Evolution And Diversity Plants


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Evolution and Diversity Plants

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Evolution And Diversity Plants

  1. 1. Intro to Evolution and Diversity of Life PLANTS
  2. 2. Classification <ul><li>Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch of zoology and botany that is concerned with classifying and naming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms are organized into related and unrelated groups </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Classification <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are a vast array of different kinds of plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign universally-recognized names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize into related groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize on the basis of evolutionary and genetic relationships </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 5 Kingdoms: Plants Animals Protista Monera Fungi
  5. 5. Cells came First <ul><li>Prokaryotic Cells : Cells without a Nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cells : Cells with a Nuclei </li></ul>
  6. 6. Kingdoms-Monera <ul><li>Prokaryotic, unicellular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly unicellular, microscopic organisms living habitats that have high temperatures or high salt levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly unicellular microscopic organisms that include both beneficial bacteria and harmful bacteria, like Streptococcus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Kingdoms-Protista <ul><li>Eukaryotic, unicellular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly aquatic, single-celled organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Euglena, Paramecium, Amoebas and Diatoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pond Life </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 5 Kingdoms: Fungi Plants Animals Protista Monera
  9. 9. Kingdom-Fungi <ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Molds </li></ul><ul><li>Mushrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Smuts </li></ul><ul><li>Yeasts </li></ul>Multi-cellular Eukaryotes that form Spores
  10. 10. Kingdom Animal <ul><li>Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul>Multi-cellular Eukaryotic Animals
  11. 11. Kingdom-Plants Multi-cellular Eukaryotic Plants <ul><li>Mesquite Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Creosote Bush </li></ul><ul><li>Carrots </li></ul><ul><li>Lilies </li></ul><ul><li>Prickly Pear </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul>
  12. 13. Plant Kingdom <ul><li>Examples of Divisions in the Plant Kingdom: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bryophyta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinophyta (Gymnosperms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnoliphyta (Angiosperms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orange tree, rose bush </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seed producing plants with true flowers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Classes <ul><li>Each Division can be separated into Classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnoliophyta Division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnoliopsida (dicots) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liliopsida (monocots) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Using the Taxonomy Guide for Identification Kingdom Division Class Order Family Genus Species Plantae Magnolophyta Liliopsida Liliales Liliaceae Allium Allium cepa L. Answer : Egyptian onion
  15. 16. Naming and Classifying Plants <ul><li>Over 250,000 different kinds of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating about plants required a method of naming and classifying </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Plant Man <ul><li>Carolus Linnaeus (1732) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devised system for categorizing plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to modern system of plant taxonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Published Species Plantarum in 1753. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Binomial System of Classification <ul><li>Each plant has a 2-word (binomial) name given in Latin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First refers to plant’s genus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seconds refers to plant’s species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin name understood internationally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genus and species are italicized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens =human </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Binomial System of Classification <ul><li>Two words </li></ul><ul><li>First word is genus (capitalize) </li></ul><ul><li>Second word is species (underline) </li></ul><ul><li>Or put both words in italics </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Homo sapiens =human </li></ul>
  19. 20. Binomial Names <ul><li>Common Name: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Magnolia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latin Binomial Name: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnolia grandiflora </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Binomial Names <ul><li>Common Name: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saguaro </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latin Binomial Name: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnegiea gigantea </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. What is a species? <ul><li>A group of individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Diversity of Life <ul><li>Biologists have identified about 1.5 million species including </li></ul><ul><li>These are just the species that have been identified! </li></ul><ul><li>Biologists estimate that there are anywhere from 5 to 30 million species and there are thousands of newly identified species added yearly. </li></ul>