Chapter 18%26190

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  • Please insert Figure 18.4 - Age-related change in number of hours spent volunteering during the past year.

Transcript

  • 1. Development Through the Lifespan
    • Chapter 18
    • Emotional and Social
    • Development in
    • Late Adulthood
  • 2. Emotional Expertise in Late Adulthood
    • Cognitive-affective complexity
      • Declines for many, but 30-40% retain emotional regulation and optimistic outlook
    • Affect optimization improves
      • Maximize positive emotions, dampen negative ones
    • More vivid emotional perceptions
      • Make sure of own emotions – more objective
      • Use emotion-centered coping more often
  • 3. Personality in Late Adulthood
    • Secure, multifaceted (complex) self-concept
      • Allows self-acceptance  psychological well-being
      • Continue to pursue possible selves
    • Resilience in old age
      • More agreeable (A)
        • Generous, optimistic
      • Less sociable (E)
        • More selective
      • Greater acceptance of change (O)
        • Better coping
  • 4. Factors in Psychological Well-Being
    • Control versus dependency
      • Stereotypes lead many to assume older adults need support and are incapable of independence
      • Promotes dependency
    • Health
      • Mental Health - Depression
      • Poor health, depression linked
      • Suicide risk
    • Negative life changes
      • Less damaging, more frequent
    • Social support
    • Social interaction
  • 5. Marriage in Late Adulthood
    • Satisfaction peaks in late adulthood – about 20-25% last 50 yrs
      • Fewer stressful responsibilities
      • Fairness in household tasks
      • Joint leisure
      • Emotional understanding,
      • regulation
    • Same for gay/lesbian couples, but legal issues make late adulthood difficult
  • 6. Divorce, Remarriage, Cohabitation
    • Growing trend – less remarriage
    • Financial and family reasons
    • Relationships stable
    Cohabitation
    • Rates low; decline with age
    • Higher for divorced than widowed
    • Late remarriage stable
    Remarriage
    • Few divorces in late adulthood, but increasing (2 nd marriages)
    • Hard to recover; especially women
    Divorce
  • 7. Widowhood
    • Most stressful event of life for many
      • Create new identity
    • Many more women than men
      • Women live longer
    • Few remarry; most live alone
      • Must cope with loneliness
    • Reorganizing life harder for men
      • More likely to remarry
  • 8. Friendships in Late Adulthood
    • Friends provide:
      • Intimacy
      • Companionship
      • Acceptance
      • Link to community
      • Help with loss
    • Feels closest to a few nearby friends
      • Social groups get smaller, but better!
    • Often includes siblings
      • 80% have living sibling over 65
    • Strong predictor of mental health
  • 9. Relationships with Adult Children
    • Quality of relationship affects elders’ physical, mental health
      • 80% have living children
    • Assist each other in 60’s and 70’s
      • Direction changes toward children helping as parents age
      • Closeness affects willingness to help
      • Emotional support most often
        • Parents try to avoid dependency
  • 10. Decision to Retire – most adapt well; 30 % report difficulty
    • Retire
    • Adequate retirement benefits
    • Compelling leisure interests
    • Declining health
    • Spouse retiring
    • Routine, boring job
    • Positive marriage
    • Keep Working
    • Limited retirement benefits
    • Few leisure interests
    • Good health
    • Spouse working
    • Flexible work schedule
    • Pleasant, stimulating work
    • Negative relationship
  • 11. Age Changes in Volunteering
  • 12. Successful Aging
    • Minimize losses and maximize gains
      • Focus less on outcomes, more on processes and reaching personal goals
      • Some factors controllable, others not
    • Optimism
    • Selective optimization with compensation
    • Quality Relationships
    • Self and Emotional Understanding
    • Balance between control and dependence
  • 13. Development Through the Lifespan
    • Chapter 19
    • Death, Dying, and
    • Bereavement
  • 14. Phases of Dying – how we die
    • Long and drawn out for 75%
      • Gentle for 20% (usually with narcotics)
    • Agonal phase
      • Suffering in first moments body can no longer support life
        • Gasps, muscle spasms
    • Clinical death
      • Heart, breathing, brain stopped, but still can resuscitate
    • Mortality
      • Permanent death, no resuscitation
  • 15. Defining Death – when to halt treatment
    • Fuzzy line between life and death in modern society
      • Medical – cessation of vital function (respiratory/cardiac response)
    • Brain death
      • Irreversible stoppage of all activity in brain stem
      • Could include respiration and cardiac activity
    • Persistent vegetative state
      • Activity in cerebral cortex stopped
      • Brain stem still active
    • Definition can vary
      • Country, context, living will
  • 16. Appropriate Death
    • Death rarely comes the way we hope or plan
      • But we can ease the transition (hospice care)
        • Medical, psychological, spiritual support
    • Makes sense with person’s pattern of living, values – appropriate death
      • Integration of life that precedes
      • Maintain identity and some sense of control
      • Preserve or restore relationships
      • Reduce suffering – palliative care (ease, not cure)
    • Nature of disease, family/health support, coping style all effect individual desires and responses
  • 17. Kübler-Ross’s Theory
    • Stage theory of emotional response to death
      • Denial
      • Anger
      • Bargaining
      • Depression
      • Acceptance
    • Heavily criticized, not universal
      • Pattern doesn’t exist, not all parts expressed
      • Other responses common
  • 18. Grief Process
    • Avoidance
      • “ Emotional anesthesia” – numbness
    • Confrontation
      • Most intense grief when dealing with death
      • Range of emotional/behavioral responses
    • Restoration
      • As emotions subside, focus is on how to move forward
      • Dual-process model of coping with loss - Alternate between dealing with emotions and with life changes
  • 19. Death Education
    • Increased need to help those dying has improved education regarding death awareness/preparation
    • Courses in death and dying increasing at many levels
    • Goals
      • Understand physical, psychological changes in dying
      • Learn to cope with death of loved ones
      • Inform consumers of medical, funeral services
      • Understand social, ethical issues