World War Slideshow Ii
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World War Slideshow Ii

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World War Slideshow Ii World War Slideshow Ii Presentation Transcript

  • World War II
    • TREATY OF VERSALLES
    • Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty, which was designed to provide the legal basis for reparations, reads as follows: "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her Allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associate Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of a war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her Allies." The treaty of Versallies/ War-guilt clause pointed the blame directly at Germany for causing World War I. Although the treaty states that Germany accepts the blame, much of the German public did not accept all the fault being theirs. The treaty of Versallies also included the reparations/ repayments that Germany would have to make. Some such figures as… Many say that the war reparations Germany had to pay was a major cause of World War II. As a result of the serious payments German economy experienced hyper inflation. This is what swayed people’s trust away from government and instead toward the rise of Fascism/ Hitler and his promises. Eventually all payments were canceled as Hitler rose to power.
    • The Great Depression
    • After World War I, the severity of the Great Depression played a significant role in causing World War II. As a result of the great depression international trade, industrial production, and businesses declined rapidly. Wages fell and unemployment hit heights. The depression took an emotional toll on the public as well…
    General Causes of WWII
  • The Great Depression
    • The Depression had extreme effects on industrialized countries and the exporting of raw materials.
    • International trade declined as well as public income and profits.
    • In many European states, citizens sought to blame government for the intolerable conditions and turned to anti-democratic government or dictators such as Adolf Hitler, Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, and Benito Mussolini.
    • The desperate public invested their trust in leaders who promised to better conditions.
    • In many European states, citizens sought to blame government for the intolerable conditions and turned to anti-democratic government or dictators such as Adolf Hitler, Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, and Benito Mussolini.
    • The desperate public invested their trust in leaders who promised to better conditions
    The Great Depression was a world wide economic crash which began as early as 1928. View slide
  • T h e G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n I n G e r m a n y
    • " In order to pay its debts for World War I, Germany engaged in a tremendous hyperinflation of its currency, printing paper marks until they became utterly worthless.“ –Mr. Lawrence Reed.
    • Germany was hit hard by the Great Depression, a major factor contributing was the Treaty of Versailles (meant to settle disputes and hostility from World War I).
    • However, revenge and hostility throughout the German public was not put down.
    • Most likely, the terms dictated to Germany (or the falsely summarized terms of the treaty of Versailles) angrily arouse the public.
    • Germany had be pay large sums of money to Allies which prevented their countries growth.
    • The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act issued in the United States in 1930 contributed to Germany’s economic collapse by sparking an international trade war. Thus preventing the industries of Germany from selling their goods to foreign markets.
    • Hyperinflation of Currency : Germany, (adhering to the Treaty of Versailles) was required to pay tremendous War debt. Germany printed so much money it became nearly worthless. The destruction of currency wiped out peoples savings and shut down capitalists.
    • When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 in socialized and militarized the economy. Instead of placing focus on manufacturing industries that would boos Germany’s economy, the focus went toward war industries.
    View slide
  • Hitler’s Foreign Policy Aims
    • Hitler wanted to put an end to the treaty of Versallies
    • Unite German speaking people into one nation.
    • Gain more living space
    • To achieve these aims Hitler would have to stop obiding by the rules of the treaty. He secretly built 2,500 airplanes as well as an army of 300,000.
    • RESPONSE FROM BRITAIN & MEMBERS OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
    • Britain and other members of the league of nations were trying to do anything in their power to maintain peace thus they agreed to answer Hitler’s requests. This was one of the largest mistakes possible and strongly contributed to the outbreak of war.
  • Germany Stops Making Payments
    • When Germany failed to make anymore payments the French President Raymond Poincare sent troops to occupy Rhur Valley.
    • This notion set in place to enforce payment from Germany.
    • German Response to Rhur Valley.
    • Germany handed over inflated money ruining Franc’s currency.
    • Thus, Germany’s war debt owed to France was discontinued.
    • The government of France fell soon after the fact.
    • Franc’s economy was still a lot stronger than that of its neighboring countries, mostly because the value of the frank was so strong.
