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Unit 10 Powerpoint

Unit 10 Powerpoint

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  • 1. Summary   Terese    Ellis    Heather  Pawlicki    Lauren  Hazel    Ashley  Cox  
  • 2. The  Birth  Control  Revolu0on     Margaret  Higgins   Sanger  Slee       September  14,  1879  –   September  6,  1966     American  Birth  Control   activist       Founder  of  the   American  Birth  control   league.  
  • 3. Birth  Control  Clinics     Sanger  opened  her  first  birth  control   clinic  in  1916  against  MUCH   opposition.     Her  second  birth  control  clinic  was   opened  in  1923  in  Brooklyn.     The  main  goal  for  this  clinic  was  rather   than  challenging  obscenity  laws,  she   wanted  to  take  a  course  of  action  called   “doctors-­‐only  bills”  to  exempt  physicians   from  criminal  prosecution.       Her  first  attempt  at  introducing  the  bill  to   Congress  failed,  but  it  didn’t  stop  her.     Sanger  had  birth  control  smuggled  into   the  country  from  Europe  either  by  mail  or   across  the  U.S.  border  in  3-­‐in-­‐1  oil  drums.  
  • 4. The  Shaping  of  a  Na0on     Beginning  in  the  1920’s   Margaret  Sanger  and  Clarence   Gamble  established  doctor-­‐ supervised  clinics,  promoted   laboratory  testing  of   contraceptives,  encouraged  the   physician-­‐fitted  diaphragm-­‐ and-­‐jelly  method,  and  lobbied   the  American  Medical   Association  (AMA)  to  reverse   its  long-­‐standing  ban  on  birth   control.       Sanger’s  support  of  medicalized   birth  control  shaped  the  course   of  contraceptive   commercialization.    
  • 5. A  Medical  Reorienta0on     The  diaphragm-­‐and-­‐jelly   method  was  so  effective  that   medical  schools  had  to  add   contraceptives  to  their  period   of  instruction  –  a  medical   reorientation  of  sorts.     By  the  1940’s  the  diaphragm   became  the  #1  doctor   recommended  contraceptive.     Medical  thinking  of  birth   control  had  indeed  shifted  
  • 6. A  Medical  Reorienta0on     “The  large  majority  of  the  medical   profession  of  this  country  has   more  and  more  regard  of   contraceptive  practices  in  its  true   light  that  is,  not  as  a  moral  issue,   but  rather  as  a  branch  of   preventive  medicine.”  A  sick   woman  “should  be  entitled  to   medical  advice  which  will  protect   her  from  pregnancy  just  as  much   as  citizens  should  be  told  to   protect  themselves  from  smallpox,   diphtheria,  or  typhoid  fever.”  
  • 7. The  Idea  of  “Public  Welfare”     The  argument  that  birth  control   should  be  mandatory  for  all:     Gave  contraceptives  added   respectability  as  tools  of  social   engineering     It  also  categorized  them  as   instruments  of  social  control,   weapons  in  a  eugenicist  war   against  criminality  an  imbecility.     Few  doubted  these  issues,   however  the  public  welfare   approach  yielded  a  slippery  slope   toward  state  control  if  viewed  as  a   public  remedy  rather  than  a   woman’s  choice.  
  • 8. “Posi0ve”  Eugenics     Eugenics,  “good  in  birth”  -­‐  the   study  of  methods  of  improving   genetic  qualities  by  selective   breeding     Positive  eugenics  –  procreation  of   the  fittest  members  of  society  to   improve  the  American  gene  pool     Falling  birth  rates  among  white,   Protestant  and  native  born   prompted  many,  including   Theodore  Roosevelt,  to  condemn   the  use  of  birth  control  by  “selfish”   middle-­‐class  women  and  upper-­‐ class  women  as  “race  suicide.”  
  • 9. Nega0ve  Eugenics     Negative  eugenics  –  suppressing  the   procreation  of  unfit  groups  of  people.     Compared  races  by  aptitude  and   intelligence  to  determine  which   should  be  allowed  to  procreate.     Lobbied  to  restrict  immigration  of   southern  and  eastern  Europeans.     Criticized  proposals  to  fund   programs  for  retarded  children  and   prenatal  and  obstetric  care  for  the   poor  as  they  insisted  they  increased   the  life  span  of  defective  citizens.     “Eugenic  sterilization,   conservatively  and  sympathetically   administered,  is  a  practical,   humane  and  necessary  step  to   prevent  race  deterioration.”  
  • 10. Steriliza0on:    a  form  of  Birth  Control     Sterilization  to  cure  compulsory,  uncontrollable  sexual   hysteria.     Recommended  for  women  who  had  been  subjected  to  having   their  ovaries  removed  to  cure  “so-­‐called  nymphomania  and   hysteria”     Male  sterilization  used  in  prison  to  control  prisoners  urge  to   masturbate  –  until  it  was  learned  that  vasectomies  do  not   affect  sexual  drive  nor  the  desire  to  masturbate.     Used  as  a  method  during  the  Great  Depression  as  a  “way  to   save  money.”     By  1932,  at  least  26  states  had  enacted  laws  permitting  the   forced  sterilization  of  individuals  considered  unfit.     By  1937,  almost  28,000  men  and  women  had  been  forced  to   undergo  eugenic  surgery  in  the  U.S.     More  than  16,000  were  women.  
