that one third of the opium produced in China before the 1906 edict restricted its growth was grown in Szechwan. More than half the men and a third of the women were addicted to the pipe. It provided a cheap escape from the dull weariness of life the average Chinese person pursued due to limited finances and resources. A description tells an account of coolies who for eight days walked twelve hours per day in torrential rain, on muddied paths and forded swollen rivers under the weight of 50-60 pounds. They came utterly exhausted to a comfortless inn with no fire, or change of clothing; no beds save a brick kang with a ragged mat to sleep on or blanket to cover
    • them. For sustenance they consumed rice, bean curd or gruel and was no wonder they curled up around the kerosene light, rolling a black bead and sucking on thick white smoke till they passed out from the combination of inebriation and weariness. There is no historical record that the poppy was cultivated in China, except for medicinal purposes, until the Portuguese and then British began trade relations with the Middle Kingdom. Ignoring the protest of the Chinese government, the British East India Company smuggled its Bengal grown opium into various ports of China. In 1840 the Emperor was so alarmed by the opium scourge he ordered an Imperial Commissioner Lin to put an end to the nefarious traffic. Lin’s actions brought him into collision with the British traders with his confiscation of 20,000 chests of opium resulting in the First Opium War. British gunboats went along China’s rivers and coasts terrorizing its citizens till the Chinese government capitulated and ceded all concessions the victorious British demanded. Prior to this the Chinese government did not tolerate the cultivation of the poppy for drug consuming purposes, but after the Second Opium War ended the Chinese government was forced by the treaty of Tien tsin to legalize the traffic and guarantee protection of the cursed foreign trafficker. The Chinese government did not want a product it could grow itself draining the nation’s treasury of silver, so that by the start of the 20th century, six sevenths of the drug consumed by the Chinese was native grown with the quantity of consumption increasing to seventy times more than what was smoked one hundred years earlier. England developed an enviable reputation of being a fair and honorable trading partner, yet the opium trade stands out as a hideous exception. Being a deep, dark, damnable plot upon her name where the good of the weak was exploited deliberately and cruelly sacrificed to the commercial interests of the strong. There is now some satisfaction to know as China freed herself of this struggle the slavery opium spawned, she was assured of sympathetic co-operation and support England later provided to correct its greatest wrong against China. China fought a brave and desperate battle in its quest to rid the country of this scourge. By 1917 it was estimated the growth, sale and consumption this evil caused was to be no more, though much blood was shed and property destroyed along the way. So loyal and thorough some Viceroys were at the time, that hardly a poppy plant remained in their provinces making the victory complete and permanent.
    • Opium smokers in a den. XVI "The Re-established Mission" The Chunking Mission was begun in 1882, by L.M.Wheeler D.D., financed through donations by J.F. Goucher D.D., of Baltimore, Maryland U.S.A. Chunking was chosen for its proximity to many navigable rivers, and major roads to Szechwan cities its large population of seven hundred thousand, and the sixty million people who passed through it to the outside world. Many months of property searching finally paid off in renovating Chinese buildings to provide a chapel, school and residences for the staff. In 1886, they added another parcel three miles from the ports on the Chengtu road. Construction of buildings was already in progress when the military cadets arrived for their triennial examinations and many of them holding an anti-foreign sentiment launched all types of preposterous innuendo and fear mongering rumors over the newly acquired property. “The homes are really forts with cannon to rain down shot to destroy the
    • city”. Another claimed to have procured a book showing a dragon around the city with its head immersed in one river and its tail a few miles away in another river. The mission station was above the neck crushing the dragon, and if building was not ceased, then all kinds of drought, famine and pestilence would befall upon the city’s inhabitants. The rioting that resulted from these inflammatory remarks lasted for several days of looting and destruction all the mission stations, and all the foreign missionaries were driven out. Bishop Fowler assigned the task to Virgil Hart to re-establish the missions proper. When Virgil Hart and his two associates entered Chunking again in 1887 they hoped to do it quietly, but unfortunately they were spotted and a small mob formed, trying to get a better look at the foreigners. Soon the whole city knew who they were and why they were there and questioned their rationale. “Foreigners are queer beings --- we taunted them, destroyed their property and drove them out, and yet more new faces replace the former". The crowd was parted by the elbowing of the secretaries of the Tao Tai of the city demanding their passports and inquiring of their intentions and future movements. They were accompanied by a native preacher who had given the missionaries little trouble, though feathered his nest during and after the riots by salvaging, then selling mission property that had escaped destruction. He meagerly sought an interview, having rehearsed a long and detailed story about how he had stood up to the marauding bands, and was later persecuted by local and official alike for his protecting the unfortunate “Foreign Devils”. On cue he rocked into almost uncontrollable spasms of weeping as Virgil Hart quickly ended the skit and dismissed the charlatan to compose himself. The city was scoured by the Superintendent’s native tutor for several days to find suitable dwelling to resume the mission's work. After a partially destroyed home was found near the mission grounds, Virgil Hart immediately went to inspect it. Wanting to avoid any stalling schemes by the officials, Mr. Hart dutifully notified them about the agreement for the dark, decaying and moldy old mansion the degenerate scion of the Loh family had rented them for three hundred dollars per year including heavy furniture. A proclamation was made to inform the city residents the missionaries were once again among them and pasted up by the front gate reading as follows: “This Edict is published to make you acquainted with Virgil Hart of America and others who were sojourning in Chunking. Wherever they may have their dwelling, it is reasonable and just they should be respected. Having issued this Edict to expect that all soldiers and civilians-all classes- will make its acquaintance. If after its issue there are any loafers about the place, sitting or lying around, using uproarious language, or should there be idlers and drunkards making trouble, they should be punished severely and not be pardoned. Let each one tremblingly obey and by no means you rebel against this special Edict. Thirteenth year of Kwang Su, Fourth Moon, Sixth Day. Be certain to paste this upon the dwelling of the American teachers that all may be notified”. Considering the proclamation came from the hand of the very one or two officials who inspired the looting and rioting done by the
    • populace a few months before the anti-foreigner disturbances, Hart exclaimed, “such was the irony of fate”. Two weeks after arriving in Chunking, Mr. Faber hired a boat to take him to Kaiting on the Min River, a tributary of the Yangtze three hundred miles distant, to test the reception a foreigner would receive. Then he proceeded to the refreshing slops of Mt. Omei for a few weeks of rest and recuperation. A month later Virgil Hart and Dr. Mortley traveled by sedan chair to Chengtu and later rendezvoused at the mountain. The Tao tai insisted they have an escort of soldiers to protect the group of two missionaries, their band of coolies and provisions from any hooligans who might happen to think the foreigners a tempting target. The imposing little procession with its lead man, banner in hand and swaggering with his new found sense of mission, cleared the way for the parade of followers to easily advance along the busy wide, paved road lined with orange and mulberry groves and interspersed by fields of cereal grains. They passed through market towns at intervals of ten miles and saw Chinese with wide eyes of disbelief taking notice of the lowei (foreigner). Spanning the roads at conspicuous points were massive stone arches in memory of some past virtuous woman honored and loved by family and neighbors alike. Leaving the main road at Lungchang the party made its way to visit the brine wells at Tzeliutsing, a two days journey along marginally safe roads, so additional reinforcements swelled its ranks. Noxious orders emitted from crossed stream-beds indicated the proximity of the Tzeliutsing, a city built around more hills than Rome. Its busy steep streets were a challenge to advance with merchants and wares competing with shoppers for room. Salt was the primary commodity as well as bamboo for scaffolding and pipe to tap the gases and conduct its flow. Virgil Hart sent his teacher ahead to secure lodgings for the night but the hotels refused to board the foreigners, complaining business would be hampered by all those wanting to gawk. When their party halted in the square to debate their options; a spontaneous excited crowd emerged. Their Honan teacher received the bright idea of marching the jaded coolies a half a mile up a steep hill to occupy the branch magistrate’s office. Announcing their arrival with cards and after waiting the proper time delay with no response, the teacher and escort threw open the doors of the guest house and conducted themselves in with grand ceremony, bolting the doors behind to leave the mob outside. The menials about the Yamen were no less surprised than the clamoring crowd outside by this flanking maneuver. They were told the official was out of town when in reality he
    • was less than twenty paces with a wall of separation between them. Underlings rushed about with instructions from the absent official to offer courtesy with tea as they leisurely sat under the cool awnings of the guest-hall. The teacher insisted on converting the hall into a bed and dining room for the distinguished guests, with the secretary saying it was impossible, being jealous of the protection prerogative bestowed on the party. As Virgil Hart expected, a hotel was finally reserved with the best rooms at their disposal. A parade of soldiers led them through a bewildered crowd to their awaiting rooms. The proprietor in his re-adjusted state of mind met them to extend blandish courtesies while directing them to their rooms, thus ending the first day of the Tzeliutsing adventure. The following day found the missionaries touring the nearly two thousand year old salt wells, some of which were operated by twenty generations of one family. Several wells were three to five thousand feet in depth. It was baffling to the more scientific Westerners to know how clumsy bamboo drills could bore to such depths. It was such a sight to watch the water buffaloes, some half a dozen each, pull the long bamboo tubes or buckets up from the depths of the well. They pulled and strained as their momentum increased into a trot with the driver shouting commands, while the long rope wound around a huge cylinder located a few yards from the derrick. After the brine solution filled a vat and the draft animals uncoupled, the tube was released to descend as fast as the rope unwound from the cylinder and the frothy brine extraction process was repeated. Alongside these brine wells are what the natives called “Fire Wells” reaching similar depths which supplied the various factories with heat and light by means of very crude appliances.
    • (OWM) photo (OWM) photo
    • A journey of four days over lofty mountains brought the parade to the fertile valley which skirted the Min River and the Szechwan Provincial capitol city of Chengtu, the greatest of all western cities in China. Marco Polo found this city to be “very great and exceedingly rich” during his stay in the thirteenth century. Cheng-tu had few commercial or educational rivals, and possesses many ancient, beautiful temples and monasteries. It is the burial place of one of the emperors and birthplace to one of China’s greatest philosophical writers Lao tzu, founder of Taoism. Within the walled city were two more being the Imperial city and Manchu one. Outside its gates are still hundreds of miles or irrigation canals used for over two thousand years alleviating the plain of drought and assuring annual harvests of grains. Virgil Hart’s first impression were dismal likely induced by the stifling heat and carried down a malodorous street to an equally malodorous inn, requesting lime for the floor and mud plaster to fill the rat holed walls. This may have been the very inn where Mr. Hosie, British vice consular stayed when he found these words written on the wall. Within this room you will find the rats-at least a goodly score: Three catties each they are bound to weigh Or-e-en a little more. At night you will find a myriad of bugs-that smell and crawl and bite; If doubtful of the truth of this-get up and strike a light. Thinking this description erred on kindness of a Szechwan inn added: Within without vile odors dense; assail the weary nose. Behind the grunt-er, squeaks and squeals; which baffles all repose. Add clouds of tiny buzzing things, Mosquitoes if you please. Why bless me, they're actually fleas!
    • (VHMS) photo XVII "One Step From Heaven" What Jerusalem is for Christians, or Mecca is to Islam, Mt. Omei is to the Buddhist, who make pilgrimages from all parts of China, especially Thibet. “To the devout Buddhist its seventy monasteries, hundreds of temples and shrines, its numerous marvels and sacred relics, its cloud-enveloped summit towering more than eleven thousand feet and from which may be seen the “Glory of Buddha, make it the most precious spot on earth. To use the words of the Buddhist, it is but, “one step from heaven”. Virgil Hart who was steeped in Chinese religious lore, was anxious to walk the paths of this holy mountain which has figured so greatly in fable and story. As prearranged back in Chunking after the visit to Kaiting the coveted opportunity was afforded to satisfy the quest. Striking off at twilight on the 15th of July, with coolies, baggage men and Mr.Morley in tow, the party reached Omei Hsien late in the afternoon, which afforded a serene image upon the entrance to the village at the base of the mountain. The inns were swelling with pilgrims but accommodations were secured after much persuasion to allow the spreading of their mats on the floor of an inn. Stories abounded of the distances pilgrims had covered with one foot-sore monk hailing from Peking while another claimed to have prostrated himself every seventh step for one thousand miles with his earthly possessions suspended in two bundles from a bamboo pole. Tsai, Virgil Hart’s tutor noticed everyone had a bag of yellow incense to burn at the temples and shrines along the way, but the faithful were just as incensed to discover his was for a less holy purpose of containing the contents of pipe and tobacco. At the crack of dawn the following day Virgil Hart, along with Dr. Morley and throngs of pilgrims, began the long arduous accent of Mt. Omei. All ages and classes of society, especially women made up the contingents of staff carrying souls, each with a whittled dragon or tiger to be brightly painted on the top of the stave after returning from the trek to be preserved as a sacred souvenir. Beggars of all ages this muggy morning were at pre-defended territories willing to spin tales of their misfortunes to the gullible that stopped to listen. As they rose off the plain, the scenery around them became more enchanting with narrow arching bridges allowing only one to cross at a time. They were shaded by willows as a clear flowing stream cascaded over fog shrouded cliffs. Some bridges were ornamented with dragons whose heads faced upstream while the tails projected from the other side of the bridge. They were to ward off evil spirits. The dragon and tiger symbolize power, dominate features along the mountain. Shrines with half protruded tigers with fierce images to seem as if ready to pounce on the unsuspecting
    • worshiper. One still ascends the mountain by hewn steps carved into solid rock with flights of them being counted in the thousands. Gigantic Banyan trees with their branches draped over the steep craggy paths provided shade and solace for the coolies, who with nerves of iron, possessed wondrous prolonged endurance and strength hauling their human cargo toiling hither and yonder on the innumerable steps like foraging ants. There was a story of an American traveler being carried up this way. Suddenly the coolie stopped along the edge of a precipice and while at rest stooped down, so that the American hung over the abyss. His forced sigh of relief after the coolie stood back up, caused the carrier to remark, “Relax, I was just removing a pebble from between my toes”. The American looked down to see he was standing on one leg! Ten miles of journey brought the travelers to a dense ravine cutting through limestone till cliffs through which torrents of water rushed with sprays of mist as the suns rays pierced them to reflect colors of the rainbow. Not far from the head of this gorge, enveloped by overgrown thicket alive with bird and monkey alike, they approached the three hundred hacked stone steps of the “Shen Wan Mansz-Holy Monastery of the Myriad Years”. Mr. Faber, who they had not seen for six weeks, was there to greet his fellow missionaries with cups of hot tea supplied by the monks. Later, the exhausted lot was shown to their rooms for their stay on the mountain. They were awakened long before sunrise by the gong and sonorous bells calling the monks to morning prayers. They arose to make a circuit of the venerable pile made sacred by eights centuries of worship and famous by homage of emperors, princes and sages leaving pious and costly gifts. The harmonious beauty of the place left an indelible impression in Virgil Hart's mind. The towering spires back-dropped against waves of cliffs, ledges and sloping spurs shrouded by mist released from crystal streams as songsters chirped and monkeys howled, while the long lines of ascending pilgrims resembling ants in the distance still bewilder the imagination. How accurate a description Virgil Hart had heard in his own land, thinking it can’t be true till his own eyes gazed upon its enchanted scenes. Many objects attract the visitor to Mt. Omei with one in particular having been a fifteen tiered pagoda of bronze with forty seven hundred intricately designed Buddha’s of varying dimensions and attitudes, all exquisitely wrought. The pagoda is quite aged and considered to be one of the finest monuments in all of China. A twenty thousand pound bronze ball with finely engraved characters recounting many historical incidents was suspended over an archway nearby.
    • Placed in a tray before a scarred image in the monastery, a red rag still hides one of the most venerated relics in the world---a tooth of the Buddha, being over fourteen inches long, eleven wide and three inches thick. Brought from India over one thousand years before, the yellow ivory elephant's tooth is stained and worn smooth by the ceaseless touching of pilgrims who are too gullible to ask any questions. Mr. Hart remarked to a priest nearby that Buddha must have possessed an enormous mouth, and he replied, “Yes, it is a matter I don’t fully comprehend”. The most interesting feature at the monastery to catch Virgil Hart’s eye was a nine foot tall pure bronze elephant being ridden by a bronze image of the god, Pu hsien, who as a sage came to Mt. Omei three centuries before Christ, riding on a white elephant. The bronze figures were housed in a square brick building, symbolizing earth, with a revolving dome roof, symbolizing heaven. All its walls have seven shelves representing the seven stories of Buddhist heaven, filled with thousands of little bronze idols. Lying upon a couch in close proximity to the elephant, under two cotton spreads is Wofuh (Sleeping Buddha), asleep for ten centuries, as the reverent pilgrim gazes upon what they believe is the actual body of their unconscious deity. Calling to them eight thousand feet above was the summit of Mt. Omei, for when conditions are favorable one can see the “Glory of Buddha”. This is a feature no pilgrim with the strength to climb or nerve to ride omits from their stay on the mountain. On a cloudless morning in late July found Morley and Hart starting their dizzying ascent. Every two to three miles were rest stations with lodging and meals for the tired traveler. After a weary climb of ten miles a thick fog halted their advance by the Si Siang temple. Describing their views Virgil Hart boasted not a spot on earth has as lush vegetation or scenes more picturesque. There were multiple varieties of foliage, colors of every hue, while insect, butterfly and bird pleased the eye and ear. A pool nearby was said to be where Pu hsien was to have bathed his elephant during his sojourn on the mountain. As evening light faded and the cool air was keenly felt, a charcoal fire was lit for the guests. Fortified by hot coffee the next morning the travelers struck out for the final stage of the climb. While they rested on a narrow ridge one could see the mighty Min River some forty miles distant, and to the south were majestic snow covered mountains of the Thibet frontier. Observing the lowei in rapt gaze, a priest exclaimed the lofty peaks were thirty days journey by foot. After several hours of further climbing they reached a tunnel with words inscribed above, “One Step from Heaven”. Excited ascending travelers hurried along while descending ones' faces showed the mark of contentment. They reached the summit temple at the close of the second day, tired though exultant by their efforts.
