Elpidio Quirino was born on Nov. 16, 1890, in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, the son of the warden of the provincial jail. Quirino taught school while studying at Vigan High School and then went to Manila, where he worked as junior computer in the Bureau of Lands and as property clerk in the Manila police department. He graduated from Manila High School in 1911 and also passed the civil service examination, first-grade
Quirino attended the University of the Philippines . In 1915, he earned his law degree from the university's College of Law , and was admitted to the bar later that year. He was engaged in the private practice of law until he was elected as member of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1919 to 1925, then as Senator from 1925 to 1931. He then served as Secretary of Finance and Secretary of the Interior in the Commonwealth government.
After graduating from the College of Law, University of the Philippines, in 1915, Quirino served as law clerk in the Philippine Commission and then as secretary to Senate president Manuel Quezon. In 1919 Quirino won the post of congressional representative from the first district of Ilocos Sur. He opposed Sergio Osmeña, the leader of the Nacionalista party, and joined Quezon's Collectivista faction of the party. In 1925 Quirino was elected to the Senate. Quezon appointed him chairman of the Committee on Accounts and Claims and of the Committee on Public Instruction and to other important congressional bodies. In 1931 Quirino was reelected to the Senate. In the controversy surrounding the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law of 1933, he sided with Quezon.
Early Life And Career
In 1934 Quirino became secretary of finance. He was also one of the drafters of the constitution approved on May 15, 1935. When the Philippine Commonwealth was inaugurated on Nov. 15, 1935, he held the position of secretary of finance (1935-1936) and then became secretary of interior (1936-1938). In 1941 he was elected as senator-at-large. When World War II broke out, Quirino refused to join the puppet government of José Laurel and became an underground leader of the Filipino resistance movement against the Japanese. He was captured and imprisoned by the Japanese military police in Ft. Santiago, and his wife, two daughters, and a son were murdered by the Japanese forces.
In 1934, Quirino was a member of the Philippine Independence mission to Washington D.C. , headed by Manuel L. Quezon that secured the passage in the United States Congress of the Tydings -McDuffie Act . This legislation set the date for Philippine independence by 1945. Official declaration came on July 4, 1946.
During the Battle of Manila in World War II , his wife, Alicia Syquia , and three of his five children were killed as they were fleeing their home.
After the war, Quirino continued public service, becoming president pro tempore of the Senate. In 1946, he was elected first vice president of the independent Republic of the Philippines, serving under Manuel Roxas . He also served as secretary of state.
Early Life And Career
In 1945 Quirino became the leader of the majority in the Philippine Congress and then assumed the post of president pro tempore of the Senate. On the inauguration of the Philippine Republic in 1946, he occupied the post of vice president and first secretary of foreign affairs. In 1947 Quirino (who belonged to the class of landlords, compradors, and bureaucrat-capitalists) urged the adoption of the anomalous "parity amendment, " imposed by the U.S. government in exchange for independence, war damage payments, and other loans.
Quirino assumed the presidency on April 17 , 1948 , taking his oath of office two days after the death of Manuel Roxas . The next year, he was elected president on his own right for a four-year term as the candidate of the Liberal Party . Quirino's administration faced a serious threat in the form of the communist Hukbalahap movement. Though the Huks originally had been an anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Luzon, communists steadily gained control over the leadership, and when Quirino's negotiation with Huk commander Luis Taruc broke down in 1948, Taruc openly declared himself a Communist and called for the overthrow of the government. His six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however, particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved, and his administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption. Although ill, Quirino ran for re-election in 1953 , but he was overwhelmingly defeated by Ramon Magsaysay .
Quirino assumed the presidency on April 17, 1948, taking his oath of office two days after the death of Manuel Roxas . The next year, he was elected president on his own right for a four-year term as the candidate of the Liberal Party , defeating Jose P. Laurel of the Nacionalista Party.
Since Quirino was a widower, his surviving daughter Vicky would serve as the official hostess and perform the functions traditionally ascribed to the First Lady .
Quirino's administration faced a serious threat in the form of the communist HUKBALAHAP movement. Though the Huks originally had been an anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Luzon, communists steadily gained control over the leadership, and when Quirino's negotiation with Huk commander Luis Taruc broke down in 1948, Taruc openly declared himself a Communist and called for the overthrow of the government.
His six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however, particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved, and his administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption.
On 1950, the administration of president Quirino was beginning the Korean War and over 7,450 Filipino soldiers were sent to Korea under the designation of the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea or PEFTOK.
Although ill, Quirino ran for re-election in 1953, but he was overwhelmingly defeated by Ramon Magsaysay .
Following his failed bid for re-election, Quirino retired to private life in Quezon City , Manila . He died of a heart attack on February 29, 1956. His death anniversary is observed on February 28.
Elpidio Quirino ` (1890-1956) The second president of the postwar Republic of the Philippines, Elpidio Quirino was born November 16, 1890 in Vigan, Ilocos Sur province, in the island of Luzon. He attended high school in Manila and took his law degree at the University of the Philippines. Quirino served at the Philippine house of representatives (1919-25) and in the senate (1925-31). He was a member of the Philippine independence mission which helped to obtain the passage in the US Congress in 1934 of the Tydings-McDuffie act under which the Philippines achieved independence on July 4, 1946. Also in 1934, he was elected to the constitutional convention. Thereafter, he served as secretary of finance and later as secretary of the interior in the commonwealth government (1935-38). He was elected to the senate in 1941 and stayed in the Philippines during the Japanese occupation. After the war, Quirino again became the secretary of finance in May 1946. As the candidate of the newly formed Liberal party, he became vice-president and secretary of foreign affairs of the new republic in July 1946. He succeeded to the presidency on the death of President Manuel Roxas in 1948 and was elected president in 1949. During his term of office an intensive program of economic development was initiate with the assistance of the United States, the treaty of peace was signed with Japan and a new mutual defense treaty was concluded with the United States in 1951. The Huks, or communist guerillas of Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan ( People's Liberation Army) in Luzon, were pacified primarily through the efforts of his secretary of defense, Ramon Magsaysay. After being defeated for reelection in 1953 he retired to private life and died on February 28, 1956.