Division 44
Environmental Management,
Water, Energy, Transport
Sector project: “Transport Policy Advice”




Sustainable T...
OVERVIEW OF THE SOURCEBOOK                                Modules and contributors
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Module 3b:                                                 Acknowledgements

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1. Introduction                                    1     2.5 Planning Stage V:
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Module 3b: Bus Rapid Transit




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Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities




<  Transit prioritisation at intersections ...
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7. Lack of an organised system structure and                2. Planning for BRT
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Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities




behind the BRT systems in cities like Curit...
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Bus Rapid Transit

  1. 1. Division 44 Environmental Management, Water, Energy, Transport Sector project: “Transport Policy Advice” Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities Module 3b: Bus Rapid Transit Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
  2. 2. OVERVIEW OF THE SOURCEBOOK Modules and contributors Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Sourcebook Overview, and Cross-cutting Issues of Policy-Makers in Developing Cities Urban Transport (GTZ) What is the Sourcebook? Institutional and policy orientation This Sourcebook on Sustainable Urban Transport 1a. The Role of Transport in Urban Development addresses the key areas of a sustainable transport Policy (Enrique Peñalosa) policy framework for a developing city. The 1b. Urban Transport Institutions (Richard Meakin) Sourcebook consists of 20 modules. 1c. Private Sector Participation in Transport Infra- structure Provision (Christopher Zegras, MIT) Who is it for? 1d. Economic Instruments (Manfred Breithaupt, The Sourcebook is intended for policy-makers GTZ) in developing cities, and their advisors. This 1e. Raising Public Awareness about Sustainable target audience is reflected in the content, which Urban Transport (Karl Fjellstrom, GTZ) provides policy tools appropriate for application in a range of developing cities. Land use planning and demand management 2a. Land Use Planning and Urban Transport How is it supposed to be used? (Rudolf Petersen, Wuppertal Institute) The Sourcebook can be used in a number of 2b. Mobility Management (Todd Litman, VTPI) ways. It should be kept in one location, and the different modules provided to officials involved Transit, walking and cycling in urban transport. The Sourcebook can be easily 3a. Mass Transit Options (Lloyd Wright, ITDP; adapted to fit a formal short course training GTZ) event, or can serve as a guide for developing a 3b. Bus Rapid Transit (Lloyd Wright, ITDP) curriculum or other training program in the area 3c. Bus Regulation & Planning (Richard Meakin) of urban transport; avenues GTZ is pursuing. 3d. Preserving and Expanding the Role of Non- motorised Transport (Walter Hook, ITDP) What are some of the key features? The key features of the Sourcebook include: Vehicles and fuels < A practical orientation, focusing on best 4a. Cleaner Fuels and Vehicle Technologies practices in planning and regulation and, (Michael Walsh; Reinhard Kolke, where possible, successful experience in Umweltbundesamt – UBA) developing cities. 4b. Inspection & Maintenance and < Contributors are leading experts in their fields. Roadworthiness (Reinhard Kolke, UBA) < An attractive and easy-to-read, colour layout. 4c. Two- and Three-Wheelers (Jitendra Shah, < Non-technical language (to the extent World Bank; N.V. Iyer, Bajaj Auto) possible), with technical terms explained. 4d. Natural Gas Vehicles (MVV InnoTec) < Updates via the Internet. Environmental and health impacts How do I get a copy? 5a. Air Quality Management (Dietrich Schwela, Please visit www.sutp-asia.org or www.gtz.de/ World Health Organisation) transport for details on how to order a copy. The 5b. Urban Road Safety (Jacqueline Lacroix, DVR; Sourcebook is not sold for profit. Any charges David Silcock, GRSP) imposed are only to cover the cost of printing 5c. Noise and its Abatement (Civic Exchange and distribution. Hong Kong; GTZ; UBA) Comments or feedback? Resources We would welcome any of your comments or 6. Resources for Policy-makers (GTZ) suggestions, on any aspect of the Sourcebook, by Further modules and resources email to sutp@sutp.org, or by surface mail to: Further modules are anticipated in the areas Manfred Breithaupt of Driver Training; Financing Urban Transport; GTZ, Division 44 Benchmarking; and Participatory Planning. Postfach 5180 Additional resources are being developed, and 65726 Eschborn an Urban Transport Photo CD (GTZ 2002) is Germany now available. aa2 For demonstratioin purposes only. The Sourcebook, with 20 modules, will be available from GTZ by March 2003