  • 11. Sanger’s  Clinic:  A  Conspiracy???     Sanger  opened  the  Birth  Control   Clinical  Research  Bureau  –   Harlem,  NY  (1930)     Aimed  at  distributing  cheap   contraceptives  to  the  under   privileged.     The  “research  bureau”  storefront   raised  suspicion  in  blacks  within   the  community  that  the  clinic’s   goal  was  to  experiment  on  and   sterilize  black  people.     After  racially  integrating  the  staff   and  changing  promotional   pamphlets,  still  nothing  changed   and  the  clinic  was  forced  to  close   in  1936.  
  • 12. Closing  Thoughts     Birth  control  clinics  weren’t  going  to  succeed  in  supplying   birth  control  to  the  poor,  not  in  a  country  where  profits  for   manufacturers  and  medical  professionals  were  more   important  than  health  care  for  the  poor  and  where  extramural   clinics  had  to  be  funded  by  donations  and  defended  against   the  argument  that  it  would  be  cheaper  for  society  to  sterilize   the  indigent.     In  a  society  without  universal  health  care,  working-­‐class   people  are  systematically  denied  access  to  doctors  and  the   services  they  monopolize.       Despite  these  perils  of  the  business,  Sanger  never  gave  up  her   goal  of  quality  birth  control  for  all  –  she  just  never  achieved  it.  
  • 13. Thoughts  to  Consider     Who  is  Margaret  Sanger  and  what  did  she  consider  her   most  valuable  contribution  to  society     How  did  Sanger  approach  the  issue  of  birth  control  for   women?  How  did  she  promote  it?     How  did  Sanger  get  prople  to  help  her  when  there  was  so   much  opposition?     How  is  this  linked  to  eugenics  and  what  was  eugenics   legislation     Why  do  you  think  the  clinics  in  Harlem  failed?     What  is  Tone  referring  to  when  she  notes  that  “  the  public   welfare  approach  yielded  a  slippery  slope  toward  state   control  once  contraception  became  a  public  remedy  rather   than  a  private  choice”  
  • 14. Rachel  Maines  
  • 15.   Goods  are  sold  everyday  around  the  world  that   are  advertised  for  a  purpose  other  than  they  are   often  used  for.       Examples  were  given  such  as  rolling  papers  and   tools  that  can  help  you  break  into  your  own  car.    
  • 16.   Early  electromechanical  vibrators  took  over  the   use  of  manual  labor  at  the  end  of  the  19th   century.       Were  used  for  sexual   massage  treatment  and   therapy  by  doctors  to   massage  the  female   genitalia.    
  • 17.   Although  today’s  society  can  identify  these  treatments   as  masturbation,  this  was  camouflaged  years  ago  to   relieve  hysteria.  It  was  not  seen  as  a  means  of  relieving   female  sexual  tension.     Symptoms  of  hysteria  were  said  to  be  “anxiety,  sense  of   heaviness  in  the  pelvis,  edema  (swelling)  in  the  lower   abdomen  and  genital  areas,  wandering  of  attention   and  associated  tendencies  to  indulge  in  sexual  fantasy,   insomnia,  irritability,  and  “excessive”  vaginal   lubrication.  
  • 18.   After  such  treatments,  women  reported  that   they  felt  relief  of  their  hysteria  symptoms   which  was  later  identified  as  a  sexual  orgasm.     The  ethics  behind  this   practice  was  often   questioned  which  is  why   it  was  camouflaged.    
  • 19.   As  this  therapy  became  more  popular,  devices   that  were  able  to  be  used  at  home  began  to  be   sold  in  the  market.    These  models  were  more   portable  and  were  less  costly  then  “treatment”   by  a  doctor.       Advertised  in   magazines   targeting  the   middle  class.  
  • 20.   Clever  marketing  strategies  were  used  to  cover   up  the  sexual  nature  of  these  devices.    Were   advertised  as  “benefiting  health  and  beauty  by   stimulating  the  circulation  and  soothing  the   nerves”.  Were  also  said  to  make  you  look   younger.  
  • 21.   Although  masturbation  is  more  socially   acceptable  then  years  ago,  camouflaging  of   goods  is  still  a  prevalent  marketing  technique.     It  is  more  often  seen  in  advertising  the  legal   uses  of  a  product  when  it  is  known  that  the   product  is  more  than  likely  used  for  an  illegal   purpose.    
  • 22. Supplemental  Links       women-­‐color-­‐pressing-­‐reproductive-­‐health-­‐agenda/    v=VJZSJ6cn8k4&feature=channel/    autonomous-­‐contraception/  
  • 23. Supplemental  Links  cont.    menoexcerpt.asp?id=51&chapterID=31      ­‐2GVT7ds