    • Little rest was afforded by excited guests loudly conversing or immersed in opium smoking, eager for the coming day. While exploring the summit the next day it was noted their accommodations were just footsteps away from a cliff with an uninterrupted fall of one mile. The weather was most unpredictable with a cloudless sky, rays of scorching sun one moment, and then enveloped by a dense mist that rose from the gulfs below as lightning bolts were discharging beneath them rather than from above. From a head-rock by the precipice the pilgrims were rewarded with the “Glory of Buddha”. Into the depths come daily the parading clouds from north to south with not a peak exposed as the gauze shrouded mists rise until the cliffs are mirrored within the bright white walls. As the observer is standing by the rock edge with the sun shining on them, a shadow will appear away on the clouds with an exceedingly bright halo cast around it. Changing in size and illumination as the clouds dance about. Stretch forth your hands and the shadowed image does likewise as the mists thicken and rise further, and the “Glory” disappears. While caught in this trance pilgrims intentionally or not throw themselves over the abyss. Many are fixated on the image unconcerned with their surroundings, causing many to perish prematurely. The giddiness one feels to observe such a natural aureola phenomenon causes one to inadvertently advance, unaware of the seriousness of these repercussions. Adam’s Peak in Ceylon and the Spectre of the Brocken in the Hartz Mountains share a similar occurrence. The devout Buddhist holds the manifestation of the Buddha’s spiritual presence to be an object of veneration and worship. The two missionaries spent ten days on the summit slopes of Mt. Omei and one day the spirit of adventure had them following a lumberman’s trail zigzagging down the south slope of the crag. Having scarcely a foothold on the rocks they at times stepped onto half-decayed sticks mixed with earth banked up against the eroded rock surface, with below only yawning chasms. They arrived at a ledge where a ladder’s other end was yet another ledge that sloped downwards for several hundred feet. Serious personal reflection was debated as to the commitment required to continue as the path grew worse with every step. Finally two logs were spiked together with notches hacked out for foot- holds, and Hart felt ashamed when encountering two lumberman yoked with three planks each, fourteen feet long, one foot wide and two inches thick. The return trip had them pulling along where those men sauntered around the obstacles with ease. Upon arrival at the lumberman’s forest they enjoyed an hour of unalloyed bliss, with three of the botanical specimens found to be first discoveries. Virgil Hart’s room at the summit temple opened out into a courtyard where gods were enthroned. One morning as he emerged two pilgrims who were prostrating themselves before the idols, observed the lowei. Never had they seen an image as such before in their lives. Turning quickly from their idols they fell to their knees knocking their heads on the floor saying "O-mi-to-fu, O-mi-to-fu; A-mi-ta Buddha-A-mi-ta Buddha!” Such
    • “benighted souls!” How the missionary’s heart went out to the devout vainly groping after peace and comfort. As one Omei monk said “I feel for the door, but can’t find it”. Dr. Virgil Hart & Wei Ching-Abbot of Mt. Omei XVIII "For Canada" In mid August, 1887, they left Mt. Omei and a few days by boat returned them to their point of origin, Chunking, where Mr. Caddy was winning over the hearts and minds of the people and officials of this city. Virgil Hart’s nemesis malaria reappeared in a most
    • virulent form and he decided the stalled trip back stateside was long overdue. The down- river trip was exceedingly difficult and dangerous due to an already swollen river having generous additions of rain. Many a wreck floated by with a kind of provenance assuring grief would not strike their own. Passing through Wind-Box Gorge the current caught the craft and sent it spinning like a top towards sharp rising rocks they barely grazed. “I cannot think of anything more exciting recalls Virgil Hart....one ascent and descent is enough thrills for a lifetime”. While on shore in the same gorge Mr. Morley almost lost his life while handing out literature. A ruffian dressed only in a loin-cloth snatched it away and when Mr. Morley attempted to retrieve it was grabbed about the neck and pulled into some deep swift flowing current. A struggle ensued with the lowei receiving the brunt of it while underwater: resorting to every trick he could think of to shake off his assailant, but the man was equally versed in the art of submersion too. When nearly exhausted he finally had the man relinquish his hold, reaching shore more dead than alive. The ruffian was quickly apprehended, arrested by the officials and severely punished. A large supply of fowl and vegetables were offered as consolations to Mr. Morley and did much to mollify his feelings of the circumstance. Virgil Hart made it to Kiukiang in time for the annual Central China Mission meeting and in December, 1887, sailed from Shanghai to San Francisco. Five weeks later he reunited with his family in Canada, who were staying with relatives of Adeline. His first few months on furlough were spent preparing his first book for publication, Western China, A Journey to the Great Buddhist Centre of Mount Omei. While engaged in mission work he was busy taking copious notes of all he had seen and might be of interest to those in the west. A reviewer from the New York Tribune wrote,” It was graphic, picturesque and extremely interesting; a fresh, bright, and really interesting book of travels”. A little later his second book debuted of a popular treatment of salient features of Confucianism called, "The Temple and the Sage”. In 1888, Virgil Hart was made a member of the Royal Asiatic Society for his literary work and Chinese scholarship work whose distinction rewarded him greatly. Also in that year his former Alma-Mater conferred the title Doctor of Divinity. The complications of severe strain coupled with the responsibilities assumed and requested took a toll on his constitution, making evident the normal furlough of one year would not suffice to restore him back to health. In 1889, under the advice of his physician, Virgil Hart resigned as superintendent of the central and west China missions, much to the regret of his many friends and colleagues. He spent part of a year relocating his family from Canada to upstate New York and undertook the position of Mission Secretary of the Christian Alliance, but this work was too demanding and distracting
    • from his goal of returning to China. The Methodist Missions of Canada had but one station in Asia located in Japan, and was aching to put up more, yet the location was elusive; the West Indies, Palestine or even China was considered. Several men who were soon to finish medical school had volunteered their services upon graduation, but there was no administrator yet coming forward to assume the position. In 1890, a resolution was drawn up to have a mission station ready by 1891 and donations came pouring in. Similar resolutions were also made by the Woman’s Missionary society with a call for volunteers. With these measures past came the decision of where to locate it. The Rev. Wakefield had many conversations about it with Dr. Hart and early on he suggested without reservation Szechwan, with its teeming masses that was almost an empire to itself and presently only two protestant stations were there and in Chunking. In February of 1891, Dr. Hart's recommendation of the capital city of Chengtu was accepted. During the same meeting it was proposed by a member that Dr.Virgil Hart with his decades of experience and thorough knowledge of its customs and language would be the ideal candidate to head this contingency. After several days of consideration he accepted on condition it was approved by the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States. XIX "The First Contingent" Dr. Hart looked at this appointment as a tremendous opportunity, as he first went to China as a mission representative for the United States, now he was returning to represent Canada, in a vital part of the country that was devoid of such important work. He did not realize at the time how valuable his short yet full experience in Szechwan to re-establish the Chunking mission would be to pave the way for his return. Dr. Hart was urged to return to his former post, but resigned for health reasons while doing work for the cause at home. “Now I am to lead forth a contingent to the very place where I left off my previous work... Who knows what the future will behold? The band of missionaries the Canadian Society put together for West China was one of long veteran service committed to the advancement of the cause, including Dr. and Mrs. Hart and their daughter Estella. Several months time elapsed from the time the board had made their final decisions and when the missionaries would leave providing ample time to solicit donations for the mission’s hospital, girl’s boarding school and residences from the many Christian conferences being held along the eastern seaboard that summer. When ready to make sail, Dr. Hart was content to know the funds to build, staff and supply the station were in his pocket. A farewell service at the Elm Street Church in Toronto was held on September, 1 1891; with all missionaries reading words to be
    • remembered by after the sermon was read. A issue of God-speed was harked by the congregation prior to the dismissal of the crowd. As the party moved towards port more donations were collected at the train stops as word of their coming preceded their arrival. In London large congregations filled Queen Avenue Church to listen to the Rev. David Hill of the Hankow mission describe life in China. Besides the money raised for the cause, “the spirit of the occasion manifested by the people of the city”, was reason for his personal celebration. During three days in Victoria he addressed a large gathering of Chinese who vied with one another to manifest their good will and generosity. They gave a reception in honor of the missionaries followed by a sumptuous repast. A good many of them came to bid the group adieu with a fresh round of new donations to be added to the swelling pile already amassed. “The Empress of China” lifted anchor and the mooring ropes stored for the trip to Japan. They stopped in Hakodate to re-bunk the coal beds and later, made a two day port call at the base of a living volcano in Yokohama. The missionaries did sight-seeing, were entertained and gave speeches about their of intended purpose. Three years later Dr. Hart received a letter from one former speech attendee who desired to serve the mission in Chengtu. The group was in Kioto enjoying breakfast when the building began to sway uncontrollably and if quick thinking had not prevailed in seeking escape to safety out in the open, all would have been crushed by the collapsing chimney that splintered the table, shattered the tableware and left the contents of breakfast scattered and mixed with the brick, mortar, plaster and wood brought down in its wake. An aftershock was released during a service a short time later with five hundred students leaping upon the benches and rushing the doors. Order was quickly restored and continued where they had left off.
    • Coal bunking a ship Mt. Fuji from Hakone Lake Walking through the streets afterwards, Dr. Hart saw the demolished homes rendering its occupants homeless and railroad bridges yanked from their foundations, with gaps and
    • open crevices some miles in length. This was a trifle compared to the city they left just two days before feeling the brunt of the great shake, with ten thousand people dead and another near twenty thousand injured, terming the city “Wiped out”. Earthquakes and eruptions have contributed much to Japans wondrous beauty. After two very eventful weeks spent in Japan the missionaries landed in Shanghai on the 3rd of November. They had heard nasty rumors about the unraveling state of central China with the destruction of several missions and killing of foreign and native workers. The rumors were confirmed upon arrival. A tidal wave of anti-foreigner sentiments originating from the interiors of Hunan broke with full force along the lower reaches of the Yangtze. Shanghai was found to be a city of refugees, with missionaries hailing from all parts of the Middle Kingdom waiting for the violence to subside before returning to their respective fields. The three months spent in Shanghai were were beneficial for the newcomers who began learning the tonal language from Chinese teachers, and gleaning words of wisdom from missionaries with years of experience underneath their belts. A romantic spark became a marriage between two young hearts with Dr. Hart officiating, with the Woman’s Society coming to the aid in matters matrimonial, a precedent that would soon be needed more as the years progressed. The Canadian missionaries packed into the steamer on the 16th of February 1892, minus Adeline and Stella Hart, with one not having recovered from a serious fall. As the steamer chugged past the cities where Dr. Hart had a major hand in their contributions of development, he reflected how each one like a child was conceived, born and raised to have turned into productive members of the communities they resided in. Memories flooded his mind of times past, most good, some bad, with the outcome always favorable to his agenda. As the vessel made landings to ports along the way, an old familiar face would cross the plank to shake his hand and recall a tale or two with the weather worn, time tested sage. The steamer made a leisure tack up the Yangtze as Dr. Hart arrived in Ichang ahead of it to contract the boats required to continue their course unabated. The officers of the ship were hardly ever seen except on schedule like clockwork to inspect the operation of the craft. If it were not for the faithful Chinese crew the ship would have spiraled to a state of utter discombobulation, with the passengers left to fend for themselves. With surprising little trouble Dr. Hart was able to arrange two stout craft, but the test of wills was the delayed arrival of the missionaries who were held up a week by getting beached on a sandbar, thus a normal trip of two days ended up taking eleven. When the junks at Ichang finally hoisted their sails, it was the 16th of March, leaving behind the easily accessible means of communication and transportation to the western world.
    • Each day brought its share of thrills. A tale to share is when a Chinese boat captain defied the long line of upstream boats waiting their turns, and taking advantage of a breeze that allowed him to steer into the eddy of a downstream boat to tack past the others. Taunts and screams of anger were shot like cannon balls at the offending craft. They began to flail long bamboo poles down on the slower boats that required their poles to remain fast or lose the slow advance made going up the river. The excitement reached a crescendo when a man with axe in hand leaped onto the passing boat and proceeded to cleave a man in two from the base of his back. Those on shore whose yelling was for which party was questionable, was soon made apparent when their missiles of stones began hitting the targeted, offending boat. When the situation looked hopeless for the crew and craft, Dr. Hart appeared and all activity ceased. He managed to parley the captain into returning to the back of the line in order to restore the peace.
    • Eight days out of Ichang a memorable incident etched a dark shadow on every-one's soul. A man, dying from addiction to opium, was stretched out over a ledge not far above the waterline so nature could take its course. On deck the remaining crew burned incense, beat gongs and cymbals as fire-crackers exploded, in marked staccato similar to a soldier receiving a twenty-one gun salute, to ward off the demons and evil spirits rising out of the water to snatch the life and drag it down into the depths. When the missionaries learned too late the fate of the afflicted, they comforted the man as long as the captain stalled the boat’s progress. Afterward, ignoring the man's cause of death, the crew again was huddled on a mat wrapped around their oil lamp, inhaling from a bamboo pipe the viper’s curse that slowly engulfs the soul of those too weak to resist its temptation. The next day at port, Dr. Hart went to the Yamen to buy a small plot of land and paid a China-man handsomely to inter the body. Would it still be there or already washed away? Would the official and laborer follow through on their commitment, knowing perfectly well there is no way of verification if said acts were carried out? These are questions which only the cosmos can answer. The Canadians were most relieved when they reached Chunking after nearly a month aboard the two narrow ships. The Canadians' experiences were flights of fancy turned into personal reality; none ever dreamed he would be the lead celebrity in their own action picture film. Thus was reached the mid-point between Ichang and Chunking and though the river Min flowed in the opposite direction, the rest was going to be much smoother sailing than when they plied the Yangtze Gorges. In the stretch of the river where it connected with the Yangtze just below Kaiting, many fishermen still use bamboo skiffs and employ cormorants, tied at the neck so as not to swallow their haul, which dive into the depths to catch the fish. They are rewarded with a piece or two of the prey they snatched. Facing their beaks to the sky as they hurl these chunks down their throats once freed of the tie. The birds seem to enjoy the companionship of their handlers and the limited dry space afforded them on the deck. "Lounging on their long necks, wings outstretched, they slowly rise to shake off the beads of water accumulated on their bodies". The grooming of their feathers by man is similar to what a dog receives when being brushed. To watch a skiff being walked by its native owner from one pond to the next, supported by his shoulders underneath, with the length of pole occupied above by a row of birds is most interesting.
    • The clumsy cormorant appears rather daft on land, yet when wing meets water, its grace underneath is a skill not to be equaled. "As I stood gazing upon the birds a crowd of boys were inspecting me and dumbfounded when I spoke to them in their native tongue. Next came volleys of the queerest inquiries; given the once-over by a middle-aged man he confidently said I was a century old. Imagine my ego after told, to be "a centurion being 'straight and fat, can walk over thirty miles a day, jump and hop for as long as the youngest of children at the mission', to be assumed for a man almost twice my age. How surprised he felt when finding out he was five years my senior, gasping for a response that came out 'Well, your beard is white'. The gullible would believe me if I told them I was two hundred, with two perplexed souls convinced I was the Buddha incarnate himself back on Mt. Omei. Another with more gaps than teeth set in a big mouth with dark skin and short braid wound tightly about his head asked, 'How far is it and how do you get there?' When I told him the distance from Szechwan to Shanghai which is as foreign to them as the U.S., he scoffed at such a number. Informing him he would need to add myriads of li more to reach the western shores of North America assured him I knew nothing of what I was talking about. The lack of knowledge never ceases to amaze or the indifference to it. What decisions are made about China’s coast or plain, will not reach the province of Szechwan. They are concerned only about staple and bowl,
    • chopstick and the daily need for opium, and are not bothered by domestic or international issues of the day." Beautiful Kaiting was reached on May, 9th , scarcely having laid anchor, when old friends boarded and gave hearty welcomes to all the new faces to work the mission. After leaving Mr. Cady five years earlier in Chunking, Dr.Hart relocated to rent a home in preparation for the arrival of the new mission staff until other arrangements could fulfill the demands of its members. Though things would be tight for a few weeks more, they had already known each other much more than they cared to admit - sharing the confined quarters of both rail and stage carriage, steam and sail boat, spanning one continent and half of a second, with the widest ocean in between in a little over eight months. Just three months after leaving Shanghai, the road-tested yet weary contingent from Canada arrived in Chengtu to a curious and inquisitive crowd. Foreign men had been seen off and on for a few years now, but this was the first group of western women to grace the streets of the capitol city. Virgil Hart complimented his charges by saying how pleased he was to find a group of dedicated young men and women, whom he conducted over twelve thousand miles by all means of transport available for the time, to offer the kindest of courtesies and charity towards their fellow brethren and stranger alike: for this spirit to already exist to deliver medical care and comfort to those requiring its assistance. “It was no small feat to bring this band of new recruits half-way around the world and another half of China”, all in one piece with only insignificant, replaceable possessions lost. Arriving in Chengtu on a Saturday night, they rested and observed the Christian Sunday. By mid-Monday the parade of possessions being transferred from port to residence with a mile in between was in full swing. Vans and horses were modes of transport not heard of in these parts of the world; it was the coolie whose back could endure the force of a four hundred pound crate, solo. A couple of other stout China-men effortlessly maneuvered the upright pipe organ around with scarcely a scratch etched into its hand-rubbed finish. Dr. Hart searched for two weeks to locate a commodious dwelling for the mission to reside in yet provide work space and privacy for those who dwelt in it. A home in the north-west section of town was secured with some brick and mortar, lath and plaster, and a few added windows to ventilate and rejuvenate the darkened, existing rooms. By the end of June, all five missionaries were re-located with possessions proudly displayed for guests to admire. The home also contained rooms for a dispensary, pharmacy, a ward for ten patients, and a combined reading-chapel room with additional rooms for servants
    • and storage. An adjacent building had the kitchen, pantry and dining room and two complete bathrooms. One must remember that the toilet was a separate stall, devoid of any luxury. On the 24th of June the doors of the reading rooms that faced the road were opened to the public. Dr. Hart had hung on the wall and placed on the table pertinent information regarding the mission's agenda in Chengtu and had employed a trusted native literati to re-stock the papers and to collect any donations offered. After the doors were shut that night, the book steward reported that over one thousand people had come through the doors, manifesting considerable interest in the mission’s purpose of serving the community with spiritual challenges and offering alternative medical care. The first religious service was held the following Sunday, and much to the chagrin of Dr. Hart his congregation consisted of himself, his tutor, the book steward, the neighbor boy, five Chinese men employed by the mission and a stranger. Only one, the boy, had ever taken part in a service before. Though uninformed about the practice and procedures of how a service was conducted, the people were ever-so willing to learn. The preacher, acting as the flock, demonstrated how to carry a note when singing from a hymnal, to listen to the message conveyed by the sermon and to kneel for prayer; the strange Chinese book steward feigned irony in the similar position one finds in a devout Buddhist. Such are the double standards of leaving token offerings of appreciation of karma rewarded, or punishment of sins committed against the dogma of the chosen teacher. What Dr. Hart failed to see when on Mt. Omei was not the literal physical size from what mammal or divine it was pulled, but the spiritual reference that Buddha had big teeth - to chew on the tribulations of humankind, showing mercy to those who had not the ability to enjoy the varied tastes and flavors which the Buddhist culture infuses into a religion that assumes to provide direction and contentment for its faithful. The boy mentioned previously was befriended early on, being a neighbor, and followed his leader around like a puppy-dog, asking questions rapid fire, in machine gun fashion. With the knowledge of hundreds of characters at his age, one day he brought some Chinese classical pieces and recited their long passages with ease. He was to be christened “Lucas”, the name of his contributor for annual educational tuition and board. Even though he lived next door, more time was spent learning than at his own home where his father was seldom seen.
    • Dr. Hart left Chengtu for Shanghai to escort his wife and daughter on the same trip through dangerous waters which their group had just completed. Four days covered going down river what four weeks had taken coming up. The rising Yangtze saw an increase of another 50 feet over a five day period. Farmers frantically pulled the corn by the present level of the river. The following day, when attempting to disembark, Virgil Hart saw the river had risen an additional forty feet above the field being picked the previous day. The boatmen feigned fear of water demons swamping their craft. The party waited for four days under a banyan tree as whole hillsides of homes floated past in the stew of roiling water, trees and ship shards splintered by the raging torrent. The boat captain, using all his skill to cautiously pilot the boat through the rapids, brought Dr. Hart once again to the port of Ichang on one of the more thrilling passages on record. At the Shanghai port on the last day of July, husband was united with wife and daughter. After a few weeks of sojourn in Shanghai and visiting friends in central China, the trio slowly progressed up the Yangtze, arriving at their destination around the first of the New Year.