  3. 3. Module 3b: Acknowledgements Bus Rapid Transit The Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) is an international non-governmental By Lloyd Wright organisation dedicated to the promotion of (Institute for Transportation and Development transport options that are environmentally, Policy) economically and socially sustainable. ITDP’s Bus Rapid Transit Programme provides assistance to Editor: Karl Fjellstrom municipalities, non-governmental organisations, Manager: Manfred Breithaupt and other stakeholders in order to realize fully implemented BRT systems. ITDP helps to provide GTZ Transport and Mobility Group, 2003 the technical and informational resources that allow municipalities to develop BRT. Findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this document are based on Mr. Wright directs the Latin American activities information gathered by GTZ and its consultants, of ITDP. He also directs the organisation’s partners, and contributors from reliable sources. International Bus Rapid Transit Programme. He GTZ does not, however, guarantee the accuracy has also worked with the International Institute or completeness of information in this document, for Energy Conservation, the US Environmental and cannot be held responsible for any errors, Protection Agency, the US Agency for International omissions or losses which emerge from its use. Development, and the United Nations on transport and environmental issues. He was also previously a Cover photo: Quito, Ecuador, 2002. Photo by Lloyd fellow with the US-Asia Environmental Partnership Wright in Bangkok, Thailand. Mr. Wright is currently working towards a PhD in Urban Transport Planning at University College London. He also possesses an MSc in Environmental Assessment from the London School of Economics, an MBA from Georgetown University, and a BSc in Engineering from the University of Washington. For demonstratioin purposes only. The Sourcebook, with 20 modules, will be available from GTZ by March 2003 i
  4. 4. 1. Introduction 1 2.5 Planning Stage V: Technology and Equipment 23 2. Planning for BRT 3 Fare collection and fare verification systems 24 2.1. Planning Stage I: Pre-Planning Analysis 3 Control centre plan 25 Background and situational analysis 4 Intelligent transport systems 26 Stakeholder analysis 4 Bus technology 27 Origin / destination study 4 Aesthetics 29 Overview study on mass transit options 4 Interior design of bus 29 2.2. Planning Stage II: Equipment procurement process 30 BRT System Structure 5 2.6 Planning Stage VI: Statement of vision 5 Modal Integration 30 Expected impacts 6 Modal integration plan 30 Regulatory and legal issues 7 Travel demand management 33 Administrative and business structures 7 Integration with land use planning 33 Tariff structure 7 2.7 Planning Stage VII: Plans for Implementation 33 Cost analysis 8 Financing plan 34 2.3 Planning Stage III: Communications, Customer Staffing plans 36 Service and Marketing 10 Contracting plan for the system 37 Public participation processes 11 Construction and implementation plans 37 Communications and outreach System maintenance plans 37 with existing transport operators 11 Monitoring and evaluation plan 37 Public education plan 12 Customer service plan 12 3. BRT Resources 38 Security plan 13 Background information on BRT 38 Marketing plan 14 City projects 38 2.4 Planning Stage IV: Engineering and Design 14 Corridor location 15 Routing options 16 Road engineering 17 Station and terminal design 20 Bus depot design 22 Landscape designs and plan 23 ii For demonstratioin purposes only. The Sourcebook, with 20 modules, will be available from GTZ by March 2003
  5. 5. Module 3b: Bus Rapid Transit 1. Introduction BRT systems astutely observed that the ultimate BRT systems around objective was to swiftly, efficiently, and cost-ef- the world, and key MRT Bus transport in most of the world today does fectively move people, rather than cars. system comparisons not inspire a great deal of customer goodwill. Today, the BRT concept is becoming increas- For a survey of Bus Rapid Bus services are too often unreliable, incon- ingly utilised by cities looking for cost-effective Transit systems world- venient and dangerous. In response, transport wide, and a comparison transit solutions. As new experiments in BRT planners and public officials have sometimes of BRT with other mass emerge, the state of the art in BRT continues transit systems according turned to extremely costly mass transit alterna- to evolve. In general, BRT is high-quality, to parameters such as tives such as rail-based Metros. However, there customer-orientated transit that delivers fast, cost, speed, passenger is an alternative between poor service and high comfortable and cost-effective urban mobility. capcity, poverty reduction, municipal debt. