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Rappeling - is the controlled descent down a rope in rock climbing , mountaineering , caving , and canyoneering ; the technique is used when a cliff or slope is too steep and/or dangerous to descend without protection.
This Activity will be trained at the Kadlagan Wall Climbing.
Snorkeling - is the practice of swimming on or through a body of water while equipped with a diving mask , a shaped tube called a snorkel , and usually swim fins . In cooler waters,a wetsuit may also be worn. Using this equipment allows the snorkeler to observe underwater attractions for extended periods of time with relatively little effort.
River trekking is a combination of trekking and climbing and sometimes swimming along the river. It involves particular techniques like rock climbing , climbing on wet surfaces, understanding the geographical features of river and valleys, knotting , dealing with sudden bad weather and find out possible exits from the river.
Helmets are worn to protect the head from bumps and falling rocks. A light source may be mounted on the helmet in order to keep the hands free in unlit areas.
Gloves protect hands from the rope and from hits with the wall. They are mainly used by recreational abseilers, industrial access practitioners, adventure racers and military as opposed to climbers or mountaineers. In fact, they can increase the risk of accident by becoming caught in the descender in certain situations.
Knee -pads (and sometimes elbow -pads) are popular in some applications for the protection of joints during crawls or hits.
Ropes used for descending are typically of Kernmantle rope construction, with a multi-strand core protected by an abrasion-resistant woven sheath. For most applications, low-stretch rope (typically ~2% stretch when under the load of a typical bodyweight) called static rope is used to reduce bouncing and to allow easier ascending of the rope.
A harness is used around the waist to secure the descender . A comfortable harness is important for descents that may take many hours.
A rappel device should also keep the two strands of rope from twisting in a way so that pulling them down after a descent would be impossible. Most modern devices do this for you with a separate slot for each strand which helps keep the ropes seperated and less likely to create unusable tangles.
The belay loop also extends the rappel device further away from your body, helping your back-up function better and allowing you to keep both hands more easily on the brake side of the device. Two hands on the brake strands doubles the amount of control you have versus the method of one hand above and one below the rappel device
Holding the rope between the legs more easily allows one to use the inside of the leg to create additional friction when necessary. Fingerless, leather belay/rappel gloves also provide an extra element of control by reducing rope burns and adding friction.
Sometimes even with a double-rope rappel, due to a climber's weight, wet or icy conditions, or the diameter of the ropes (common with today's single 9.5 mm lines), more friction is necessary to safely control one's descent. A very simple method to create additional friction when rappelling is shown below:
The first form of back-up is to tie knots at the bottom of your rappel ropes, keeping you from sliding off the ends. For added safety, many climbers back-up their rappel on the brake hand strands with a friction hitch attached to the harness. By having this hitch on the rope, it could prevent you from zipping down to the end of your rappel in the event of an injury from rockfall, lightning, seizure, etc, and by being able to go "hands-free", a back-up hitch allows you to stop and untangle the rope or pull it off of ledges using both hands and adding much more safety.
Traditionally, back-ups were applied with a prussik hitch that was connected from the climber's harness to the rope above the rappel device. Although this method works adequately on lower angle terrain, it has the disadvantage of becoming fully weighted more easily and on steep terrain this can make releasing the back-up very difficult.
The more user friendly method for putting a back-up on a rappel rope is to apply the friction hitch below the rappel device on the brake-hand side, connected short to the leg loop. A prussik hitch made with 5 or 6 mm cord works well in this application; pure nylon has a higher melting temperature (better) than the higher tensile strength materials. A 24" sewn shoulder-length nylon sling also works well when girth-hitched to the leg loop then tied with an auto-block hitch (shown) which is connected back to the leg loop. Be aware that both of these friction hitches will not engage if they come in contact with the rappel device so they must be relatively short loops. If you are attaching your back up to your leg loop make sure that the leg loop is also full strength.
Extending the rappel device with a 24"or 48 "sewn sling or a "daisy-chain" that is girth-hitched to the harness via the belay loop has some distinct advantages. This method puts the rappel device further from the body which lessens the risk of catching clothes or hair in the rappel device and more importantly, with more room below the rappel device both hands can more easily control the brake side of the ropes. Be careful that the rappel rope does not burn the extension sling- the method shown with the red sewn sling creates a redundant extension . This could also be a good reason to use a locking carabiner on your back-up: In case it is fully supporting your weight!