    • XX "Beginnings" Shortly after Dr. Hart left Chengtu, a dark pall passed over the mission when Dr. Kilborn’s wife died less than eighteen hours after contracting cholera. Her passing was so swift the shock of mortality made all realize that none of them was immune from its grasp, and that when the reaper is at your bedside you hoped that your life’s choices were wise. On the bank of a small river five miles from Chengtu rises a beautiful hill which the missionaries chose as burial ground. A few foreigners and many curious Chinese came to inter the doctor’s wife. Two Buddhist priests were impressed by what they heard and saw, and lingered behind after the others left, conversed with the missionaries and accepted the bound “Book” offered which taught alternative beliefs. XXI "The Work Expanding" Dr. Hart wrote, "The skilled physician is desperately needed in China. Observed is grossly uneducated basic hygiene, and many aggravated and repulsive examples of contagious diseases are frightfully prevalent. It is estimated that half the population is declared to suffer from ear, eye and skin diseases. The abundant, native self-professed doctors need no rigid education nor proof of diploma, but only a curiosity for tinkering and tweaking with the bodies of others willing to undergo their evaluations. Concoctions are devised, comprised of the most exotic materials whose origins are unknown to even those who prescribe them. The patient (or victim) will go to the chemist, whose walls are lined with multitudes of ingredients in drawers of varying sizes that contain the chemicals, fungus, minerals, roots, leaves and a myriad host of other remedies for whatever happens to be ailing its intended consumer. Many times the prescribed medication causes more harm than relief. Some examples are: The remedy for fever: the skin of snakes and frogs caught by prepubescent boys on the fifth day of the fifth moon, dried, ground into a fine powder and either snorted directly or dunked in combination with other lethal ingredients. Similarly, a fracture should knit itself back together with a poultice of dried ingredients, wrapped with green leaves. Tonics of tiger bone, claw and internal organs are used to restore vitality and vigor in an aged man. Or a pure tincture of monkey blood which is so efficacious that in a few days will have you swinging from trees like your simian
    • brother. These prescriptions show the need for modern western medicine to saturate the land and replace as an alternative to the native 'doctors', and to provide the scientific medically trained practitioner, anxious to make the most of his life by contributing to alleviating the pain and suffering. It was prudent to the mission’s survival to win over the hearts and minds of the local population quickly by first directly helping them with what they lacked the most and by gaining their trust through what the Chinese saw as miracles and living testaments to the message they wanted to ultimately deliver to China’s teeming masses. From the humble beginnings of a large home on Chengtu’s north-west side the first western dispensary opened on November, 3rd 1892, with sixteen patients seeking care. Soon after, the throngs could not be dealt with satisfactorily; more space was provided and separate rooms were delegated for the sexes. Over the course of the next year each ward had several beds constantly occupied and an equal number of successful surgeries performed as well. An old man blinded in both eyes by cataracts appeared at the dispensary doors one day, rags for clothes hanging on gaunt, emaciated flesh. He had a long staff in one hand to see what obstacles lay in front of him, in the other a small cymbal with striker articulated by thumb to emit a most irritating, ceaseless, ringing sound. Following surgery, when the day came to unwrap the bandages his first line of sight was his hands, next the bright light coming from the window and finally back into the room and audience around him. "Stand back doctor", he said, and then he requested another step back, "There, I can see you perfectly now". With his joy of renewed eyesight he knew no bounds. “With physical light came spiritual light”; and the blind man retired his staff and replaced it with a cane, putting his name down in the registry as an “inquirer”. Thereafter he attended services most regularly and when entering tea houses would be asked to re-tell his story of how the native doctor with his potions and elixirs could not restore what was taken slowly away, yet the “Foreign Devil” demanded no extortion for rendering assistance after returning his eyesight in a matter of days. One day an urgent call requested a physician to come immediately to a high officials home several miles into the countryside to render comfort to the mans dying wife. A petty officer leading six sedan chair coolies was sent to retrieve the doctor. The coolies stepped into a dog-trot which they never ceased until arriving at the residence, where the doctor was met in the front hall and asked to be led to the patient. He was informed that this was impossible etiquette for a foreign man to enter the room of the Chinese mistress and he should prescribe the necessary medication from questions asked, then submitted to her for her response. Remember that translation would be necessary for more complex questions that may infer embarrassment, with her refusal to answer, delaying a possibly quick remedy in a life or death situation. A long parley ensued with the doctor requesting the return of his sedan chair. The following day another plea to come was demanded, but the terms were on condition of seeing the patient in person. Upon his arrival he was again refused entry and devised an
    • examination by having a hole cut in the wall where the woman could stick out her tongue, hand and arm in order to see if an infection was in the throat and to take a pulse. From these few observations the doctor correctly evaluated the patient who was nursed back to full health, while the ever problematic rigid Chinese law of “saving face” was scrupulously observed. The educational side of mission work was equally stressed to support the medical ambitions of not only having a hospital the focus of attention, but its boarding schools also would pave the way for future medical schools and universities of higher learning. Just after the Chinese New Year in 1892, the way was paved for these dreams with the enrollment of 20 day school attendees which swelled to forty by the end of the month. The Hart husband and wife teamed up with a native scholar for several hours each weekday to teach the R-R & A basics, with English, Chinese and scripture recited from memory. Students quickly mastered their studies and were especially fond of singing hymns, which in turn spawned the formation of a small choir. Many of these new students had a sprinkling of Chengtu’s esteemed literati eager to learn English, and whose well defined faces supported tortoise shell frame spectacles with coke-bottle thick lenses. Though well-versed in Confucius, Lao tzu and Mencius, they were extremely uninformed about the geography of China, with many not knowing the names of its major capitol cities or the provinces in which they resided. Always the retarder of progress was the limited space provided and the constant search for adjacent available land to expand the missions' goals of a full fledged campus with chapel, hospital, school and living quarters for its staff and students. So demanding were the missions services to the public that at times it was necessary to lock the front gates. Dr. Hart‘s search for property was fruitful surrounding a temple that gave harassment to future ambitious mission plans, as the white haired foreigner’s building project began attracting more attention than any previous construction in the city ever had.
    • (VHMS) photo
    • As the building rose, as many as three thousand people a day came to satisfy their curiosity. Boys would languish mesmerized by the routine trance of carpenter, mason and laborer who went about their remedial tasks. Seeking sight and counsel with the Superintendent, old men companied with grandchild in tow would loiter by the front gate for hours. “Ladies dressed as colorful as butterflies accompanied with vivacious daughters, chatting away about looking forward to seeing the completed wards welcoming Chengtu’s mis-fortunate. The head priest at the neighboring temple seeking harmony with his new neighbor; offered the use of a temple room that housed its gods reverently, for a place where the carpenters could tool wood and store timber for the proposed multi-storey building. One day a large mob gathered in front of the front gates, offended fearfully for the dignity of their gods not being respected with sharing the sacred hall, stormed the compound and proceeded to destroy or walked away with all contents on-site. The city officials worried a similar occurrence would ensue if re-building commenced, advised the mission to surrender its deeds of the property and it would assist in finding less confrontational land in exchange. A much larger and conveniently located parcel adjacent to the east military parade grounds not far from the city wall was chosen in the spring of 1893. Foreign styled residences were not permitted to be built, so the mission decided to remodel the existing ones into the spaces urgently needed and the following year, two neighboring properties were purchased. This new site saw the building of a three hundred seat chapel and the much awaited and needed hospital. Large numbers of citizens gathered pounding the gates in front of the mission compound upon word it was ready to welcome the teeming masses. Dr. Hart assured them the coming Sunday would be its proper time, restoring calm among the crowd. A year previous an urgent appeal went out for a staff of twenty-five to work the newest addition to the Canadian mission’s station, arriving in Shanghai the following year. Dr. Kilborn had come to guide the group back through the gorges and up onto the Szechwan plain, with the journey turning into a long and challenging one. Several times their boats were tossed about the rocks, or tow lines broke sending them dangerously adrift, eventually splitting one craft along its side and if it were not for the miraculous location of a sand bar the probability of losing more property and perhaps even a life were at stake. Divine providence prevailed over the shipwrecked crew when they were able to salvage what they could and in surprisingly little time were able to repair the craft. Although it looked no worse than before, they felt desolate inside. The order of the moment was to secure a source of fuel to dry the materials brought before decay, mold and rot set in, rendering useless the valued books and medical equipment
    • having traveled so far. Crates were opened and poles strung to begin the arduous and tedious task of aeration, sacrificing time the party could not afford. After arriving in Chunking it was decided some would open a new mission in Kaiting, being the second biggest city in the province and its proximity to the Buddhist’s Grottoes of Dazu, the Kaiting Dafo and the pilgrims on their way to Mt. Omei. It also was known as a great center for Silk production and white wax industries, with only a few miles distance from a salt well district. A house was rented in March, 1894, with an adjoining compound for a hospital and dispensary where Dr. Kilborn utilized his preaching skills on Sundays and his medical skills the remaining time.
    • Mission Compound Kaiting (VHMS) photo
    • In autumn of the same year Dr. Hart took his wife and daughter back through the Yangtze Gorges and to see them off in Shanghai. How the Superintendent must have been racked by feelings of prolonged separation from wife and children. It was a somber Virgil Hart who endured another test of wills on the Yangtze rapids to return to Chengtu.
    • (VHMS) photo
    • It was not long after Dr. Hart had returned that the personal dangers missionaries' lives were exposed to became evident. When a long delayed plea came to help a woman whose condition was beyond recovery, the doctor did what he could for her and returned. Later that evening a second messenger said that the woman had not responded to inquires and had lain still for quite some time; so the doctor quickly dressed, and with stout staff in hand to ward off stray dogs, his dispenser and translator at his side, they arrived to find the woman had been dead for long enough that rigor-mortis was setting in. The husband Chwang was most polite till the doctor began to pack his bag and this spurred the man to jump up, run across the room and double-bar the door. Ignoring the conversation between Chwang and translator the doctor did not become irate till after a couple of requests to step aside with Chwang refusing to do so. It was not until the translator said in Chinese something the doctor did not understand which bid him to move and after taking several paces from the courtyard turning to continue down the street, when Chwang suddenly with screaming voice came running up to the three and refused to let them advance. As the screams of “Kill the Foreigner” attracted a larger crowd it was evident to fight was not an option, so flight was taken as fast as the legs would go. Unfortunately, the old gate-keeper was slow with the keys and at the last moment was entry achieved. Not without a struggle to keep the riff-raff out while getting the latch to catch to bolt the door shut. The doctor went into the house to clean up the blood from a gash above his eye and cleaned the wound and "poured a drink to sterilize the senses". Returning to the empty street to assure no further mischief would ensue, it was expected the matter would be resolved by morning when the Yaman consulted lead the authorities to arrest Chwang, but not until he had circulated a story that the doctor had poisoned his wife for reasons unknown and with Chwang displaying the morbid, naked corpse in front of his house for all to see in an attempt to blackmail. A few days after Dr. Hart’s arrival from Shanghai, a mission meeting was held at which it was decided that the accused doctor would go to Kaiting in exchanged for one to replace him in Chengtu. As the relocation was taking place, little did anyone know that soon the brewing tempest would boil over. XXII “Bolt From The Blue” Late in the day, two days after arriving in Kaiting, Dr. Hart was surprised to see a crippled boy from Chengtu, which he had earlier mentored at his front door, return with a most strange tale. The boy said that he had hobbled from the destroyed mission compound which was set afire by a vengeful mob seeking redress for the death of Chwang’s wife. As far as he knew all of the missionaries were safe in hiding, so he had
    • thought to return the acts of kindness by warning that the other missions also may be in grave danger. Messengers arrived the next morning to confirm what the boy had told Dr. Hart. A hand- written note on a strip of brown paper in Chinese characters informed him that the extent of damage was not confined to the Methodist mission, but that all of the missions in the city were in utter ruins. With the fifth of the Chinese month a feast day, the parade grounds opposite the mission was full of market activity, and not until the crowd was thinning did things change for the worse. "Suddenly, when returning to the compound, a shout out-of-the-blue of 'Kill the Foreign Devil' ricochet over the men and another race ensued for the gate. Holes were being poked through the walls and guns were brought out in case things became dire. Requests for assistance by the Yaman fell on deaf ears and the crowd was encouraged by its increasing size and taunts of destruction. "A decision to bolt from the compound before matters quickly unraveled and were beyond the control of the missionaries", said Dr. Hart. Seeking assistance from neighbors was repulsed and a frantic search for safety was imperative. Too caught up in their destruction of things not mobile, the crowd proceeded to smash, burn and knock down and haul away anything worthy of reuse. The sound of glass breaking, partitions snapping and fires crackling, along with the human din of vengeful souls seeking redress for assumed offenses committed by an assisting hand of mercy, calls for help were too late by a fearful husband, afraid of death, but equally frightened of the foreigner as well. The next morning the rioting ensued earnestly as sedan chairs took the women to the “Pearly Street” Woman’s Mission Society house while the men gathered in the courtyard of the Yaman’s hall seeking an explanation for allowing the people to inflict such destruction and mayhem upon the mission stations. Around mid-morning the gangs of delinquents arrived at the “Pearly Street” house and destroyed it, with all inside finding shelter by scaling back walls and bribing to be hidden. Rumors abounded that foreigners would not be granted permission to leave with guards stationed at the gates to assure compliance. Yet this could all be innuendo. Hart prayed "this is only a city matter and has not spread to other cities." The Yaman had sixty soldiers and feigned ignorance of the where-a-bouts of the foreigners, assuring his innocence if any harm came over the mission staff. The divine grace was the native Christian who provided security and sustenance for ten days to the group, with no assurance revenge would be sought by the mob. Eventually
    • charges were brought against the doctor of drugging the dead woman, with proof or stewed cherries procured from a pantry as evidence of children’s eyes to be used for lenses of western optical devices. A dazed and retarded boy was brought forth claiming he was found in a tin coffin under the floor of the chapel. Bones from a seventy year old interred priest were dug up and jostled around as evidence of bones being pulverized into concoctions of nefarious intentions. The doctors listened intently to every word and reaffirmed their innocence demanding safe passage down the river to the security of their associate members. The Yamen, ten days later, stealthily met with the huddled group assuring arrangement were being made for Chunking. “Be prepared to leave at midnight” and when the time arrived, sedan chairs appeared magically to take them through the east gate and onto the river where armed escorts were waiting on barges to whisk them away from further danger, relinquishing the escorts of their responsibility of providing comfort to the “Foreign Devil”. As events began to unravel around the safety of the missionaries, Dr. Hart felt the need to send all families with children to Chunking and along with personal possessions, he entrusted them with the deeds, most of the mission’s cash and financial records and any other pertinent documents of value to prove ownership if contested at a future date. There was news of sacked missions around the province and tales of daring escape from mission compounds as well as of marauding bands that roamed the countryside in an attempt to ambush fleeing mission parties. Always there was the faithful native willing to sacrifice life and faith for the safety of his fellow brethren. It was most kind of the local native to plaster placards which forewarned of the intended destruction of the mission compound at Kaiting. The next morning just before noon came the first waves of marauders, but they were repelled for a spell. As provisions were quickly prepared, the remaining two missionaries managed to slip out the back gate without being noticed and onto their boat, making their way to safety. The 1895 riots were unexpected by the missionaries whose gullibility thought their generous offerings were being rewarded in the number of Chinese seeking aid. What was not factored in the equation was the mainly metropolitan native who appeared to share an extreme anti-foreigner behavior which festered through the years to finally ooze abruptly on the unsuspecting lowei. Previous to the wanton rioting in Chengtu, scurrilous comments at passing missionaries was heard so much so the women of the mission traveled only with chaperon and used closed sedan chairs. More than once city officials were approached to issue edicts on the tone of language implied towards foreigners and to remind the natives the foreigners were an asset to the community. These requests were ignored and incited more people to publicly follow suit.
    • Just days before the rioting, a placard declared there was a Chinese witness who actually saw the extraction of oil from a child kidnapped by a missionary. which, understandably, prompted the ill-informed native of the time to turn violent upon the missionaries and stations. The second day of rioting had a minor Tao Tai to issue a public statement, there was evidence that the missions sequestered children for nefarious reasons and when the time came to prosecute these offenders, there would be no leniency spared. The day after the riots a placard demanded that if missionaries desired to return to engage in their craft, the military's of their countries needed to stop keeping their hands tucked into their pockets and assist his Imperial’s forces in driving the northern invader from China’s soil. Though the reason for some of the anti-foreigner sentiment was from corrupt, greed stricken westerners who exploited native people, it was not prudent to classify all lowei’s as composed of the same character, with much of the blame to be laid at the personal feelings of the Szechwan Viceroy, along with some of his associates. XXIII "Appeal Unto Caesar" The uncut news coming over the telegraph wire reported similar circumstances that flared up in neighboring provinces with many missionaries doing a bee-line to Shanghai as expeditiously as possible and others not stopping there, but returning instead to Japan and
    • even places of origin. To give time and skill as a person seeking to assist his fellow human, it is understandable how many are willing to take the oath as a physician to the highest level. Yet, when the personal safety of family and friends is at stake, it is imperative that you become sub-servant to their well being. The military cadets soon arrived in the city for their annual exams with the city, but officials were not able to assure they could protect the remaining missionaries in Chunking. A last stand area was declared at a certain point, with an invitation for any missionary in a fighting mood to join. Many were staying near to the water in case a hasty retreat down the Yangtze was necessary, so for a couple of weeks Dr. Hart lived on a pontoon boat near the Customs building. Before leaving Chunking, as advised by the British Counsel, there were resolutions passed which were presented to the American, Canadian and British Embassies in Peking seeking redress. Similar measures also were drafted in other provinces which had the same experiences. Dr. Hart was chosen to represent the aggrieved parties wanting compensation for destroyed personal and mission property, costs for reconstruction and fully supplied mission stations, and the travel and daily expenses of each mission employee. Further, the parties wanted to convict and punish the officials who did not try to prevent the destruction, together with ring-leaders of the rioting; they also wanted assurances that no such circumstances would arise in the future. The total estimated costs of these petitions were just under twenty thousand taels of silver or eighteen thousand dollars. The English Counsel, who were close friends of Dr. Hart, along with others in Peking, agreed with his proposals and thought it prudent to hold a board of inquiry to investigate the circumstances of the events so that future situations did not have a chance to spawn. A further suggestion was to include a resident Counsel agent who would communicate directly with the Viceroy, and would open trade agreements in other parts of the province where restrictions were being lifted by the Chinese people as a sign of good-will. Dr Hart actually looked at the rioting as an advantage to the mission’s agenda by not only being compensated for indignities incurred, but as a chance to put out an ember before it could turn into a raging inferno. By not backing down and forcing the issue Dr. Hart won favor in the courts and greater respect for the lowei, for he trumped the natives game of intimidation. In the end, much of the strategy taken was outside of the mission rules of proper etiquette when confronting a host, yet it proved to cement greater respect for the ideas of the “Foreign Devil” in matters of law and protocol within the Middle Kingdom. Foreseeing the deadly road China was beginning to trod, Dr. Hart thought it important to witness the collapse of the corrupt dynastic system which had withstood the test of the ages for more than five thousand years, as well as to see the seeds of the coming
    • revolution that would rise to elect Dr. Sun Yat Sen as the first president of a new dawn for China, and which would bear the fruit of greater transparency and accountability for the officials who served her teeming masses. Less than two months after the riots were unleashed upon the Chengtu mission station, Dr. Hart and Hare, who had left Kaiting by slipping out the back gate, were en-route to Peking. As they rounded the great Shan tung (Shandong) Promontory pointing its way towards Corea (Korea) like a giant index finger, they spied the island of Liu Kong Tao off the port bow, the site where the Chinese General Ting was defeated six months earlier by the Japanese General Ito. Ito, who revered Ting so much as a student of military strategy, as well as for his courage during the current battle, stalled the days of long bombardment, beseeching Ting to make an alliance until the end of the war. Humbled by his offer, yet loyal to his motherland, Ting refused and a few days later, with second and third officers included, took poison and dashed the hopes of the Chinese naval forces for victory. Making their way towards Chefoo, fleets of clumsy looking row-boats would gaff themselves a hold of the side of the ship with long poles, when a well-toned man rose to the deck to solicit interest in his hotel's services. They reached Taku with the boat laying anchor under the military fortifications on the tortuous Peiho River, where Dr. Hart caught his first sight of a Chinese rail depot. He was surprised to see the exhaust of coal black smoke mixed with belching steam as they wafted into the evening air. He listened to whistles blowing, and to the chug-chug din slowly increasing as the lumbering engines enticed the carriages to gain momentum heading down the track. The next morning they boarded a train for Tientsin where they witnessed Dr. Mackenzie’s gallant efforts with sick and wounded soldiers fresh from the Wei Hai Wei and Port Arthur battlefields. The diplomat tourists were moved by the memorials of white marble columns, stationed where the martyred fell defending sacred trusts in 1870. A most stark chapel, devoid of Roman Catholic idolatry near its orphanage, identifies where two columns inside and eight more outside were a "stones throw away from a noisy street being the scene of more brutal violence to disgrace the annals of Chinese history than one can imagine". When saying these words, I doubt that Dr. Hart could imagine, even with his exposure to American Civil War carnage, the extent of heathen brutality which minds under orders from military superiors can unleash, leaving its documented testimony, and of the sometimes strange ingratitude of the Chinese people towards strangers who were only here to assist them in improving their quality of life. When Dr. Hart first came to China in 1865, he knew a Mr. Pethick in Foochow who was now the private secretary for Viceroy Li Hung Chan. During tea the two were having, Viceroy Ya Men Li was announced and, upon being introduced, grasped the men’s hands in western fashion instead of the ceremonial bow. The hour long conversation eventually
    • turned to the recent rioting in Chengtu and the reason why Dr. Hart was in Peking. After many pressing questions, Viceroy Li admitted that the instigator Chen was responsible and should be punished. If the waiver of indemnity that Chen demanded was rescinded, then he would assure the safety of the missionaries to continue their practice unabated. Viceroy Li made vain attempts to blame the rioting on the Roman Catholics. Dr. Hart made it perfectly clear it had been the past thirty years of ineffectual justice against mob violence towards missionaries that had fueled the reasons for it not to have ceased. After explaining that the missionaries were not seeking to profit from this circumstance, just to replace things destroyed and the inconvenience it caused, to his Excellency: "if bad men destroyed his home and the owner came asking for compensation. Viceroy Li responded by not asking for it, rather he would have seized it from the offenders". Being further questioned by Viceroy Li, Dr. Hart was asked his knowledge of the Viceroy of Szechwan's demeanor. After hesitating, he finally blurted out “he is an avaricious man”, with Li denying the accusation. Dr. Hart said "he is a hater of foreigners", and Viceroy Li responded these words were too harsh, but could say he does not like them". Ultimately the real reason of the meeting transpired which was the evaluating by Dr. Hart of Viceroy Li’s face which had suffered an attempted assassin’s bullet while visiting Japan to assure him the encased lead would not infect him. The diplomat tourist took on their second reason for being there and invited to the vice regales home where they admired the second hand gifts Dowager Cixi had bequeathed him. Dr. Hart writes he was privileged to hold court with “the hero of Taiping days, the one who quelled the Szechwan riots a score of years before, the most eminent general and wiliest of diplomat China ever produced,” to date. "A Viceroy in times of peace and war, calm and tempest, honor and deceit has played” a most excellent hand in the game of chance we call our lives. His many foes are now “hounding him to his grave as the few remaining comrades bolster the tottering giant”. How the Empress Cixi admired this subject that lavished her with such benevolent gratitude. The final mode of transport did not seem befitting a special Commissar to solicit retribution from the Imperial City, as both donkey and cart managed to hit all the myriads of holes, ruts and ravines along the entire length of road. Dr. Virgil Hart sat atop the razor-edged back of the donkey with its head-strong mind to disobey commands that kept its passenger dodging the street placards, meat hooks, and clothes-lines.