  • Long Term Causes of World War II
    • In 1929 many people wanted to make a movement toward world peace. However, the crashing of the stock market and decline in world economy hindered this desire.
    • Governments of all countries tried to help their people by introducing new economic policies such as Protectionism : increasing the demand for goods made in ones own country by not accepting foreign goods. This notion was believed to increase the availability of jobs and make a country self sufficient.
    • In the long run however, International relations were harmed by this policy.
    • More people began to protest in their own country
    • The League of Nations idea of ‘world co-operation’ was shut down by the protectionism policy.
    • Mass depression lead to the public blaming government for what was happening (the depression).
  • Desperation calls for a Dictator
    • Jobs as well as food was becoming scarce.
    • Where hope was the only option, people began to steer their faith toward political parties which promised to ‘better conditions’ if elected to power.
    • In Germany and Japan, this put an end to democratic governments and anti-democratic governments arose to power.
    • While trying to improve the conditions in ones own country, aggression became common toward other countries.
  • How Power Imbalance Contributed…
    • Some European countries owned large empires and others did not.
    • Which country owned what resulted primarily from their success or failure in World War I.
    • France and Britain owned the largest empires which covered almost a third of the world.
    • Grievance over these two countries gain erupted in Germany, Japan, and Italy.
    • Wanting to make ones own empire more powerful, countries (once again) sought to expand.
    • Prior to 1914 Germany, France, and Britain were the three industrial super-powers of the world. However, the impact of World War I and the great Depression caused a shift in this power to the United States. Germany, extremely angered by this shift sought to regain their financial and economic standing.
  • World War II began on September 1 st 1939.
    • When Germany invaded Poland with out declaring war.
    • Britain and France then declared war on Germany on Sept. 3 rd
    • All of the Commonwealth of Nations followed soon after.
  • The German Public
    • In the mix of Adolf Hitler’s propaganda, he promised
    • To end communism and provoke Anti-Semitism: (outside threat or common enemy threat).
    • The sole element that may have caused Nazi rise to power is Hitler himself. Hitler dominated his public with a kind of charisma
    • That could not be tried. Hitler had a through understanding of German people and their desires.
    • So much so that even when failure was evident Hitler was never blameworthy.
    • Hitler’s ability to touch his public so effectively had a significant impact on the German peoples attitudes toward war and their willingness to proceed.
  • Germany
    • When Adolf Hitler rose to power Germany’s goal became to acquire land.
    • Considering the fact that Germany seized both Austria and Czechoslovakia without any sort of fight/protest, shows that super-powers such as Britain and France didn’t want to face a continuation of the gruesome world war I.
    • Many countries however, didn’t see the height of Germany’s expansion aims, and the invasion of Poland became the final straw.
  • Practices
    • In World War II there was allot more new and improved technology that was absent in World War I. World War II was comprised of faster tanks, motorized transport, and faster planes that were capable of holding a greater load/more ammunition. One now had the ability to track U-boat raido signals/radar. The advance in technology worked to the advantage of some. For example, Germany wanted to destroy the British airforce but Britain could already see what was coming through radar. German airplanes were limited in range, thus giving the British an advantage.
    • Germany used Blitzkrieg (meaning lightning war) agents the U.S.S.R. The tactic was based on speed and surprise. The tactic was used in the first world war and worked to push back the French and British in just a few weeks. It also worked in attacking Russia.
    • What saved the U.S.S.R. in World War II against Blitzkrieg was moving their factories to safety, bad weather, help from the U.S. and Britain, and unity.
    • The Naval War
    • British convoys brought supplies from the U.S. to Britain and Russia. German U-boats fiercely attempted to stop these convoys.
  • Germany’s Downfall
    • Much like World War I, Germany’s downfall was its inadequate allies and pursuit of war on multiple fronts. Hitlers inability to successfully organize conquored territories resulted in wide spread rebellion which ended up separating German forces. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in World War II for Germany. The Germans horribly lost the battle to the Russians and thought of nothing but retreat.