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can BRT is also known by other names in various environmental impact and provide high-quality, metro-like transit service at places, including High-Capacity Bus Systems, others, please see Module 3a: a fraction of the cost of other options (Figure 1). High-Quality Bus Systems, Metro-Bus, Express Mass Transit Options. The origins of Bus Rapid Transit can be traced Bus Systems, and Busway Systems. BRT systems back to Latin American planners and officials incorporate most of the high-quality aspects seeking a cost-effective solution to the dilemma of underground metro systems without, fortu- of urban transport. The rapid growth of Latin nately, the high costs. BRT systems are thus also America urban centres beginning in the 1970s known as “surface metro” systems. placed a heavy strain upon urban transport The main characteristics of BRT systems include: service providers. Facing high population < Segregated busways growth from a citizenry dependent upon public < Rapid boarding and alighting transport and having limited financial resources < Clean, secure and comfortable stations and to develop car-based infrastructure, Latin terminals American municipal planners were challenged to < Efficient pre-board fare collection create a new transport paradigm. One ingenious < Effective licensing and regulatory regimes for response was Bus Rapid Transit, a surface metro bus operators system that utilizes exclusive right-of-way bus < Clear and prominent signage and real-time lanes. The developers of the Latin American information displays Fig. 13 Bus Rapid Transit provides a sophisticated, metro-quality transit service at a cost that most cities, even developing cities, can afford. Photo courtesy of Advanced Public Transport Systems For demonstratioin purposes only. The Sourcebook, with 20 modules, will be available from GTZ by March 2003 1
  6. 6. Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities < Transit prioritisation at intersections TransMilenio BRT system in Bogotá, Colombia, < Modal integration at stations and terminals public transit ridership increased from 67% to < Clean bus technologies 68% when the system had only opened two < Sophisticated marketing identity out of 22 planned lines. This increase occurred < Excellence in customer service. during the system’s first year of operation, from In Latin America, BRT systems have been January to December 2001. Curitiba’s BRT wit- delivered at a relatively low cost: US$1 million nessed a similar increase when initially opened, to US$5.3 million per kilometre. This compares and was able to increase ridership by 2.36% a to costs between US$65 and $207 million per year for over two decades, enough to maintain kilometre for underground metro systems. the public transit mode share when every other Additionally, once constructed, BRT systems are Brazilian city was witnessing significant declines. typically fully self-financing, with fares in Latin America often under US$0.50 per trip. Such “Political will is by far the most systems also provide passenger capacities that are important ingredient” typically greater than light rail systems and com- parable with urban rail systems. Using express The reasons for public transport’s demise are not lane and passing lane systems, passenger flows difficult to discern (Figure 2). Poor transit serv- of over 35,000 passengers per hour per direction ices in both the developed and developing world have been achieved in cities such as Sao Paulo, push consumers to private vehicle options. The Brazil and Bogotá, Colombia. attraction of the private car and motorcycle is both in terms of performance and image. Public Under present trends, public transport’s future is transport customers typically give the following increasingly in doubt. The private vehicle is win- reasons for switching to private vehicles: ning the mode share battle. As incomes rise in 1. Inconvenience in terms of location of stations developing nations, private vehicles are gaining and frequency of service; usage while public transport’s ridership is almost 2. Fear of crime at stations and within buses; universally declining. The Mobility 2001 Report 3. Lack of safety in terms of driver ability and of the World Business Council for Sustainable the road-worthiness of buses; Development (www.sustainablemobility.org) 4. Service is much slower than private vehicles, indicates that the public transit systems in the especially when buses make frequent stops; world’s major cities are typically losing between 5. Overloading of vehicles makes ride 0.3% and 1.2% ridership each year (Table 1). uncomfortable; BRT is public transport’s response to this 6. Public transport can be relatively expensive decline, with an attempt to provide a car-com- for some developing-nation households; petitive service. With the introduction of the Table 1: Changes over time in daily average public transport trips, selected cities (includes bus, rail and paratransit). World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 2001 Earlier Year Later Year Public Public Population Percent of Population Percent of All City Year Transport Year Transport (million) All Trips (million) Trips Trips/day Trips/day Mexico 1984 17.0 0.9 80 1994 22.0 1.2 72 Moscow 1990 8.6 2.8 87 1997 8.6 2.8 83 Santiago 1977 4.1 1.0 70 1991 5.5 0.9 56 Sao Paolo 1977 10.3 1.0 46 1997 16.8 0.6 33 Seoul 1970 5.5 67 1992 11.0 1.5 61 Shanghai 1986 13.0 0.4 24 1995 15.6 0.3 15 Warsaw 1987 1.6 1.3 80 1998 1.6 1.2 53 2 For demonstratioin purposes only. The Sourcebook, with 20 modules, will be available from GTZ by March 2003