    • The stay in Peking was a short one with Dr. Hart’s most important visit being with Sir Robert Hart, the “Inspector General” for the country of China, employed by the emperor for over forty-one years and who assured an accurate and transparent accounting of the affairs of the state. Many native Chinese held contempt for allowing a “Foreign Devil” to administer the affairs of collections on duties imposed on commodities imported within China's ports, but it was prudent to have one capable of not allowing emotion to flare at inopportune moments of heated discussion. The conversation between them was long, with talk of new ports to be opened and finally turning to true feelings of how many Chinese felt about the mission proselytizing ideas conflicting with Confucian ideology. The natives were content to worship. It was pointed out by Dr. Hart the corrupt officials who kept the masses in confusion and who sought information and justice, resulted in the deplorable living standards the average native Chinese. Although the Chinese possessed basic ethics, they were skewed to the favor of a few who practiced a double standard of application, "no worse in the present China than was the Roman Empire in its days of glory." Sir Robert Hart was forced to admit this was the case and lost face by stating his belief. Later in the afternoon a personal call was made to the British Litigation “Embassy” and was received by Sir Nicholas O’Connor, who had the Chunking resolution document in his hand and agreed to the need to press for restitution, but not necessarily for all of the issues put forth at that time. After the meeting, a tour was arranged of the ducal palace and its residences which contained many finely painted frescoes and tapestries whose quality could equal and surpass those of any royal European palace. A journey to Peking would not have been complete without seeing his good friend the Honorable Colonel Charles, as they recalled their many former adventures when canvassing the vexed tribulations within Szechwan many years before. Colonel Charles doubted the central government would do much beyond a cash payout, but that he would use his influence where he though it could best help. One saying goes amongst those who once knew the capitol city as a place of the three D’s: dirt, dust and disdain, while it nonetheless contains places of much interest and veneration. It was a time when there were no paved streets, the sewers ran open, there were no street lights, or police for protection: a time of shame. The results of the demands made by the missionaries were a startling degradation of the notoriously corrupt Viceroy of Szechwan Liu Ping Chang, whose edicts were equally contemptuous of his court officials and of their official duties of state. A full payment of
    • retribution was collected that was garnished from the Viceroy’s own personal pocket and the mission’s right to the administered care to its people. Dr. Virgil Hart was to write later that he thought his entire career of work in China was all worth this one foray to demand the presence of the mission agenda within China, "to be present in a time of great iniquity when the very pillars supporting the fabric of thousands of years of Imperial decree were about to be pulled down". XXIV "The Work Resumed" The snowballing effect of the rioting continued along the Yangtze River corridor provinces and a couple facing the sea where a number of missions' generous assistance had melded into other western commercial interests that exploited the native and trampled upon their traditions. In Kuncheng near Foochow a commission was created to investigate the circumstances surrounding its chain of events which led to the massacring of ten missionaries there. Several British warships were anchored off Wusung near Shanghai and more were by the treaty ports to shell local cities if the Imperial edicts were not honored. Imperial forces were quelling rebellions in many cities with the future of mission stations at its bleakest of times in China. A commission of three men, headed for Chentu several months after the rioting had begun, and with Dr. Virgil Hart and Dr. Hawthorne were met at Chunking by its magistrate wanting to delay their return to provide extra language and negotiating skills to reestablish the mission stations there. Such was the wily official who thought stalling his arrival and an attempted bribe of fine cakes and fowl would persuade the two from their intent, but word was requested that the magistrate forward notice that accommodations be readied in a couple days time for their arrival. An escort of six soldiers was sent and many of the locals who realized they were snookered by a few unscrupulous native officials walked out to welcome the lowei’s (foreigners) return. Inspection of the graffiti that littered the walls of the mission compound revealed some remarkable misinterpretations of the religious practices of the Methodist mission and the young students, once their voices were heard and believed by their elders, felt ashamed about how gullibly they were taken by the likes of the nefarious Cheng and others. After several busy weeks of work in Chengtu, it was then time to set their sights on returning to Kaiting, with official letters arriving on the intent of the future mission there.
    • Kaiting / Leshan Dafo: The largest sitting Buddha in the world. The strains of his mission work and the effects of malaria sent Dr. Hart to convalesce for a year and in February of 1897 saw him resume the mission work he held so dear to his heart. The extra support of wife and daughter by his side made the challenges ahead more comforting. Just after arriving back in China, Estell was married to Dr. Hare whom was a new mission doctor for Chengtu and all went on their surreptitious route back towards Szechwan, reaching Kaiting in late May. The structures had suffered dearly, but Adeline was delighted with the location of the compound abutted next to a hill not far from the city wall. The one thing you crave more than anything in summer is a cool beverage to quench your thirst. Dr. Hart was determined to alleviate this dilemma and dug a well at the base of the cliff by the mission property. After going down several feet they came upon a hand chiseled cave tooled by the former inhabitants of the area called the Mantzs, with
    • recessed niches for storage of possessions and sleeping. Though a damp location, it made for a cool reprieve from the summer heat and storage for harvested produce. The rise of many new brick buildings replaced the destroyed ones and provided them the means of a clean sweep to begin afresh with their work. After creating the mission in Chengtu, Dr. Hart thought the next thing to add towards the mission’s arsenal of services was the printed word. He wanted to create a public relations campaign to inform the native about what was happening within and outside her borders, along with the ability to articulate the message of why the missions were here in the first place and to subdue the suspicious local mind. While in the U.S. on furlough, he was busy on the lecture circuit collecting funds for this endeavor, then returning to China with a treadle and hand crank printing presses. Unfortunately, one third of the pages being transported became reading material for the Yangtze River water demons that created much havoc for those daring enough who attempted to ride their way through them. Dr. Virgil Hart & Printing Staff in Kaiting How much trouble these hunks of metal were to get into boats and haul up the river, to
    • become the first printing presses in operation west of Hankow. The block Chinese character type was purchased in Shanghai, with the English having traveled with the presses from the States. The presses were installed at their new building in Kaiting and began turning out their first pages, and after two years of operation they were employing sixteen men churning out three million one hundred thousand pages of literature. The white-haired Hart was a most content man, achieving another goal he set for himself years earlier. (VHMS) photo
    • Soon after the presses were up and operating they were a money maker for the mission station and orders for its services assured a constant flow of revenue that could support its own agenda of providing the means for the local Chinese to educate themselves. Education was reserved for the official class with the primary reason of controlling the masses and the other reason being that when you are a general laborer there is little need to be literate much beyond the skill requirements needed for your occupation and for communication. Another much overlooked reason is after working and the demands of a survival sustainable lifestyle, one was too tired and needed to rest for the next day’s challenges. The presses were not only paying for themselves, it was the assurance of getting product into the hands of the local people rather than suffering the loss of over one third of the material hauled up by boat through the Yangtze Gorges being destroyed by not only loss of shipwreck, but beyond recovery or distribution due to the materials being so saturated they mildewed. The press operation was also providing a decent living wage of over three dollars and twenty five cents per month to its employees, making them some of the highest paid workers in the city. A city bi-monthly paper Dr. Hart envisioned based out of Chengtu that received its present news by telegraph wire, newspaper articles and scraps of information brought in from the coast three months old was fresher than much of the re-hashed local diatribe of gossip that was claimed to be recent. Dr. Hart, never being one to pass up a rib, even took a swipe at some westerners who had not heard until the most recent mission board meeting the Kaiting station possessed presses three years after its first page had been printed. (VHMS) photo
    • Dr. Hart looked upon the presses he brought up to mission station as being the most successful goal set for the mission agenda. He was looking forward to the day when the printed word emitted from Kaiting would provide such knowledge that it would flow into the adjoining provinces like Thibet and over-take the dark word the empress Dowager Cixi was using to keep the people oppressed. By 1897, the little presses that were hauled up through the Yangtze River Gorges numbered one dozen, had an annual output of over thirty five million pages of print in over four languages employing five foreign head departments and a staff of sixty. There was no other type of mission service offered which reaped a profit for the western missions like the press works. XXV “A Visit To An Outstation” As the mission influence became tolerated and flourished one of the first way-stations the mission established was at Omei Hsien, near the base of Mt. Omei. Dr. Hart and his wife took a foray to the new mission one winter when the mountain was blanketed in a robe of white, its mountain streams gurgling to the additional moisture picked up as it cascaded "downstream to have the farmer irrigate from it, ducks waddling, children sailing their home-made boats of wood, women washing clothes and produce in it", refuse and body waste dropped, with all along the way the local drawing water to boil tea, and steam the rice with vegetables for the days meals. The days journey by sedan chair had them arriving in the evening to a drafty rented house with the busy traffic of Main Street, that didn’t possess the appearance of a residence for an administrator or the aroma of fresh cut clover; yet a charcoal fire was lit for warmth, a hot meal of food served and the residents of multitudes around them not aware of the addition of two more lowei’s within the city’s confines. Between ten to fifteen times per month, cities in China still host market days where every imaginable thing coaxed from the soil or made by industrious hands can still be found. By mid-day the streets were abuzz with a din that could be heard before seen as a woman with eggs, who began the walk into town before sunrise, occupied a part of curb to hawk what the fowl had whelped. Or a piglet with rope tied about its neck squealed and darted to and fro, losing a month’s worth of growth to the kicking and fright induced shock, keenly aware to be its new owners next meal. Twas an opportune time to distribute literature and decorative wall calendars with both holidays of Chinese and Christian tradition being displayed prominently with a wood-cut print at the top, and to grace the barren walls of the Chinese peasant home, which lacked so many of the amenities displayed by the interiors of western homes of the day. A
    • blundering foreign man with armfuls of colored paper tucked under his arms is rewarded with omnipotent stares as he hands out the papers while stepping on the tails of clucking chickens and quacking ducks, out the papers to those mixing “with hundreds of old women who conveyed various states of imprecations to the cause of the unsightly hubbub.” The excitement caused by providing colorful materials for just expressing the desire to have one soon was followed by the exchange of coin for more delightful materials with a message inspired by a passage from scripture, accompanied with that of similar Confucian thoughts which were inspired five hundred years before Christ. The next day was spent ascending Mt. Omei to Ta Ngo Sz, a days' more walk up the extreme steepness rather than ride by sedan chair whose carriers complained they bore the weight of over three hundred catties slandering Mrs. Hart by many pounds, though she was indeed of ample proportions. The Hart’s unannounced arrival caught the Abbot of Mt. Omei by surprise as the man of sixty nine years, wearing robes lined with fur, bowed so low as to prostrate himself before us, thumbs outstretched wide. Dr. Hart, not being so limber in stature, nevertheless was able to return a low bow of respect. A tea ceremony ensued where the Abbot ordered boiling water to be brought as he reached into his robe and pulled out a satin bag of fine yellow tea. After dropping the wad of leaves into the incense ash, the Abbot wiped his hand and robe sleeve and made a couple of passes with a damp cloth which picked up further remains from who knows where, or how long ago. Two bamboo cups were wiped clean of their previous contents again by the robe sleeve and cloth, then into which he poured boiling water mixed with the wad of leaves and served. Dr. Hart, after reaching for his tea, made sure to sip loudly in appreciation for the selection of tea chosen for the occasion, while at an opportune time Mrs. Hart disposed of her tea into the vase: “women are such queer beings with finical expectations.” The Harts were encouraged to return when the weather was more favorable, with a garden of fresh produce and water from the nearby bubbling spring which legend assured of living to the ripe old age of one hundred. While eating lunch one afternoon, a blind monk came in and heard the voice of Dr. Hart and recalled that it was the same man who visited eleven years earlier, when he was a young boy. The Abbott was so accommodating to the missionaries that rooms later were added to the complex in order for the mission families to reside in the hot summer months; the Szechwan plain is very famous for being called one of the “Three furnaces” of China. The Harts were to spend several more visits to the slopes of Mt. Omei before forever having to depart from their adopted home of the rapidly changing Middle Kingdom XXVI “Two Eventful Years”
    • As the century drew to a close it was decided by the different mission denominations to invite representatives to a conference in Chunking where the Da Washees “Baptist” met with the Shao Washees “Episcopalians”, and Methodists, with the Buzai Washees “Quakers”, not represented at all. A confused China-man asked "how can different beliefs worship the same God?", placing his finger squarely at the heart of the problem vexing many native societies to the complexities of Christian worship in the Orient and Occident for the matter as a whole. There are many different sects of Buddhists, Hindus, Islam or Jewish faiths as well as all the minor religions worshiped, this is what keeps the flower of religious dogma, blooming. To inspire like-minded folks to gather for a central theme of purpose is what this conference achieved. They created an advisory board that met regularly to discuss individual mission agendas to make sure duplication of services were not being provided by the mission compounds. While the missions of west China were busy to convey their message and provide essential services to improve the standard of living for the local population, there rose in North-China a group known as Ho Chuan or “Righteous Harmony Fists”, felt threatened by the growing foreign influence and the changes it wrought towards the old guard of the Manchu Dynasty. The west came to know this group as "Boxers", that promoted the veneration of the dynastic traditions with the princess Dowager who usurped the throne of Kwang Su “after the humiliating defeat of China against Japan, the appropriation of foreign powers and their control over key cities of the coast, with the attempt to revert for a time back to the way things were once run out of Peking." One mistake the Boxers made was the false impression that they personally were impervious to bullets which decimated their numbers in quantities sufficient to not spread their terror all over the kingdom, though 1900 brought on the worst of the fear created by the Boxers when two hundred foreign missionaries were martyred along with over twelve thousand native converts. Though there were several anti-foreigner demonstrations in Chengtu and Kaiting, they never materialized beyond words spoken for several months. The authorities demanded the missions confine their activities to certain cities with the risk of no assurance of protection if they violated these requests. Some patients and servants were afraid to stay overnight in mission compounds because fear of retribution was at a higher state than normal with Mrs. Hart having food and provisions packed in case a hasty retreat. An edict was made by the Prefect of Kaiting offering a reward of forty taels of silver for anyone who spread false rumors about foreigners. There was one case where a literary man who was inciting crowds near the school for a few days using preposterous rumor, so Dr. Hart notified the authorities about this circumstance. The following day the offending man was brought in front of Dr. Hart and he immediately prostrated himself as he knocked his head about the floor-boards promising to refrain and further spread untrue
    • stories about mission activity. By showing acts of mercy upon the man who rightfully deserved punishment, Dr. Hart allowed the local people to see first hand how mission staff used compassion to change the hearts of the native for their cause rather than the rod of justice to inflict further resentment on an already suspicious citizen. Winning the hearts and minds of the people was the agenda of the day, not retribution for inflammatory language that would lose its message if forgiveness were issued, but to forget would breed a sense of false security. The order came one hot July day in 1900; from the British counsel that all foreigners must evacuate the Szechwan Province, with Dr. Hart entrusting a mission convert Chinese-man with the delivery of this news to the Chengtu mission. They all left Chunking under military escort downriver to Shanghai, their state rooms sweltering in the one hundred and fifteen degree heat. Dr. Hart was racked with fever from a return bout with malaria. As wet cloths were applied to his sweat soaked forehead, his wife fanned him. They decided it was time to return to the west and to resign his position as Superintendent from the Canadian Methodist West Mission administration. XXVII “Worn Out” The doctor in Szechwan had declared him China-worn out as the ravages of recurring malaria took their toll. The months of winter spent in Southern California were no help to rejuvenate the health of Dr. Hart and he decided to return to his farm near Burlington to receive family and friends during his remaining days he could afford to do so. When his eldest son arrived to welcome him home, he hardly recognized him as the man he last saw five years previous. Three years were to pass with the public appearances becoming less frequent and the last being a speech at Victoria University. The visits by friends fell off too, but the letters kept pouring in to remind and invite Dr. Hart and his wife to return to their adopted home of China. He felt unworthy of these requests and on February, 24, 1904 were the last breaths the man with a mission took and his body is now at rest with the ages in the Mt. Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto, Canada.
    • (OWM) photo Dr. Virgil Hart Memorial Service Bulletin “Conclusion” It has been quite the life experience to have a grandmother and mother who were born in far off lands that I would later one day visit and even reside in. To hear stories about my relatives from both sides of the family and their unique heritage left by them. Books could be written about their lives with much adventure and toils to overcome by all. It has been a great honor while my grandmother and great aunt were alive to be the family member who decided to return with the pictures and to tell once more these fascinating stories made by my family in China. I expect this was an enjoyable read while conveying a small portion of Dr. Virgil Hart's life. Stanley Crawford _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
    • ___________________________________ Dr. Edgerton Haskell Hart: in His Father’s Footsteps By Cathleen Crawford Green and Stanley Crawford Edgerton Haskell Hart, the second son of Virgil and Adeline Hart, was born May 18, 1868, in Kiukiang, China. He spent until 1879 growing up in the city and became friends with Shi Mei Yu and Ida Kahn who were Jenny Hughes’ adopted daughters. Edgerton left for the United States in 1879 for schooling. He attended the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, from 1887-1889. He received his medical degree from the University of the City of New York in 1892, and did his internship at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital in New Jersey from 1892 to 1893. He was married to Rose Munn on July 20, 1893, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. By the end of 1893, Dr. and Mrs. Hart were in Soochow, China, where he was working at the hospital and dispensary. Their first daughter, Rose Adelaide Hart, was born June 29, 1894. By the summer of 1895 they were able to spend the hot months in the higher altitude of Kuling, where they continued their Chinese language lessons. They enjoyed walks, such as to the Moon Temple of the White Cloud Precipice. In August, 1895, Edgerton responded to the call for rescue volunteers to go to Kucheng where ten missionaries had been massacred and the mission compound destroyed. Upon arrival he was witness to men being tortured in the Chinese court. No official written record was transcribed of these events. In November, Dr. Hart received word to go to Wuhu which he hoped would be his permanent mission station. The journals he kept record many of his daily activities, such as seeing patients at the dispensary and the hospital, doing surgery, delivering babies, giving vaccinations, doing amputations and removing large tumors from patients. For entertainment the Harts took walks, went to chapel, visited with other missionary friends, had tea and dinners with them and the consulate and customs staff. He enjoyed hunting as well as playing tennis and croquet when time allowed. Visitors from abroad were always welcome. In April, 1896, he mentioned meeting a Chicago, Illinois couple who was traveling around the world on bicycles! Two months after Dr. Hart’s 28th birthday their second daughter, Dorothea Mansell Hart, was born. He took Baby Rose for rides on his pony. In early October, he returned to Kiukiang for the first time since leaving as a boy of eleven years of age.
    • Dr. Edgerton Hart Name Card
    • Dr. Edgerton Haskell Hart Dr. Edgerton Hart business Card In February, 1897, he wrote about the visit of Dr. Hare who was en route to Yokohama where he married his sister Estella Hart. The two doctors enjoyed hunting for ducks and deer, but only shot a pheasant. That month Dr. Hart wrote about several interesting surgeries. An operation was noted for Elephantiasis where both legs were removed due to gross deformation. One man had leprosy for fifteen years and another had necrosis of the bones of his foot. He amputated one foot and leg on a Chinese woman with gangrene due to foot binding and necrosis. On February 22nd, Dr. Hart was called to help a man who was buried alive by a heap of coal. Later that day a native man who had ingested three grams of powdered opium, had tried to commit suicide by jumping off a bridge. After being rescued, he took a straight razor and opened his throat, but missed the arteries on either side of his neck. The stitches Dr. Hart sewed in had to be redone after the opium induced addict pulled them out. Imagine the challenge presented to find stout enough flesh to bind such mangled remains! The photo of the man follows at the end of the medical link page.
    • The lives of missionaries so far from their homeland were filled with many joys and sorrows. After a visit from his father and mother in 1897, Edgerton wrote in his journal: “We have enjoyed their short stay with us very much. Sorry they have to be so far away from us. Our whole lives seem to have been made up of meetings and partings. As a family we are pretty well scattered. Hope someday we may all be together as a family.” The family was blessed with the birth of their first son, Edgerton Haskell Hart, Jr., on October 22nd that year. In March, 1900, Rose received word that her father, James J. Munn, had died in January, far away in Canada. She was devastated with the loss and the fact that he had never seen their children. Their second son, Wellington Jackson Hart, was born in Hamilton, Ontario, on October 1, 1900, while the family was home on furlough. During their stay Dr. Hart did post graduate work at the New York Post Graduate Medical School from November 1900 to May, 1901. One of Dr. Hart’s Chinese friends was Lord Li who later became the minister from China to Great Britain. In 1899, Lord Li sent a messenger to Dr. Hart to call at his home. His uncle, Li Han Chang, the former Viceroy of Canton, was very sick and he wanted Dr. Hart to go see him in Luchio. Together they went to his country home where Dr. Hart treated him for an extensive carbuncle at the back of his neck. They returned a week later to find the patient improving. While there they toured the extensive gardens, stone bridges, ponds and moats. They paid homage to the ancestral tomb of Li Hung Change’s parents. The family temple was a fine building with five steps and numerous tablets, several from the Emperor and Empress Dowager and other notables. Dr. Hart was also asked to operate on an 89 year old man who was a pupil of Li Hung Chang’s father. Three years later Lord Li beckoned Dr. Hart to come view the casket of the “last great Chinese statesman” Li Hung Chang. He was also asked the following year to see the wife of a relative of Lord Li who had swallowed a gold earring in order to commit suicide. She was unsuccessful in her attempt. After operating on Lord Li’s son for appendicitis, Lord Li asked if the boy could live in the Hart home in preparation for going to school in America or Europe. In April, 1902, Dr. Hart went with others to inspect the broken dike near Wuhu. One man was Mr. Von Heidenstam from Sweden who was a hydro-engineer up from Shanghai. Such a calamity threatened the lives and homes of thousands of people along the Yangtze River. Cholera was a deadly disease often associated with contaminated water. Dr. Hart was called to see numerous patients who showed symptoms of the disease in the
    • morning, were dead by that night and buried the following day. Extreme care was taken to wash their hands and those of their servants and helpers. They boiled and filtered all water for drinking and the preparation of food. An old river boat captain who had sailed the Yangtze River for forty years, allowed himself to eat a fresh pear one day. Thirty hours later their fight to save his life was useless. On April 17, 1903, Dr. Stone came down from Kiukiang to see their work and witness some operations. The only forms of anesthesia available were chloroform, ether and cocaine. Dr. Hart was called to deliver many babies, especially when mothers had been in labor for several days with midwives unable to deliver them. He used forceps when necessary, but no mention is made in his journals of doing any Caesarian sections. One afternoon in 1903 a poor woman was put off a boat and delivered a baby in their back yard. Only one entry in his journals mentioned operating for a sarcoma and one for cancer of the breast. However, many cases were not noted in his journals, so conclusions cannot be formed as to the incidence of cancer. While in Kuling for the summer of 1903 Rose gave birth to their third son Virgil Chittenden Hart, II, on August 17th. That December 8th she was in intense agony with abdominal pain, at first thought to be peritonitis. The following day Dr. Hart discovered a mass on her right side which proved to be a dislocated kidney. It is believed she injured herself while moving a piano during house cleaning in their Wuhu home. She apparently improved enough for Edgerton to attend the annual meeting of the missionaries in Kiukiang in January. On February 25th he received the shocking news of the death of his father Virgil Hart. Edgerton wrote, “Father dear old man has fought his fight and finished a glorious course of life.”
    • Edgerton Hart and his 1st wife: Rose Mansell, seated between them is Edgerton Haskell Jr. The youngest daughter is Rose and the oldest is Dorothea Mansell. In the Ahma arms is Wellington Jackson. They would have one more child, Virgil Chittenden II, named after his grandfather before her untimely death. On February 27, 1904, Edgerton received a letter from Miss Caroline Maddock of Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. stating she was accepting the invitation of Dr. Beebe, the Mission Board of New York, and him, to be a nurse at the Wuhu Hospital. Mrs. Rose Hart immediately replied to her letter stating her delight at her coming there. She said her husband had been serving entirely alone with a few native helpers to do the work that would require a score or more doctors and nurses to do at home. There was no training school for native women as yet. She instructed her to bring including furniture, clothes,
    • tennis racquet, and plenty of shoes, as shopping was so expensive there. Married couples had to stay seven years, single people were entitled to furlough in five years. “Prepare yourself for another world, but not a better one. Everything in China is directly opposite to what you have been accustomed to at home. Monotony predominates so arm yourself with a large amount of common sense, a great big heart and a contented sunny disposition.” She said she had five children who required all her time and attention. She was a teacher as well as a mother. In March Dr. Beebe arrived to consult Edgerton in regard to Rose’s case. He agreed that she had displaced her right kidney and it may be necessary to take her home for an operation. However, they spent two months in Kuling that summer. Rose Hart wrote to Miss Maddock again on September 21, 1904, welcoming her and saying they were longing to see her and have her with them socially and in the work. That same night the intense abdominal pain resumed and lasted at least four days. Edgerton had no journal entries until October 22 when Rose was feeling better. He wrote, “Miss Maddock our new nurse arrived this p.m. She impresses us all as being very capable.” Rose’s pain and fever resumed and four days later they boarded Captain Hogg’s boat with help getting Rose on-board. Miss Maddock accompanied them, having arrived just in time to serve as her personal nurse. They were met in Nanking by Doctors Stuart, Rowe, and Wilson and Miss Shaw. On November 27, 1904, they arrived in Shanghai where Rose was operated on immediately as she was in very critical condition. A laparotomy was done on her right side and seven ounces of yellowish fluid was removed. She remained in the hospital with Miss Maddock caring for her as they were the only two women there and male nurses were not to care for women. Dr. Hart’s cook brought and cooked their meals. On January 10, 1905, they sailed from Shanghai, arriving in San Francisco, California on February 2nd. From there they took a train to Baltimore, Maryland where Mrs. Hart was admitted to Johns Hopkins Hospital. Miss Maddock and Miss Sue Munn, Rose’s sister, accompanied the five children to their Grandmother Munn in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
    • Hart Wedding Photo in Nanking on October, 26 1907. Left to right Dr. Edgerton Hart Dr. Bebe, Caroline Maddock Hart, Dr. Stuart 1st president of Nanking University and his wife. Miss Maddock visited her own relatives in Canada and then in Chicago. Dr. Hart expressed in letters his deep appreciation to her for her self-sacrifice on their behalf. He
    • advised her to return to China and spend the summer studying Chinese with a teacher in Kuling. She left Chicago in April and sailed from San Francisco to Shanghai on the PMSS Korea, her third crossing of the Pacific Ocean on this ship within a year. Mrs. Hart underwent three more surgeries until she died on March 12, 1905. While at Johns Hopkins with his wife, Dr. Hart did post graduate work at the medical school and many surgeries. After her death he said his life was empty without his dear one. Unable to bear the thought of returning to China alone, Dr. Hart took his son Edgerton with him, traveling for over two and a half months from Montreal to England, France and Australia on the SS Marmora. On November 16th they returned to Wuhu. Edgerton’s journals for 1905-1907 are missing so information about this time is gleaned from letters and published articles. It is apparent the lonely widower’s affection for Caroline Maddock blossomed early in 1906 as they sent loving letters to one another while he was doing surgery in Nanking. He appreciated her excellent help in the operating room and they missed each other greatly while apart. They were both very sensitive and caring people, as well as very appropriate in their behavior. On January 16, 1907, Dr. Hart proposed to Caroline while she was sitting at her writing desk, which was a cherished possession all her life. An August, 1907, article Caroline wrote for a World Wide Missions publication described the hospital compound outside the city of Wuhu on the hill named Iche san. The hospital had beds for seventy patients. There were buildings for the laundry, kitchen, baths, barbering, clothing and oil storage, and several houses for doctors, including the native Dr. Chung. In the past year they had had 409 inpatients, 363 operations, saw 7,635 persons in the dispensary, and made 743 out-calls. They also cared for foreigners and sailors from passing ships. Caroline trained Chinese men as nurses. Fortunately the peasant women around Wuhu did not bind feet but many cases were brought from a distance with horrible ulcers from this practice. Almost daily lepers came seeking health care but they had no isolation ward for them. Many came with huge tumors that had to be surgically removed. Dr. Hart and his colleagues made significant improvements to the hospital compound by the digging of a well and building a windmill. Water was piped inside from the windmill tank. Cleanliness of water was a constant problem. She wrote, “Probably the tea habit saves millions of lives every year, as it insures the boiling of water. One man’s job was carrying their household water from the river up the hill. Huge amounts of alum were stirred into it to cause the silt to settle to the bottom. Then it was boiled and filtered for
    • household use. The cook bought their eggs, chickens and vegetables from farmers. They never ate raw vegetables and fruits except those carefully supervised in the compound gardens. Fish was only bought during the cold months and were brought to the kitchen door swimming alive in buckets of water. Fish was never eaten during cholera season from May to October. During those months they had many varieties of chicken, duck and pheasant. Though the Maddock family discouraged Caroline from marrying a widower with five children, Caroline was determined and was disappointed none of her family could attend their wedding. She and Edgerton were married in Nanking at the home of Dr. and Mrs. Stuart, during the celebration of their 25th wedding anniversary, on October 26, 1907. They honeymooned for one month on a houseboat Dr. Hart owned. They took a crew of four on their 1,000 mile trip on the lower Yangtze River and Boyang Lake. They stopped beside small villages and some would bring sick people for him to heal, if possible with their bag of medical supplies. North of Nanking they were struck by a sudden and terrible typhoon. For two nights Caroline was hurled from one side of the cabin to the other as the boat pitched and Dr. Hart and the crew fought to free the dragging anchor and master the tiller. During the 36 hour storm many junks, much larger than theirs, were overturned with great loss of life. One night they anchored in an untested spot and pirates circled their boat, trying all the shutters. Edgerton took his rifle and handed Caroline a revolver. The pirates tried the deck doors but the locks held them and the crew safely in the cabins below. The pirates finally left but Caroline did not sleep all night. Pirates often preyed on river passengers. Many nights Dr. Hart had treated parties who had been attacked and badly wounded by them. For her own protection Caroline practiced with rifle and revolver and it was widely known by the Chinese that she was a good shot. On January 1, 1908, Dr. Hart arrived in Shanghai in anticipation of the arrival of his children on January 6 aboard the SS Korea. He waited many hours during the quarantine inspection before he could see Rose, Dorothea, Wellington and Virgil who were accompanied by their Aunt Sue Munn from America. The children were all well and glad to be back in China. They returned to Wuhu the following day. In February the family planted a garden of potatoes, peas, spinach, turnips, beans and beets. In June they went to Kuling to escape the summer heat. They attended the opening services of the new Kuling church in August and celebrated Virgil’s fifth birthday with a party. The following day his father operated on Virgil under chloroform at the hospital there. On Aug. 30 Mr. Stratton of the Episcopal School called at 8:30 in the morning suffering from great pain and diarrhea. It proved to be cholera and by 8:00 p.m. he was dead and buried the next day.
    • Carolyn Estella Hart was born on December 11, completing the Hart family circle with three girls and three boys. Edgerton wrote, “Caroline is doing nicely. Too bad she had to suffer on her birthday, though she seems well pleased with her birthday gift.” Caroline was 35 years old.
    • Dr. Edgerton Hart (Middle) preforming surgery
    • The Chinese article above appeared in the Shanghai newspaper. It was about some naughty Chinese boys who had climbed upon a wood pile to get a better view of fireworks going off for the Lantern Festival. One of the boys fell off and presumably broke his leg. They took the crying child to the hospital where Dr. Hart happened to visiting and asked him to set the leg. How amazed the Chinese people were when the next day the boy was seen walking on the leg. The magical powers the great foreign doctor possessed were beyond what any local Chinese doctor could have done. In early February, 1909, Edgerton and two colleagues took his house boat to Tsu Hsin to call on patients. They listened to Mr. Buck’s talking machine, a novelty to them. The house they visited was beautifully situated on Tsarist Lake. A legend was that Confucius was not able to enter this city as he found the children were too smart. In March, the Wuhu Hsin called to pay his respects and thank Dr. Hart for his treatment of his hand. He sent him a fine long satin scroll and a donation to the hospital of $100. Dr. Houghton and Dr. Hart opened their 2nd Street Dispensary which they hoped would be a feeder to the hospital. The Peculiar Autopsy Case of Yu Fa Chang On April 26, 1909, according to a letter written by Consul Werner of Kiukiang, a Chinese man named Yu Fa Chang collapsed while walking on the Bund in the foreign concession, was taken to the hospital and then to his home where he died. The Chinese magistrate ordered him to be buried, having found death to have been the result of natural causes. A Dr. Lambert was the first to examine the body and declared death was due to internal hemorrhage. On May 5th, Dr. Hart received a telegram requesting him to leave immediately to go to Kiukiang. The next day he was met by Mr. Hwang Noi Chen and Mr. Chi, the Prefect from Nanchang, the viceroy’s deputy. He was taken aboard the official boat to the North Gate where official chairs awaited them. He met Tao Tai Wen Bing, the district magistrate Mr. Ho and Tao Tai’s secretary Mr. Wu. They discussed the details of the case of Yu Fa Chang who they said died after receiving a blow on the abdomen which had been given him by the foreign constable Mr. Mears. The officials wanted Dr. Hart to examine the man to determine the cause of death. He agreed to do a post mortem. The remains were exhumed from the sand in which he was buried between 3:00 and 4:00 in the morning on May 7 and the post mortem exam was done by lamplight in the presence of Mr. Chi, Mr. Wu, Mr. Hu, representative of the Board of Commons,
    • workmen and fifteen soldiers. It was done out in the open by the temple at the South gate, in the same spot Edgerton and his parents had been mobbed back in 1870. That evening while dining at the home of Dr. Stone, the Tao Tai’s messenger brought him two envelopes. One contained $40 for his expenses and the other had $500 as a donation to the hospital. He returned to Wuhu the following day. The autopsy report Dr. Hart sent to His Excellency Tao Tai Wen stated Yu Fa Chang was a well developed man of about 30 years of age, who was said to have come to his death in the foreign concession after having received several blows from a policeman. There was one place on the abdomen which appeared to be more discolored than the rest of the body and somewhat bruised. The internal examination showed large quantities of dark blood in the abdominal cavity. His internal organs were normal, the heart and vessels were free from blood and blood clots and the valves were in a healthy condition. In his opinion, death was caused by a hemorrhage into the abdominal cavity. On May 16th Dr. Hart received Chinese newspapers from the Kiukiang Tao Tai said to contain extracts from a dispatch sent by H.B.M. consul Werner, in which he ridiculed Dr. Hart’s autopsy report. Two days later E.T.C. Werner wrote to Edgerton denying he
    • ridiculed his report and Dr. Hart’s ability to perform a satisfactory postmortem. He challenged him to make good his serious allegation or abide by the consequences, and to provide him the names of those making the supposed falsehoods.
    • Tat Tai's letter towards the inquiry boards investigation
    • The North China Daily newspaper reported on August 27, 1909, the judgment given by H.M. Consular Court at Kiukiang in the case of the prosecution of Mr. John Mears for the alleged manslaughter of a Chinese, charges made on July 31st. A Chinese had laid a charge against an Englishman, and of the three foreigners who have appeared against the accused Englishman, two were of American nationality (the doctor and lawyer). E.T.C. Werner, H.B.M. Consul and Judge of the Provincial Court questioned the similarity of the Chinese witnesses’ testimony, presuming they were drilled on what to testify. He questioned their ability to leave work and take a “vacation” to testify in Kiukiang and discarded their testimony as useless. He found Dr. Lambert was better able to make a satisfactory examination of the body than was Dr. Hart eleven days later. Dr. Lambert’s opinion was that internal hemorrhage might have resulted from other causes than the “poke” Mears had told him may have been involved. The judge found Dr. Hart’s autopsy was inappropriate being done at night by artificial light, without representation from the other side present. Both doctors agreed that only microscopical examination of sections was the only infallible method of detecting previous disease, and Dr. Hart’s request to take these sections was refused. Therefore, the judge discounted Dr. Hart’s testimony. The judge found insufficient evidence against the accused to put him on trial and discharged the defendant.
    • The Shanghai Times on September 13th criticized the unfortunate way the British Consul handled the case with such prejudice, though he was bound to do what was best for any of his nationals. He demonstrated more prejudice against Americans in dismissing Dr. Hart’s autopsy as “useless, improper and illegal”, and insulting the lawyer Mr. Fleming. The latter had objected to the judge from the outset as he knew his decision was predetermined and he held the hearing “in camera”, excluding from the proceedings a shorthand reporter, a number of Chinese gentlemen, members of the Chamber of Commerce of Kiukiang, and the secretary and interpreter of the Tao Tai. He also overlooked the reason the autopsy was performed at night, for fear any other method may have resulted in a serious disturbance. The article also called for the Chinese authorities to prevent irresponsible parties from a punitive boycott against British goods, promoting further trouble between their countrymen and the foreigners. British Counsel letter towards autopsy By October the case was taken before the House of Commons in London by Mr. Ginnell who asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether it was in accordance with consular practices, when a native is accused of killing a British subject and when a British subject is accused of killing a native, respectively, to hold the preliminary magisterial inquiry “in camera”. In this case the consul accepted all the evidence for the
    • defense and none for the prosecution, did not allow Mears to be called for question, and refused to allow the case to go before the British Supreme Court of Shanghai. By November, the answer was that British defendants are tried in British courts and Chinese defendants are tried in Chinese courts. Consul Werner was on a leave of absence, due him, and John Mears, the police inspector, was discharged from service. The Chinese press apparently fanned the flames of the case resulting in a serious boycott, led by students, of innocent ship owners and shippers, leading to much waste of British pork. Of the collection of $15,000 by the agitators, $400 was paid to the family of the deceased, with which they were quite satisfied, according to an editorial by Edward. S. Little in February, 1910.