  7. 7. Module 3b: Bus Rapid Transit 7. Lack of an organised system structure and 2. Planning for BRT accompanying maps and information make the systems difficult to use; and When measured in terms of economic, environ- 8. Low status of public transit services. mental and social benefits, BRT’s track record BRT attempts to address each of these deficien- provides a compelling case for more cities to cies by providing a rapid, high quality, safe and consider it as a transit priority. However, as a secure transit option. Figure 3 presents images of new concept, there remain several barriers that Bogotá, Colombia before and after the develop- have prevented wider dissemination of BRT. ment of its TransMilenio system. Specifically, these barriers include: < political will < information < institutional capacity < technical capacity < financing < geographical / physical limitations. Political will is by far the most important ingredient in making BRT work. Overcoming Fig. 36 resistance from special interest groups and The TransMilenio the general inertia against change is often an BRT system has played insurmountable obstacle for mayors and other a central role in officials. However, for those public officials that transforming Bogotá have made the commitment to BRT, the politi- into a more liveable city. cal rewards can be great. The political leaders Lloyd Wright Fig. 25 Public transport in many developing countries means hardship and danger. Lloyd Wright For demonstratioin purposes only. The Sourcebook, with 20 modules, will be available from GTZ by March 2003 3
  8. 8. Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities behind the BRT systems in cities like Curitiba most cases, a portion of such information will and Bogotá have left a lasting legacy to their cit- already be available from previous analyses and ies, and in the process, these officials have been planning processes. The following is an outline rewarded with enormous popularity and success. of the type of pre-planning information that will underpin the development of a BRT plan: Even with political will, though, there are other obstacles to overcome. This module on BRT 1. Background and situational description: planning outlines much of the information to < Population, population density help build institutional and technical capacity as < Current mode shares well as highlight financing options. This mod- < Transport costs and tariffs ule provides an overview of the structure and < Environmental conditions. contents of a BRT plan. While these planning 2. Stakeholder analysis: elements have been extracted from some existing < Existing transport operators, and operators’ BRT plans, it must be recognised that planning and drivers’ associations (formal and informal) practices vary greatly by location and circum- < Customers (including current transit users, stances. Thus, actual BRT plans in a particular car owners, non-motorised transport users, developing city may necessitate other elements student travel, low-income communities, which are beyond the scope of this Sourcebook. physically disabled, elderly) < Municipal transit departments “A focused BRT planning process < Municipal environmental departments can be reasonably accomplished in < Municipal urban development departments < Traffic and transit police 12 to 18 months” < Relevant national agencies < Non-governmental organisations The sharing of BRT planning documents < Community-based organisations. from other cities, though, does present an op- portunity to greatly reduce planning costs. The 3. Origin / destination study outline of BRT planning elements may help 4. Overview study on mass transit options: reduce some upfront consulting costs and thus < Status quo permit municipalities to focus efforts and funds < Light rail on targeted areas of need. It is also hoped that a < Urban rail planning template will help reduce the amount < Bus rapid transit of time required to move from the conceptual < Underground metro. phase through to implementation. A focused BRT planning process can be reasonably accom- Background and situational analysis plished in 12 to 18 months. The background and situational analysis will The following planning stages are presented in help characterise the existing situation, which roughly chronological order. However, it should will help provide a baseline of data points for be noted that there is significant interaction later comparison with the new system. The between the different stages, and that some background and situational analysis will also activities must be done simultaneously. For in- highlight focus areas, such as the reduction of air stance, cost data from technology decisions will contaminants in certain zones. Additionally, this impact financial analyses and routing decisions analysis may also help identify potential sections will impact busway design options. of the city, such as rapidly growing areas that will benefit from transit-oriented development. 2.1. PLANNING STAGE I: Stakeholder analysis PRE-PLANNING ANALYSIS The pre-planning period is also an opportunity Prior to the formal development of a Bus Rapid to begin identifying key groups and organisa- Transit plan, the planning team will require a tions that should be included in the planning certain amount of baseline information in order and development of improved transit services. to have a sound basis for decision-making. In 4 For demonstratioin purposes only. The Sourcebook, with 20 modules, will be available from GTZ by March 2003

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