    • Dr. Edgerton Hart's response to the British Consulate letter
    • Kiukiang Incident newspaper articles During the summer of 1909 Dr. Hart saw patients regularly and did surgery at the Kuling hospital. He was called to see Yu Lu Yii, the Chinese physician who treated the late emperor in his last illness. While in Kiukiang for the Mears case hearing, he stayed with Dr. Lambert and had him treat him for some ailment. Apparently the two doctors were friends. Dr. Lambert requested Edgerton to come the following year to operate on a friend of his for appendicitis. Two of Dr. Stone’s nurses came from Kiukiang with supplies to help. In September Dr. and Mrs. Hart dined at Bishop Bashford’s home with Dr. Edwards of Harvard University who was looking at the prospects of establishing a medical school in China under the auspices of Harvard. On September 4, the Doctors Edwards, Taylor and Hart, Mr. Paul and Edgerton, Jr., trekked to the waterfalls and back for a fine day.
    • Black Dragon Pool 1902: Dr. Edgerton Hart: left, March, 2005: Bud Crawford, left: Stanley Crawford, who Edward Little: center, Chris Ti are the grandson and great grandson of Dr. Edgerton Hart On the Hart’s return trip to Wuhu at the end of the summer they traveled with a Chinese giant named Pan. He was over seven feet tall! At the end of September Dr. Hart was saddened by the news of the death of Dr. Houg whom he had known since he was five years old. She and Miss Robinson had done great work together in Chinkiang and were now resting in peace. In October their friend Capt. Flagg was brought to the hospital with cholera but they were unable to save him. He died and was buried the following day. While dressing the wound of another patient being treated for tuberculosis, Dr. Hart found a 12 inch long round worm in a wound in the man’s leg and thigh. The next
    • month he removed an 80 pound ovarian cyst that was attached to the woman’s ovarian tube, a technically difficult procedure. On December 24th he operated on another woman, aged 35, and removed a 60-70 pound ovarian cyst. She took the anesthesia poorly but did well. On Christmas Day he had to amputate the badly infected leg of a merchant’s wife. And on New Year’s Eve Day he had to operate on a 23 year old woman for a large growth on the abdominal wall which was bleeding profusely. There was enjoyment in their lives as well as work. When it snowed he took the children for sleigh rides. They also enjoyed riding on his horse with their father. A wild parrot occasionally perched on their water tower rail and entertained the family. In November he left home for a few days of sailing and rest on their houseboat with Caroline, Wellington, Virgil and Carolyn. On Christmas Day they had good entertainment for helpers and patients in the hospital. Early in 1910 he spotted a meteor in the sky the same night he felt an earthquake which seemed to upset his horse while he was riding home from a case. A few weeks later he saw a comet and on the night of May 14th the whole family went out at 3:30a.m. to view Haley’s comet, a fine sight in the East with the tail almost to the zenith. The prior day all the flags on buildings and ships were at half mast due to the death of King Edward VII of England. March 22, 1910, he wrote in his journal, “Five years as of today at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Rose passed to the better land after much suffering. Her memory is sweet and precious in our home….Caroline who has taken up Rose’s burdens and life work manifests in her life the same keen devotion and love for the children and my unworthy self. Two noble true women.” On October 26 he remarked it was Caroline’s and his anniversary with three very happy years to celebrate. They had been blessed with the birth of another daughter, Helen, on October 7th.
    • Carolyn Dr. Edgerton Hart Helen He attended the annual mission conference in Nanking where he stayed with Dr. Beebe and gave his hospital report. The ladies present urged him to telegraph Alice Maddock, Caroline’s sister who had come to China to teach and help with the growing family. They were anxious to discuss the prospects of her teaching in Nanking. She arrived with Rose and Dorothea and Edgerton took them to the first Chinese Exhibition on November 1st and to the Ming Tombs. Next they embarked on a journey to visit Dr. Cochran and they hospital and missionaries in Hwai Gwan. They took a train and ended up sleeping in the caboose on very uncomfortable benches, without bedding. Tired and hungry they were relieved to reach Hwai Gwan the next day where they were heartily welcomed. Between helping Dr. Cochran with surgeries, Edgerton enjoyed a hike to the top of the mountain for a beautiful view. He and the girls walked on the foothills and saw hundreds of pomegranate trees whose fruit was shipped to all parts of the empire. After helping operate on a man whose arm was crushed by a railroad train running over it, they had a much more pleasant train trip with most of the time spent in the engineer’s private car. They saw thousands of refugees along the railroad line from Hai Kwan to Nanking. In 1911, the Hart family went home on furlough with their seven children. Caroline and the younger children stayed in Chicago while Dr. Hart traveled around the country telling about their mission work. Rose, Dorothea and Edgerton, Jr., went to Oberlin Academy
    • and later the college. While they were away the revolution took place in China that changed it from a monarchy to a republic. On their return in 1912, they found that 5,000 revolutionary soldiers had not been mustered out or paid. The men mutinied one night, looting and slaughtering anyone who stood in their way. The Harts were warned the soldiers might come to the hospital, a mile and a half from the city, to attack the foreigners. Caroline dressed her two little girls, aged four and two, in their warmest clothing, packed the necessities for the family in pillowcases which she and Edgerton could carry, plus a rifle apiece. They watched all night for the flares that were to warn them to leave. The mutiny was quelled but dawn brought a procession of terribly injured residents from the city to the hospital. In the summer of 1912, the Yangtze River flooded and the dikes, reaching out from the hill where the hospital stood, broke, flooding thousands of acres of peasants’ land. That fall famine followed, with horrible suffering for the poor people. Dr. Hart administered the funds, $100,000, sent by the American Red Cross, for famine relief and repairing the dikes after the floods in the Hwai and Yangtze River valleys. While directing the reconstruction work and caring for the sick, he contracted Typhus fever and died nine days later, on April 14, 1913, at age 45. He was buried in the foreign cemetery in Wuhu the next day. He left eight children, including Herbert who was born on December 23, 1912, and was only three months old. Caroline received an outpouring of condolences from the many friends, both Chinese and foreign, who admired and respected the American doctor. On his tombstone was aptly written, “Lover of Mankind”. Wu-hu Foreigner Cemetery, Dr. Edgerton Hart was buried along
    • back wall near the left side.
    • The Story of Shoh Huan One of the last surgeries Dr. Hart performed was to remove a 30 kilo tumor from the back of a young Chinese woman named Shoh Huan. The story is as follows: Two Chinese women were talking together in a village hut. The younger one was lying on a bed of straw while the mother was seated on a bamboo stool beside her. “Shoh Huan”, said the mother, “Our neighbor came back to the village today from his trip down the river to Wuhu. He told a wonderful story about a great foreign doctor whose big white house is always full of sick folks. The doctor can make lame people walk and the blind to see. After the wicked Yangtze River flooded our villages, there were so many sick people there were not enough beds for them all. Good villagers took some of the sick into their own homes. Every morning the kind doctor came to see them all.” Sho Huan tried to turn slowly upon the hard straw bed. It was painful to move because of the great lump of flesh growing from her shoulder, hanging down over her back. Many times they had taken what little money they earned going to the Chinese doctor for help, but that had only caused her more pain when he pierced the lump with cruel needles or laid red-hot irons on her back. She had endured the agony only to have the lump grow larger. She feared the foreign doctor would only treat men. “Ah, Shoh Huan, that is the most wonderful part of our neighbor’s story. He said the great foreign doctor had been called to the capital to see the Governor and that, many times, great men –even as high as the Viceroy had come to him to be healed. Yet he said the foreign doctor was just as good to the poor sick beggars when they came as he was to the great rich officials. The best of all was that the doctor kept a special room for women.” “Mother, let us go down the river to this foreign doctor,” said Shou Huan. The long journey was hard and painful for Shoh Huan but at last they arrived at the hill with the large buildings. Over the roof of one floated a white flag with a red cross on it, a symbol of where they do deeds of mercy.
    • The gate was opened to them and they were shown to a waiting room in the main building where they sat wondering and half afraid. When the foreign doctor came out the mother threw herself on the floor, striking her forehead on the floorboards. “Have mercy”, she pleaded. “Save my daughter’s life! She is about to die. Use your skill and save her life!” But the doctor motioned for her to rise. He said, “Do not knotow to me. Just tell me all about your daughter’s illness and how long ago it began.”
    • Sho Huan Sho Huan, in profile displaying her tumor with
    • Caroline Hart in the background. So the mother and Shoh Huan told how in a year’s time a little lump had grown to this big one, now weighing about 60 pounds, and how the Chinese doctors had treated her. They warned how poor they were and questioned if he would have time for them. He called for a lovely Chinese woman who came and helped her bathe and dress in clean clothing. She led them to the women’s ward with its row of pretty white beds, which seemed like a fairy land. Though he had many patients to care for, the doctor promised to remove the lump while she was asleep so she would feel no pain. Though he had to wait until his own arm, which he carried in a sling, felt better. When asked why the kind doctor tired himself out and allowed so many sick people into his big house, when their own people left them alone to die, the pleasant Chinese woman responded, “Oh Shoh Huan, you do not know about ‘The God’ who taught the foreigner there are no evil spirits which make us sick.” For two weeks Shoh Huan and her mother waited at the hospital, learning more about the doctor’s faith and love for others, as his arm healed. Finally the day came when he could operate. Dr. Chung put her to sleep as the mother stood in the corner of the room watching. For five long hours he worked to remove the tumor as carefully and skillfully as if the woman was the greatest official in China. “It is surely the love of ‘the God’ that makes you so kind”, murmured the mother. It seemed too wonderful to be true when Shoh Huan awoke and the tumor was gone. She was a new woman and would have wonderful stories to tell her village friends when she was well enough to go back. Only a week later while she was recuperating, they learned that Dr. Hart was ill. The next day they learned he had typhus fever. The Chinese knew how dreadful the disease was and they prayed for his recovery. He had made wonderful cures for others, why could not someone help him? After nine days of anxious waiting, the sad news came that the foreign doctor was dead. Poor Shoh Huan was heartbroken and wondered if it was she who had brought this tragedy upon Dr. Hart. “He died to make me well. How could this be? He loved like Jesus did”, she said. There were hundreds of other men, women and children in villages and cities who felt just like she did. _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________
    • The family had to give up their home for the doctor who would replace Dr. Hart. Caroline was offered the superintendency of the Union Training School for Nurses but felt she needed to take her small children home to America. It would have been difficult to work in China and raise her children. She settled her accounts and in June sailed on the “Empress of India”. It was probably best they left when they did as by August Nanking was in a state of siege, with fighting, looting and a constant state of anxiety. A friend wrote her in November that “China is not at present a desirable place to inhabit, especially Wuhu, the highway of the An-huai revolutionists.” She moved her family to Chicago, her former home. Caroline Maddock Hart Caroline Maddock Hart was the second wife of Dr. Edgerton Haskell Hart. She was born in Gwelph, Ontario, Canada, on December 11, 1873, the third of ten children. Her family moved to Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. in 1886, where she attended high school a few years before quitting to go to work. By age 23, she had decided to be a missionary. In 1901, at age 27, she entered the Illinois Training School program for nurses and did her training at Cook County and Presbyterian Hospitals in Chicago. In August, 1903, she asked Dr. W. C. Danforth, a doctor at Cook County Hospital, how to seek work as a missionary. The next day he brought his father to see her. Dr. I. N. Danforth was on the Mission Board and had built a hospital in Kiukiang, China, as a memorial to his wife. She followed his suggestion to write to Dr. Mary Stone who headed the hospital. Caroline’s supervisor in training wrote a recommendation stating as a nurse and woman she “was of great value and when coupled with dignity, gentleness, uprightness and industry certainly makes a most desirable personality.” She wrote to accept an offer to go to Kiukiang but had no stamps and had to delay mailing the letter. “It has always seemed providential to me,” she wrote. “ When I came home at noon there were three letters for me. One from Dr. Beebe, one from Dr. Hart and one from the Mission Board in New York, all suggesting I go to Wuhu.”
    • Caroline Maddock Hart She wrote her acceptance of the offer to Dr. Hart who replied at once. Mrs. Rose Hart wrote to her the same day a warm letter welcoming her to Wuhu. Caroline graduated from nurses’ training in May and left Chicago for China in September. She sailed on the PMSS “Korea” from San Francisco and entered Yokohama under convoy, as the harbors were all mined during the Russian-Japanese War. She arrived in Shang-hai one month after leaving the United States and reached Wuhu on October 22, 1904. As soon as she reached Wuhu she was taken to the bedside of Mrs. Hart and had tea. After being with her a few days she agreed with Dr. Hart that she should go to the hospital in Shanghai to have the benefit of doctors other than her husband. She hated leaving Wuhu so soon but duty compelled her to nurse the critically ill Mrs. Hart. She accompanied the family back to the United States, then escorted the children to their grandmother’s home in Canada, while Mrs. Hart was at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Maryland. She and the Harts corresponded by mail while Caroline visited her relatives in Canada and Chicago. She sailed for the third time that year across the Pacific Ocean on the same ship, feeling like an experienced traveler. They were delayed four days during the Battle of Russia in Japan, but arrived safely in Shanghai in June, 1905. She spent week with Dr. and Mrs. George Stuart in Nanking. He was president of Nanking
    • University and she had traveled with them on her first trip to China. She also spent a day with Dr. Stone in Kiukiang before settling in Wuhu. She was assigned her own house on the hill near the hospital, with a cook, a coolie and a woman servant. She worked with a teacher five and a half hours a day, learning the dialect to be able to give her nurses and other staff members their training and directions in adequate Mandarin Chinese. Before Caroline’s marriage was finalized in Nanking, Captain Hoag of the USS Tuckawoo, a Yangtze River gun-boat, offered to allow the wedding ceremony to be carried out on the deck of his ship if verification that Americans were to be married outside of the USA was needed. One story I heard about the Quiros was that the Yangtze River flood of 1909 was one of prolonged tribulation and during its height such a volume of water was flowing that the 180 foot anchor chain could not find bottom when fully extended.
    • American Yangtze River Gunboat USS Quiros My grandmother retold a story of her parents plying the waters of Boyang Lake and the Yangtze River for a month describing what was one of the most enjoyable, yet exciting times in her mother's life. There is an island in the form of a shoe, hence the name “Shoe Island”, but it has another name as well called “The Little Orphan”, and on it stands a Buddhist temple with a pagoda. There was an old monk who had lived the majority of his life on the island who said my great-grandmother was the first woman, that he knew about, to have ever set foot on it.
    • There was a time when on the lake a typhoon blew down for three days and nights. Tossing the sailboat to and fro as it lay berthed in a secluded lagoon. With hails of “Wife, are you still there?" Would be responded by, "yes, but just barely”. Another night had the appearance of pirates come aboard the craft as all lay sleeping locked inside. As the commotion set the boat a rocking, both my great-grandparents shouldered weapons to shoot at the assailant’s who were not welcome on board, frightening them away with threats of bodily injury if they happened to fall within the barrel-sights. Collection of short stories by, Caroline Maddock Hart
    • Hart Honeymoon leaving Jiujiang late October, 1907 Dr. Edgerton Hart Scroll
    • Jacksonville Journal Courier: December, 24 1947 Conclusion: During the Autumn and winter of 1999, my grandmother had asked me, being the only grandchild not married or with commitments to take a journey to China. She and her sister Helen partially funded my trip on the condition: I not travel beyond a second class or by hard sleeper and seat on a train. They requested photos be taken of prearranged places if still standing and for me to make contact with city and hospital officials to retell the Hart story. My two month, several thousand kilometer trip was another one of many Stanimal adventures I have chosen to endure, that allows me to now live in China. In the spring of 2000, I was on my China vacation to begin locating the places that the Hart family had written much about in their journals and newspaper articles of Shanghai, Nanking, Wuhu, Kiukiang, Kuling and many others, and to see what sites, if any, were left of them. My limited Chinese was not being understood by the hotel receptionist in Wuhu and she phoned a friend of hers to come down to translate what I was looking for. When she arrived the first thing she wanted to know is why a foreigner was snooping around the city for things long gone. When I pulled out the photos I brought with me a crowd gathered around and the conversation became boisterous amongst them with much finger pointing at things still standing. After a couple of seconds of composing herself, she looked at me, then took a bow saying; "I must apologize to you for you are a foreigner and teaching me Chinese history I know nothing about". She ended up taking two days from work to show me around the city. This moved me to know that a new chapter was being made in the lives of some Wuhu residents who would have these photos to share with a new generation of family and friends to learn about how these missions stations spawned what is still today the largest hospital complex in all of Anhuai. I was to find out where the old Boy's School was now long gone and the cemetery which no one could tell me the where-a-bouts it may have once been. My grandmother told me that during WWII when the Japanese occupied Wuhu, they had dug up the bodies of the "Foreign Devils" and threw the remains into the nearby Yangtze River, burning the coffins for fuel to cook and boil water. War brings out such atrocities in human nature that are subdued during times of peace and civility. To be cremated and scattered will bring me comfort what was left of me to be spared of such indignity. I took my aunt, father and friend Marion to Wuhu in March, 2006 to see the places where their mother was born. As we were walking around the complex and came upon the
    • former Hart home - which is now residences for hospital staff, but six years previous was in dilapidated condition with hospital grounds employees occupying them - we encountered some nurses who wanted to know what we were doing. I again pulled out my photos to once more give another set of them to people who work at the facility. My aunt was frantic they were my only copies and I reassured her the ones I had in possession at the time were digitized. More to be written about Dr. Edgerton Hart & Caroline Maddock Hart, to be released at a later date. _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Volume II: Table Of Contents Dr. Mary Stone: The Middle Kingdoms Miracle Maidens I "With Unbound Feet" II "The Elizabeth Skelton Danforth Memorial Hospital" III "Winning Friends In America" IV "A Versatile Woman" Jenny Hughes / Gertrude Howe: Dr. Ida Kahn: "A childhood In Three Countries" "The University Of Michigan" "Seven Years In Kiukiang" "Pioneer Work In Nanchang"
    • Mariam Wong: _______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Dr. Mary Stone: The Middle Kingdoms Miracle Maidens by Stanley Crawford (VHMS) photo Shi Mei Yu/ Dr. Mary Stone I "With Unbound Feet"
    • On the first day of the third moon in 1873 a young father knelt next to his wife who had just given birth to a daughter they named Shi Mei Yu, Beautiful-Gem, and agreed that this perfect child should never be marred by the binding of her feet. It was unheard of! Even the servant women of Kiukiang would have been ashamed of venturing outside the door with unbound feet, even to the beggar women hobbling about on stumps 3-4 inches in length. Not a single girl, even a slave, had been known to grow up with natural feet in all of central China. Yet her parents, descendants of one of the proudest and most aristocratic families of China, with genealogical records for over two thousand years, decided Beautiful-Gem would be the first to violate the customs of her ancestors. It was unbelievable. When she came of age, and most girls began the custom of binding their feet, she discovered being a pioneer was not easy. One day on her way to school, a classmate taunted her, denying her to pass until she rendered obeisance to her bandaged stumps. Not until her mother’s assistance arrived could Shi Mei Yu continue on her way to school. Friends and relatives protested vigorously against such indifference her parents displayed toward her future prospects of finding a husband. “You will never get her a mother-in-law,” they declared, and no doubt this may be true. No one could have foreseen a time in conservative China when men would not only be willing to marry a woman with natural feet, but decidedly prefer them. When Shi Mei Yu was eight years old her father took her to Dr. Bushnell, announcing “Make a doctor of my daughter.” This was as startling revelation as the unbound feet! A Chinese Woman Physician was unheard of, yet her father showed limitless faith in his Beautiful-Gem. Upon completion of her basic education necessary for medical training, it was agreed to send her to the mission girl’s boarding school under the care of Miss Hughes. During the next ten years of her life, Beautiful Gem studied both Chinese and English to prepare her for medical college. She also kept busy in the dispensary, assisting the foreign doctors translating ailments of their patients; a wonderful opportunity to obtain hands on experience with the instruments she would command herself in the not too distant future. In 1892, her childhood friend, Ida Kahn, accompanied Miss Hughes, boarding a steamer to the United States, then on to Ann Harbor, where they would study medicine at the University of Michigan Medical College. As they passed through customs, an official inquired, “What makes these Chinese girl’s so special from the others who come here?” “All the difference between a Christian and a Heathen,” was Miss Hughes reply. It was a revelation, creating a great interest in these Chinese girls, fully prepared to pass the University of Michigan Medical entrance examinations. While attending school, Shi Mei Yu took pity on the professors who had trouble pronouncing her name and decided on an English translation; Mary Stone would make it easier for them. Announcing this in class one day, she was bewildered by the bits of laughter coming from fellow students; she had said she was
    • an “old maid” and a product of something almost unknown in her own country, an unmarried woman with unbound feet. During Shi Mei Yu’s course of study she became strongly impressed with the evils of foot-binding and asked her mother why she had bound her own feet. Her mother replied, “While you were growing up I left my feet bound so people would not think this is where I had the idea for not binding yours.” In 1894, while at a conference in Shang-hai, her mother shared the story of Beautiful-Gem, and their decision to keep her feet unbound and moving forward on the stage. She then proceeded to unwind the wraps that bound her own feet, vowing never to re-wrap them again. Her husband was moved to tears, embracing his wife in support of her decision. The last slippers she wore under duress were sent to Shi Mei Yu as testament to their decision. Their four years of studies at Ann Harbor drew to a close, and with diplomas in hand, the young physicians were invited to Chicago for a tour of the hospitals. This is where they met Dr. I. N. Danforth, who remained a life long friend and supporter. He was about to sail for Europe, yet found time to take the young doctors around to meet physicians directing the hospitals they visited. He says, "She won the hearts and minds of all those who met her." Doctors Mary Stone and Ida Kahn returned to China in the autumn of 1896, to a welcome reserved for the most honorable of officials.
    • Shi Mei Yu / Dr. Mary Stone graduation picture It was first thought the young doctors would tour other mission sites, to gradually overcome prejudices, but on the third day a small number of patients showed up at their door and this kept increasing until December; when it became necessary to rent a Chinese house to serve as a hospital. In 1897, Dr. Stone reported their little dispensary had received 2,353 patient’s, performed 343 house calls and currently had 13 beds occupied, all while having visited the hospitals of Nanking for a month. I have a personal story of a child sick for a long time. Deemed incurable by the local Chinese doctor, the family turned to the two young physicians as a last resort. When the young boy completely recovered, his parents wanted to show their gratitude by having a “Merit Board” ceremony. When the day came, tea with cakes were prepared. Fire-crackers, drums, and a bugle lead the paraded into the hospital grounds followed by the family with a Merit Board engraved with red lettering and banners flowing along its sides. Tea and cakes were enjoyed while the Merit Board was hung. As quickly as it began, the joyous crowd disappeared, leaving the Merit Board for all to see.
    • Watercolor of the Elizabeth Skelton Danforth Memorial Skelton Danforth Memorial Hospital Hospital The yellow placard above the front gate is a piece of Dr. I. N. Danforth: collected donations from Chicago black slate with the name of the hospital in Chinese. area residents to build the Elizabeth
    • As the fame of the young physicians grew, they campaigned for a bigger dispensary with letter writing like this: "Our little building measures 28’ X 21’ and has no escape from the heat with trees or awnings, which is certainly not conducive to convalescing". It was not greeted with any return mail until late in 1898; Dr. Stone received a letter from none other than her friend Dr. I.N. Danforth, who had been busy raising funds to construct the Elizabeth Danforth Skelton Memorial Hospital. The doctors drew up their own plans and an architect revised them in Chicago with all the detail and requirements needed to complete it. These plans were carried out to the letter and in 1900; an airy grey brick building with white granite and limestone was ready. The following day as they moved in, the American Counsel advised all foreigners to leave Kiukiang immediately. The mission hospital was reluctant to leave the two doctors fate with the Boxer rebellion running wild, so it was decided all would escape to Japan. The hospital escaped injury and when they returned three months later, her report for 1900 says, “Our hospital is a constant reminder of the pain and suffering it alleviates, providing an inspiration in all our work. During the six months since we opened our doors we have received 3,679 outpatient visits with 59 in-patient and 414 house visits." The hospital was formally christened "The Elizabeth Skelton Danforth Memorial Hospital" in December of 1901, during the annual meeting of the Central China Methodist Mission held in Kiukiang.
    • (VHMS) photo Opening ceremony of the Elizabeth Skelton Danforth Memorial Hospital with Dr. Ida Kahn by left pillar top row and Dr. Mary Stone by right pillar top row This is the frieze stone with Elizabeth Skelton Danforth Memorial Hospital inscription I found entombed next to the parking lot. I asked a motorcycle owner if he would mind moving his wheel parked on top of it. Later, I found this stone in three pieces stacked next to a storage building as the Women's & Children's Hospital is currently undergoing renovation. The red paint sandblasted away along with much of the
    • tooled stone. Elizabeth Skelton Danforth Memorial Hospital nurses at graduation ceremony.
    • “On the afternoon of the 7th of December, foreign residents of Kiukiang, representatives from the Central Methodist Mission, and many native residents came together and celebrated the grand opening of the Elizabeth Danforth Skelton Memorial Hospital, of which two Chinese lady physicians are in charge, Dr. Mary Stone and Dr. Ida Kahn. There were a number of official Chinese ladies, whose rich costumes showed the official rank of wealth of husbands and fathers. The Chen Tai Prefect, Assistant Perfect and Local Magistrate added their official dignity to the occasion. Noticeably appreciated by all was the first hymn "God save the Emperor.” - The North China Daily Herald - December, 1901 Bishop Moore presided over the formal opening of the hospital; Mr. Clennell, H.B.M, Counsel for Kiukiang, gave a very good address, to which Dr. Stuart, American Vice Counsel gave a very fitting response, followed with short, pithy speeches by Dr. Beebe and Dr. Hart. The two heroines from Kiukiang kept modestly in the background refusing to be introduced, much to the disappointment of the audience. Although officials insisted that coming forward would be in entire harmony with etiquette propriety, the young Chinese ladies remained firm, represented by their wise teacher, Miss Hughes, who had guided them since childhood. Following refreshments the guests toured the wards, verandas, solarium, dark room, surgery rooms, offices, then back to the Reception Entry of this admirably designed hospital. The operating table of glass and enamel, with skylight overhead, the adjoining sterilizing room containing an apparatus for distilling and purifying, were especially interesting to the Chinese observers. The drug rooms were well stocked with modern instruments, with a microscope at the nucleus of a medical library. Everywhere one looked was evidence of forethought and careful expenditure. Chinese people showed high regard for these skillful and dedicated young physicians. Easily seen where the appreciations in commendatory tablets hanging in the entrance hall, and less obvious, gracious and serviceable gifts amounting to more than $2,500. The doctors had received in the past twelve months 7,854 out-patient visits, with 531 in-patient visits. Their services became requested by different official families of both Kiukiang and Nanchang, the capitol of Kiangsi, with patients coming from adjoining provinces. The young physicians made fearless journeys far out into the surrounding countryside, crossed the mountains, always receiving perfect safety, courtesy and respect. Often upon returning from a successful visit their chairs would be draped in red cloth and the physicians carried home in triumph through an adoring crowd, accompanied all the way by the sound of praise, and of course, fire-crackers.
    • Dr. Mary Stone in the (ESDMH) children's ward Dr. Mary Stone described the opening of the hospital to Dr. Danforth, adding this note, "The Chinese were very much impressed with your way of commemorating your wife. "Dr. Kahn added, “A Chinese official, as he was walking through said; It would make one well just to stay in such a pleasant place.”
    • The first big test of their hospital began in early 1901, when the Yangtze River overflowed its banks, devastating crops and homes of the people living along its vital shores. Tens of thousands were forced to flee, hungry and destitute, with some of them literally starving to death as they flocked to the gates of the hospital. Woman’s Work of the Far East, a mission publication, described an encounter with an old woman who had a three year old baby on her back and another three month old baby inside her torn dirty frock, saturated by the torrents raining down from the clouds that day. “She had not eaten for a couple of days and was forced to resort to begging. Her son was in shock and only able to collect sticks to make a fire, while her husband was down with typhoid fever. They had lost everything. She was given a blanket, some rice and milk for the baby, but still no more than a days worth of nourishment. We never saw her face come around again, leaving us to hope salvation was rewarded them. In what form it came, we can only guess.” In addition to the refugees, the increase in regular patients was taxing the limited supply of medicines and space, forcing patients with minor aliments to be turned away, even if they could pay for their care. During the height of demands for services in Kiukiang, the doctors were requested by officials in Nanchang to come and open a dispensary, addressing the needs of the capitol city. Without question, the Doctors agreed one of them should go, and it fell to Dr. Ida Kahn to make the journey. Beautiful-Gem would be sending her lifelong friend and confidant to respond to a greater need for this new western medicine. To neglect the needs of Nanchang, of which only Dr. Kahn could assure, was out of the question. Dr. Stone bid adieu to her friend with prayers of “God-speed” in her endeavors, willfully accepting the extra burdens thrust upon her by Dr. Ida’s absence. The dispensary started averaging 1,000 patients per month, with Dr. Stone’s surgery schedule becoming much heavier. Her work-force had been reduced by those who journeyed to Nanchang. The records clearly indicated they had decidedly increased the level of confidence amongst the Tao Tai’s (ladies of rank), who had refused surgery, but now were willing to turn to the doctors for help. The largest obstacle for the hospital became the need for more space. Most of the neighbors around the hospital grounds were kind, except one; when an opportunity to relocate the road to the opposite side of the property, his was the only voice of dissent. A local official overruled his objection by stating the hospital does a public service for the greater good of the community. Later, another noisy neighbor called the White Horse Temple was a drain on one ward of the hospital with its incessant banging on the drums and cymbals making it dark, dank and intolerable. A $2,000 donation from the U.S. allowed for the purchase of its property and thus killed two birds with one stone. In 1896, Drs. Stone and Kahn had started a medical career from a modified home and 10 years later, Dr. Mary Stone was sole director of an ever expanding facility now known as the Jiujiang Woman’s and Children’s Hospital.
    • III "Winning Friends In America" During the winter of 1906, Dr. Stone was afflicted by appendicitis which she self- diagnosed and directed treatment providing her some relief. Renewed attacks convinced her and her friends that submitting to an operation was the only means of saving her life. So, early in 1907, after eleven years of unceasing labor, she reluctantly agreed to stop working, taking a well deserved rest. The best medical care was arranged for her in the U.S. and President Roosevelt personally sent a letter to the Commissioner of Immigration requesting the Chinese physician be admitted into the country without delay or strain. She was waived through customs and into a waiting ambulance, then by train to be administered to personally by Dr. Danforth in Chicago. The surgical procedure went off without a hitch and in less than a month from leaving China, Dr. Mary Stone was released to convalesce at the home of Miss Hughes in New Jersey. Though Dr. Stone hardly relaxed for any length of time, within a couple of weeks, she was accompanying Miss Hughes to meetings, making friends with all the local society ladies. Soon the house was filled with boxes of blankets, instruments, pillows, a box organ and many other useful items for the hospital back in China. From there Dr. Stone went to New York for a month giving lectures and reporting on the activities at the mission. This lead to the increase of donations to her hospital. An additional two weeks were spent in Chicago visiting hospital’s and attending lectures on a new specialty in medicine; ear, nose and throat. To top off her stay in the U.S., Dr. Stone made a pilgrimage to her Alma Mater, visiting former professors and friends she had not seen since leaving Ann Arbor. The indefatigable little Chinese doctor finally received a much needed furlough before returning to China, returning rested, refreshed and recharged with the latest knowledge of internal medicine. With these new donations, she was able to supply the hospital with more effective equipment, allowing greater efficiency in its daily operation. IV "A Versatile Woman" Chief among the gifts was the money to build an additional wing onto the existing structure. The need for this addition had become a requirement the day they opened the hospital, but its fruition was always elusive. Either the costs for materials were too high, or a contractor could not be found. Dr. Stone’s ingenuity had squeezed the maximum of activity from its current footprint. Upon her return to Kiukiang, work started immediately to doubling the size of the hospital. The building was finished the following autumn, putting Dr. Stone into “Seventh Heaven”. Along
    • with the new wing of the hospital a bungalow was built in the hills south of Kiukiang, for the children with fevers to escape the intense heat of the Kiukiang plains and recuperate in the cool breezes blowing down the sides of Lushan. Being delighted with this additional "Rawlings" bungalow annex to the newly expanded hospital downtown, where the little ones and others can be sent to avoid the unbearable rays from the summer sun. Before the stone masons had finished cleaning their trowels, they began to build a home for Miss Hughes, the nurses, and Dr. Stone. The new home was a gift from her newly made friend’s in the U.S.A. During the Chinese New Year, when the obligations of the hospital were less severe, Miss Hughes and Dr. Stone took a trip to Shanghai to purchase furniture with the detail Dr. Stone took in supplying her hospital. Attention was paid to selections of wood, lights, and textiles. The silverware was elegant, but not pretentious, complimenting the Jingdezhen porcelain that was personally made for them by a potter whose child’s life had been saved by Dr. Stone years before. Beautifully brush-stroked enamels were a secret color combination reserved for royalty commissioned pieces. “I shall make the home as homey as I can and it will be opened to common folk as well as Tao Tai.” In 1909 a nurses dormitory was constructed, further expanding the hospital compound and giving the nurses greater seclusion when off-duty. One of the ladies who met Dr. Stone after returning to the U.S. reported, “She is able to do a great many things, and when she asks, she receives, proving no matter how formidable the task, she has proven time and again, she can overcome all the obstacles before her. And talk of mission work, the people at home don’t know the meaning of the words! Here is a plucky little Chinese woman in the midst of "the God” awful heat (I dare not go outside while the suns’ heat scorches the day, nor leave the comforts of shade till nightfall) yet she is busy throughout the day evaluating up to 20 patients before making her rounds as well as going by sedan chair out into the depths of the countryside to heal some afflicted repulsive case of humanity with who knows what.” Dr. Stone’s successful treatment of the most difficult diseases is all the more remarkable when you learn of the reluctance of the Chinese to consult a physician until near the point of death. Their utter lack of knowledge in caring for the sick, combined with dreadful unhygienic surroundings, created conditions almost too terrible to describe. Women arrived almost dead; paralyzed or blinded by angry or jealous men, with some doing self-inflicted wounds to escape the injustice they have long endured. One account tells of a woman who came seeking help with every square inch of flesh on her body covered by wounds or blood. She was so diseased, parts of fingers and toes were falling off. The woman was put into isolation and Dr. Stone solely took charge of her care. She used antiseptics and gloves, careful not to infect her own flesh, and after several weeks of enduring excruciating pain, while protesting “Doctor, I’m too filthy for you pure hands to touch,” the woman was nursed back to health.
    • A Mr. Charles Dow was astonished to meet the quaint little Chinese woman, who stood on a stool, performing complex surgeries even well experienced physicians with western facilities would be hesitant to perform. He reported she had no head nurse, no surgical assistant; Dr. Stone performed these surgeries entirely unaided except for the faithful nurses she had trained herself. A Dr. Perkins of New York recalls being in her operating room when a woman of 20, who could not be betrothed because of a cleft palate reaching into the nose, was transformed into a marriageable maiden. Dr. Stone’s grandest surgical story is of removing a tumor from an old woman, who for 16 years suffered with an abdominal tumor which weighed 26 kilos. The doctor lamented, “The people appreciate surgery more with every successful outcome. The tuberculosis patients who have seen the quick recovery want me to operate on their lungs.” Abdominal tumor patient Another large commitment of Dr. Stone’s career was the training of nurses. The art of nursing was still in its infancy, and she had to first translate the textbooks from English into Chinese. She had to recruit women who were committed to assisting her in all the multiple tasks required of being a nurse. It was imperative to be able to read and write Chinese, as well as know a little arithmetic and English. The course load she prescribed to her nurses was equal to those of western standards. The reliable and trusted nurses on staff, having completed their education, became dedicated assistants, an ample reward for the time expended towards their education. This spawned the Jiujiang University School Of Nursing, of today.
    • After weeks of unusual strain, Dr. Stone was persuaded to seek relaxation on Lushan. On two occasions she received telegrams requesting her return to the hospital to address more serious complications than they could handle. However, Dr. Stone was most satisfied with the appearance and condition she found under the sole direction of the nursing staff. “Were it not for the efficient results of my assistants, I could not manage the daily tasks a hospital requires. We who want our work to prosper, cannot afford to ignore those who we depend upon for its success.” A funny story is shared an old ragged woman seeking help. The nurses took hold of her and stripped her naked, even unwinding her bound feet, bathed her and put her into a clean gown before laying her in a bed. The old woman pleaded for her foot wrappings. “No,” said the nurses, "not in our clean beds. "In the evening a small fire would be started with all the clothing worn into the hospital by its patients, still full of festering infection. Dr Stone’s philosophy was given to all the staff: "A well run hospital is one that practices sound economics of 'True Economy, avoiding all waste and extravagance'. Not one cog can be neglected to maintain a smooth operation of day to day business. Attention is encouraged from the record files to the washing machine. This does not necessarily mean buying cheap furniture that has to be replaced frequently, nor cheap food to have the patients suffer from lack of nourishment. To use poor quality drugs prolongs the need to use them and avoid wooden beds that must patronize Standard Oil chemicals to keep them clean. Use thin bedding and quilts to ease washing, and avoid cheap servants who will do nothing. Utilize a trained staff who places value in their work. Provide the instruments and machines necessary for a proper functioning medical care institution. Host a valuable daily operation; this will last longer than if thriftiness is the desirable motive." As a result those who visited the Elizabeth Skelton Danforth Memorial Hospital conveyed universal testimony of it being one of the finest hospital’s they had ever seen. The need to find those with the means to help support the struggling finances of the dispensary was constant. Dr. Stone would receive a generous compensation from a morning’s call, and need to spend it all in the afternoon on the many who could not afford to pay for services rendered. The nurses would socialize at homes where they knew a former patient resided, and even non-Christian Chinese were known to donate gift money to relieve the situation. In her regular writing to friends abroad, she encouraged them to mail back the latest articles and procedures published in the medical journals and textbooks of the time. “We feel that in order to keep up with our profession it is necessary to receive the latest works, especially since the medical science is one of the most progressive of all.” Some of the most rewarding of testaments for Dr. Stone came when the whole village would invite her after one villager returned with stories of magical cures being made by this most humble of souls. Men promised not to force their daughter’s to endure the barbaric act of foot binding which caused terrible pain and suffering in a woman’s life, nor
    • would these men display anger at their wives if they so chose to cut the wraps they endured for many years. In 1909, Dr. Stone gave the commencement address at the Nanking Normal School for Women. The Viceroy and other notables of China were present. Dr. Stone was greatly touched when the daughter-in-law of the Viceroy told her she would gladly give up all her fine clothes, jewelry, servants and position, if she could lead as useful a life as Shi Mei Yu. She felt unfulfilled being one of the many puppets in the long court ceremonies with nothing to think of except her appearance and nothing to do but kill time. Dr. I.M. Danforth wrote that he had a nurse willing to come to China to assist her in the operation of her dispensary, and asked what she thought of this plan. Though she was willing to take her if Dr. Danforth “wished”, she would rather not on the whole. Personally she wrote that she was eager for her to come, yet the training was accomplishing two more things which could only be done if she was purely Chinese. Along with developing their skills, Dr. Stone was convincing her students they were able to do things they never dreamed of, and show people of other nations the only reason why Chinese women for centuries have lived such narrow lives is they had not been allowed to develop their powers. Bringing in an American nurse might appear as if all these efforts were in vain. She admitted the work taxed her heart and faith, and having another experienced hand on board would help distribute those responsibilities, making for a less stressful atmosphere. The nurse Dr. Danforth was recommending for the position was Caroline Maddock, my great- grandmother. Dr. Stone proposed this new nurse should go to the Wuhu General Hospital and work with her good friend Dr. Edgerton Hart, who was my great grandfather. 1908 brought particular burdens to Dr. Stone who carried on all her regular tasks until the Chinese revolution forced all the patients, women and children into the foreign concession on the west side of the city. The order came at night and by daylight not a single person was left in the hospital. Dr. Stone turned over the hospital to the revolutionary leaders and her nurses cared for the injured soldiers inside it. Revolutionary leaders wanted her to wear a white bandage to represent their cause, but she explained that though her sympathies lied with them, she must remain neutral as ordered by the Red Cross allowing her to treat the wounded of both sides. The Manchu Governor was captured and taken to Kiukiang, where, in chagrin to his confinement he attempted to commit suicide. Deserted by his servants and soldiers and with no one to care for his mortal wound, Dr. Stone cared for him with two nurses until his death. This was the same Governor who refused the right of Chinese citizenship for her in purchasing land for a men's hospital, asserting she was buying property for foreigners. When the leaders heard of his death, they were greatly
    • disturbed for none of them wanted to tell General Ma, as an old oriental custom of he should punish the bearer of ill tidings. Being asked to take the news to General Ma herself was being accorded not only high regard for her title as a doctor but also as a woman. The general asked her many questions about her work and exclaimed afterwards that when things get settled he would support such work; “the Chinese ought to help it”.
    • Jenny Hughes & Dr. Mary Stone LA Times: December, 31 1954
    • To be continued at a later time. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Jenny Hughes / Gertrude Howe There seems to be some confusion on Jenny Hughes name with other modern references giving her name as Gertrude Howe. Since all my old materials refer to her as Jenny Hughes, this is the name I used in my writing. Please note you will see both names on web-pages and need to remember they are one and the same person.
    • It was Jenny Hughes and Mrs. Hoag that were to be t e greatest influence i n o Shi Mei Yu and Ida Kahn's life. With the future Stone' th desiring their daughter to become a doctor and Ida's fore-told fate from birth a strike against her these two mission women showed with no time to ponder, what being co a passionate person is all about. Not realizing their actions would bring about such ra ical changes within the thousands of years of Chinese tradition guiding the destiny of m ny females who were robbed of living a life of their own choosing, what some still mus endure today in parts of the world.bddconline biog phy of Jenny Hughes / Gertrude HoweI don't presently have much historical material I'v obtained about her life, I know her life's choices greatly inspired the decisions and pa h chosen by the great f male Chinese doctors Stone and Kahn. I know from reading the limited Maddock letters archived convey a fear for their daughters life in deciding t go half way around the world by her lonesome, wondering when the time they will ext see her, if ever. My admiration for these young adults to commit the r life for a cau e humbles me a lot. I don't think I would have the sense of adventure to pursue fe to such an extreme at that time.Jenny Hug s / Gertrude Howe brief biography Iusfca.edu biog ah f J ny H e g e t ue Hw
    • Jenny Hughes & Dr. Mary Stone
    • To be continued at a later time. _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Dr. Ida Kahn: (NWMC) book photo I "Childhood in Three Country's" By the time Ida Kahn had first opened her eyes, female babies had become a burden on families, and her family in particular. Her parents had been eager for a son through each of the five babies that had been daughters and now the sixth was too. According to Chinese custom the blind fortune teller was called in to declare his verdict to deduce her fate and give his advice about her future. They were harsh words indeed: she must be abandoned or killed for as long as she lived under the same roof, no boy child would be born. Her parents were not ready to end her young life, and resolved to engage the child to a neighboring boy, letting his family raise the girl. Again, the fortune teller was called in to seek his judgment. He declared "the little girl was born under the Dog Star and the little boy, the Cat Star and therefore marriage between the two should not be thought of."
    • The family’s perplexity became known to a few neighbors, one of whom was teaching Chinese to Miss Hoag and Miss Hughes of the mission. After hearing the circumstance, they went with them to retrieve the baby. Thus when Ida was two months old she was adopted by Miss Howe, who she called "my mother, with no other like her in the world." The same year Ida was born the mission had begun a girl’s school with Miss Hughes and Miss Hoag as the teachers. Ida started classes as soon as she was able. At the age of nine, Miss Howe took Ida to the United States and enrolled her in a Chinese school where most of the students were from Guangzhou and spoke Cantonese, making her studies difficult. At such an impressionable age, the stay in the U.S. helped her to learn English fluently. During the return to China, they stayed in Japan for several months before going on to Chungking in Szechwan province, for two years. In 1886, the mission compound was razed by a mob; its workers running for their lives. For two months, Ida was in hiding at a carpenter’s home while the mission workers were at the governor’s Yaman residence. When it became possible,
    • all made their escape from the city. Although still young, Ida had experienced much more then a Chinese woman five times her age. Without a pause, another adventure began with a swift trip of several days through the Three Gorges on the Yangtze River, the current raging with springtime snow-melt, flooding the lowlands along the river. Safe in Japan, Miss Howe and child Ida waited to return. II "The University of Michigan" Only those with extraordinary courage, or no alternative, attempted boat rides down this violent river, and after months of self imposed exile in Japan was it safe to return once again to Kiukiang. Ida was impressed by the misery of her countrymen and decided to dedicate her life to addressing their sufferings. Her fellow student, Mary Stone, had similar ideas. Miss Hughes, recognizing their commitment to a more thorough medical education than was available in China, received permission to enroll them both at the Medical College, University of Michigan, at An Arbor. They passed their exams with the highest marks, including Latin. Both young women had many friends and Ida was the secretary of her class in her junior year. They were the 1st and 2nd rated students their junior year, and 2nd and 3rd at the end of the senior year. One professor wrote, "These young doctors will be a credit to this University and any institution they choose to work for. All those who had provided for their graduation will never regret for having done so." Before commencement, there was a gift giving party where the newly christened doctors received much medical equipment to begin their careers as physicians in China. In order to not attract attention while students, the young women decided to adopt western dress. Yet for their graduation, they received fine Chinese silks with matching slippers; Ida’s being made of blue while Mary’s was made of pink. As the two medical students ascended the platform to receive their diplomas a standing ovation emitted from the gallery, and the faculty rose in a rare moment of acknowledgment to extend the well deserved respect these two women had shown over the course of their medical studies while residing in Ann Harbor; their futures watched with every expectation of imminent success. Following graduation, two months were spent in Chicago touring hospitals and meeting prominent physicians. Dr. Danforth Skelton was introduced, and a connection made for the funds to construct the Elizabeth Danforth Skelton Memorial Hospital, but I’m ahead of myself.
    • III "Seven Years In Kiukiang" Anxiety filled the young women the closer they came to China. How they would be received? Only one other female doctor, Dr. Hu King Eng of Foochow practiced in China. Friends had long been anticipating this return, and plans were laid out for a welcoming ceremony. The mission was reluctant as to the propriety the Chinese were planning for the public ovation, but in the end consented. From the moment they disembarked in Kiukiang, until they arrived at the gates of the mission, they were saluted by a continuous fusillade of fire-crackers. The noise attracted even more throngs of people as they left the Kiukiang Bund, simply to catch a glimpse of the women doctors. It was heard from the crowd that these women were being received with greater adoration than the local commandant. Questions were continually asked: "Is it true they were studying in a foreign land? Can they heal the sick? With the answer every time being a yes, the people responding with a resounding Hao! (Good). "At home, the young doctors received a well deserved rest, with occasional visits from friends and relatives not seen for many years. Three days later, they began touring local mission hospitals, sharing what they could in short notice. This showed the people these new doctors knew their medicine and would gain their trust. After three days of rest, four patients arrived at their door asking for treatment. The following day they returned with six more! More patients arrived continually. A dispensary was hurriedly arranged for proper medical evaluation by the mission. The young doctors had only been home a month when a request came for them to visit a woman who was in very serious condition. The city’s best native doctor, dressed in his finest silks, was already there, accompanied by his four sedan chair coolies. He told the two new doctors that their wasn’t anything he could do for the woman and was discharged from her care. Immediately upon arrival, Dr. Ida Kahn and Dr. Mary Stone began their evaluation. Her family wanted assurances she would live, but of course they could not do this, so they turned to go. The family fell to the floor and begged them to do whatever they felt necessary. Their treatment was so successful, three days later the family invited them for a feast! At the end of the feast, the old woman, by herself, wound red scarves around their necks as the entire family escorted them home amid the explosion of fire-crackers. Dr. Kahn wrote at the end of the first year, With the exception of a month at the Nanking hospital, we kept working steadily since returning to Kiukiang. "Our “Bible- woman” is well versed and sure to win converts; she is also a good chaperon to our girls aspiring to become nurses. There were three girls who had been at mission
    • school for five years now and helped with the care of patient’s, making prescriptions and reciting two lessons to us every day. At present we have six patients in the ward and although this number may seem small, the hospital has only been open for two months and feels quite full due to the limited space available. The building is Chinese and designed not as a dispensary, but modified by elevating the ceilings and adding windows." (VHMS) book photo The China Medical Missionary Journal of December, 1896 in commenting on the work preformed by these two says: "Doctors Stone and Kahn have not up to the present time, had to endure the pain of losing a patient, although they have encountered several serious cases. When that time does come, as of course it must, there will doubtless be some reaction, and present faith changed to distrust for a time. Yet the most hopeful have not dreamed of commencing work without some opposition and that they were actually sought before making any efforts to secure patients has been a great surprise to all. Their success is due largely to being back amongst their own people as true Chinese, and while they have gained much in international culture and intellect, love and sympathy for their race has been ever present: The ruling motive in all their efforts has been how best to prepare and serve their country-women. The native women do not stand at a distance to admire them, but
    • familiarity allows their hands to clasp, to touch their clothing, and while not hesitating to invite them as guests into their humble homes." The reputation of the young physicians was not limited to Kiukiang; about the time of their return, the young emperor Kwang Si, issued edicts to the provincial Viceroys ordering them to search out and send to Peking, young men educated in modern affairs, to act as advisers for him. Two men had heard of Doctors Kahn and Stone, fresh from the United States. On their way to Nanking, they stopped in Kiukiang for the purpose of calling on them. The doctors felt it wise to maintain a conservative attitude, to be sure their influences with fellow young women not be compromised, thus violating Chinese custom. Therefore, Miss Hughes received the young men and answered all their questions, showing their diplomas, credentials, and letters, one of which was presented at the meeting in Nanking. This created much interest. The Governor’s son from Hupeh Province spoke at the meeting for over two hours, denouncing the act of foot binding, and the encouragement of the education of women. A society of men was organized who pledged to only condone marriage of their sons to girls whose feet had not undergone this painful and barbaric act, and not to allow their own daughter’s feet to endure such torment. Chang Chi Tung, the most eminent and spirited Viceroy of his time, sent a letter to Miss Hughes requesting the doctors to come to Shanghai and accept positions at medical and teacher’s college he was constructing. Foot binding, concubinage and slavery were addressed directly in the prospectus. Sunday was to be a holiday, with the liberty of conscience to all religions allowed. While no religious studies were required by the school, the practice of religion was tolerated if done privately. Chang Chi Tung’s invitation was a matter of great discussion at the following Woman’s Methodist Mission Conference. A letter of sympathy was penned, with the recommendation the young doctors accept the position, if “thought by them to be in their best interest to do so.” It came as a surprise when the doctors decided they would be more useful in Kiukiang. The offer, even though refused, had shown the highest regard for Doctors Kahn and Stone, by the upper circles of Chinese society.
    • Chang Chi Tung, Viceroy of Nanking At the end of their second year of practice, they reported 90 patients treated at their dispensary, 134 in their homes, 3973 outpatient evaluations done, and another 1294 in the countryside, making for a total of 5446 patients treated. The third year saw more growth, not just providing additional care, but by the number of patient’s who could compensate for their care. All money was turned over to the mission treasury to repay college expenses. Included was four years service in exchange for the four years provided attending college in the United States. Dr. Kahn was awarded the honor of being The Woman’s Representative of the Mission World Conference held in London in 1899. In 1900, news revealed Mission funds were being collected for the building the Elizabeth Danforth Skelton Memorial Hospital. Nearing completion, all worked ceased when the Boxer Rebellion brought everything to a stand still. The missionary’s again fled to Japan to wait out the fighting, returning first to Shanghai as the countryside slowly became safe to travel China’s interior. During this time a conference was arranged. Dr. Kahn was asked to give a speech on girl-slavery, demanding the abolition of this wicked practice. Her appeal added force as a Chinese woman, almost the victim of this evil practice, yet by chance, whisked away from her opium-smoking addicted father. Her plea resounded: “Surely, we the favored ones, must plead with all our might that these unnatural customs be swept away with the last relics of China’s barbarism.”
    • Returning to Kiukiang, Dr. Kahn wrote; “Work on the building was going along smoothly. Yet this being the Chinese New Year month, it is difficult to get our workmen to complete their tasks. Not only is it a challenge to have them work so soon after the holiday, but as much to the ill omen of starting to work early in the day. We normally have few patients at all, but now we have days where 30, 40 even 50 patients are treated which is certainly unprecedented.” After pushing ever forward, the doctors were able to recommence their work in a new space with bright clean rooms, providing a higher quality of care. Miss Robinson, from Chinkiang wrote; “The staff is as skillful in house-keeping as the doctors are with their medical care, excelling in the art of making their patients feel at home. Such all around women are priceless and it would be advantageous to hold our next meeting in Kiukiang to display the examples set by these physicians”. Nanchang Pagoda by the Gan River IV "Pioneer Work In Nanchang" In the first year of the young doctor’s practice a launch had been sent to Kiukiang by one of the high officials from Nanchang, the capitol of Kiangsi, with the request that one of them return to treat his wife who was very ill. Dr. Kahn was dispatched,
    • returning with the woman to be cared for in Kiukiang. After the officials’ wife fully recovered and went back to Nanchang, she gave glowing accounts about the two women physicians, their dispensary and its contented patients, many of the city’s wealthy women would forgo the advice of local shamans and seek the medical aid of these female doctors in Kiukiang. At that time no missionary work was being carried out, but the joyous voices hearing the miracle cures these doctors were performing allowed the gates of the city to openly accept a new mission station. It was not easy! Dr. Kahn relates of one of the first forays to the city when Miss Stanton had the coverings lifted on her sedan chair, being a pleasant day, not realizing these actions would cause a crowd of young boys to follow along taunting. “As the mission compound was reached and the coverings replaced, it was decided to delay entering the compound until evening provided some extra cover. Much to our dismay, the crowd blocked the gate, allowing our chairs to leave, but once beyond the safety of the compound, violence began. As a coolies would take a step, someone would pull on the pole bringing the sedan chair crashing down. Yelling at them was to no avail. When I stepped out of my chair thinking it’s safer to walk, a yell went out, “a foreigner!” I was almost ready to cry with vexation and could not help responding to the crowd and how cowardly, vicious and barbaric they were. "One or two in the crowd would take my side and administer blows to those responsible, telling me to not be afraid. I sought the refuge of one residence, but had its gate slammed in front of my face." After finding shelter in a second residence who welcomed me, I sent word to my friends where to find me. Tears began to flow, not from anger, but humility that my fellow countrymen could be so mean. My host related similar encounters by female friends and expressed remorse our countryside had such hooligans.” Fellow mission members arrived to escort Dr. Kahn home and shortly thereafter, a wealthy businessman came to give apologies, and see how she was fairing. He had caught wind of the disturbance while returning home, noticing the mission lanterns, and what the mob had done, suggesting, “Many impressions of foreign intent will have to be dispelled before acceptance of your teachings will be appreciated.” With a total conviction to her faith in medicine, Dr. Kahn prepared to leave Kiukiang and the fellowship with her life-long friend Dr. Mary Stone, to begin the prosperous work she would undertake in the provincial capitol city of China, with three hundred thousand souls, and not a single educated doctor among them. In Nanchang, a recent convert offered the mission a generous home, allowing her to administer medicine from the the center of the city. The local pastor preached he could raise the funds necessary to operate a dispensary for the local people, making another promise to do what was needed to expedite materials and labor in finding a bigger facility. If the mission would guarantee the annual salary and supplies needed to maintain its day-to-day operations, the community would do the rest.
    • With every-one's dedication and determination, the facility in Nanchang evolved into the University Of Nanchang Medical School and Nanchang Normal University. Nanchang Methodist Hospital: Dr. Ida Kahn started this hospital.
    • More to be added at a later date. _______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Mariam Wong & Ichi san Hospital history
    • Wuhu newspaper article December,13 2008
    • Stan Crawford Huang Xiao Kui (translator) Mariam Wong November 2008 Marion Wang was born in Wuhu and worked as a nurse till after the WWII and moved to Jiujiang, where she worked as a nurse with Dr. Mary Stone till she left to begin the Bethel Mission. The day we met was arranged by a newspaper editor in the below Jiujiang newspaper article. When I showed her the pictures of Dr. Stone and Wuhu, the memories began pouring out of her. She had not spoken English in over 50 years and started to converse in rough sentences.
    • She talked about roller skating on the roof of the hospital and also her first kiss was taken as the sun set over the Yangtze River. Later she talked a little about the War and Revolution which brought many tears. I left her with a voice recorder and visit her regularly, but she has yet to speak into the device, feigning no one is interested an old woman story's, how I beg to differ. I just finished meeting with Mariam Wang on 6/22/09 and returned the two picture books on the Wuhu General Hospital. I gave her a copy of the Jiujiang picture book and as she thumbed through it she began to recognize individuals within the photographs and the dates of when the nurses and original dispensary buildings were torn down on the Elizabeth Skelton Danforth Memorial Hospital campus to make way for newer ones. Stories of American Educated Chinese Women 1880's-1920's _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Jiujiang Junk Passing Kiukiang Pagoda The Kuling Road
    • Kuling Road looking South from Kiukiang Wheelbarrow haulers on Kuling Rd.
    • Shi Li Puh
    • Hwa Feng Chiao Jiujiang newspaper article 11/23/2008
    • Hwa Feng Chiao: November, 2008 (RC) photo Hwa Feng Chiao: in early February, 2009 The developer destroyed one and a half sections of arch, leaving only one arch remaining. The Jiujiang Historical Society assured me they were going to put a fence around it so no further damage would would harm it. The Chinese city's are so quick in demolishing historical sights to leave sterile landscapes. The house behind the bridge was made of stones pillaged from the bridge after it was abandoned. I envisioned when the city as it grew around this site would demand the animal confinement operations to cease upstream, a linear park laid along side the stream bed and the bridge would be restored to its former glory as a historical site after the home made from stone eventually is removed. My problem is much of my life has been lived in a self made dream world. _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________
    • Yangtze River / Gorges: Hart Photo Collection Last updated: 6-9-2009 _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Hokou / Boyang Lake Last updated: 6-3-2009 _______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Jingdezhen _______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Shanghai All Hart photos posted _______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ Nanking / Nanjing All Hart photos posted _______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________ Kiukiang / Jiujiang Jiujiang Picture book 1866-1949 Last updated: 11-2-2009 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________ Kuling / Lushan The Kuling American School website Last updated: 11-2-2009 _______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________
    • Wuhu Photos & Stories Wuhu Picture Books Last updated: 6-3-2009 _______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Hart Family Photos & Their Prodigy Last updated 6-3-2009 _______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Hart Medical Photo Collection, Note: (Graphic Material) Misc. Hart Photo Collection Last updated 6-5-09 _______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ China Places Last updated 6-3-2009 _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ Stan Crawford China Photo Collection E-mail: StanleyCrawford59@gmail.com _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ be more added to the site as it becomes available. _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ View My Stats