Azerbaijan
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Azerbaijan

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Extensive introductuion of Azerbaijan.

Extensive introductuion of Azerbaijan.
Can be used for presentation at Universities, schools, differents seminars,

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Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Presentation Transcript

  • AZERBAIJAN: The Land of Fire
  • Azerbaijan is considered one of the ancient places of the world
    • Most ancient archeological and paleontological materials recently found in the territory of Azerbaijan prove that first primitive men settled here 1.7-1.8 million years ago.
    • Discovery 1968 year of jaw bone of Azikhantrop who lived here 300-400 thousand years ago in a cave of Azikh located near Fuzuli city, which is under occupation of Armenia, also is one of the proofs   demonstrating that this country was a settlement of primitive men
    • Based on this discovery, Azerbaijan was included to the “The oldest inhabitants of the Europe map.
  • Since an ancient period of time its name was Odlar Yurdu (Fire Lands).
    • People who lived here very long time ago were fire worshippers
    • There are eternal hearths remaining from ancient time
    • People are still surprised when they see “burning soil” in Yanardag
  • Fascinating from History… Shah Ismail Khatai, the thinker poet and distinguished statesman of Azerbaijan founded Safavi Empire in the 16th century
    • During Safavi’s period of time Azerbaijan was a great and powerful State.
  • As a result of the war between Iran and Russia, the Turkmanchay Agreement was signed between these two Nations in 1828
    • Azerbaijan was divided into two parts.
    • The Southern Azerbaijan part was attached to Iran,
    • and the Northern part was attached to Russia.
    • Azerbaijan first became independent in 1918. It was first democratic Parliamentary republic in The Muslim World
    • (28 May 1918 - 18 April 1920 occupied by Soviet Army)
    • Restored independence in 1991
    • Capital: Baku
    • Territory: 86 600 km²
    • Population: 8 436 000
    • Official language: Azerbaijani
    • State structure: Presidential republic
    • Currency: Azerbaijani manat
    The Republic of Azerbaijan
  • Novel History …Occupied territory
    • The collapse of USSR in late 1991 was followed by the change in the geopolitical situation on post-Soviet area. Armenian with Russian Army support in fact open unfair war against Azerbaijan. Armenian military troops, violating the borders of Azerbaijan, entered Karabakh and conjointly with Armenian separatists of Upper Karabakh occupied Azeri lands
    • 20% of Azerbaijan territory under occupation
    • More that 1mln refuges
    • More were 40000 killed
  • Nature ….Landscape
    • Azerbaijan is characterized by a diversed landscape. There are two major forms of landscape-plains and mountains.
    • Mountains cover 60% of the total area of the Azerbaijan republic
  • Inland Water
    • Nearly 250 fresh and salty lakes, differing by the sources of feeding and by origin
    • There are more than 200 mineral water springs with different chemical ingredients
    • The dense river system of the country covers its territory like a blue spider's web
    • Azerbaijan accounts for 8400 small and large rivers, including 850 over 5 kilometers in length. But there are only 24 rivers extending to over 100 kilometers
  • Vegetation…
    • Azerbaijan has a rich flora. Almost all types of plants, found in the world are spread on the territory of this relatively small country
    • Nearly 4500 species of higher, spore-bearing flowering plants
    • Nearly 240 species are endemic and it is home to a number of rare trees and bushes
    • Forests account for 11.4% of the total area of the country
  • Fauna…
    • Due to the diverse natural conditions Azerbaijan formed a colorful animal kingdom
    • The fauna of plains is represented by a great number of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and numerous sedentary and migrant birds
    • Unfortunately, the number of Caspian seals decreased from 1.5 million in early 20th century down to 360-400 thousand in 1980th
  • The Climate The Climate of Azerbaijan is unique, nine of the Earth's eleven climate zones can be found in Azerbaijan
    • Semi-desert and dry steppe climate covers mainly Central lowland districts. Winter is mostly hot , Summer is red-hot, some days temperature is higher than 40 degree
    • Semi-desert and dry steppe climate with cold winter and dry hot climate
    • Mild-hot climate, winter if which is dry , covers lower mountainous zone
    • Mild-hot climate with dry summer . Mostly covers Lankaran - Astara region
    • Cold climate with dry winter covers south-east hills of Great Caucasus
    • Cold climate with dry summer . Covers middle and high mountainous area of Nakhchivan AR
    • Mild-hot climate with equal distribution of precipitations . Winter is mild, summer is mild-hot
    • Cold climate with rich precipitations in all seasons
    • Mountainous tundra climate covers the areas of Great and Small Caucasus higher than 2700 m. In some places snow does not melt till the next winter.
  • The minerals…
    • The region accounts for most part of metallic minerals: iron, manganese, titanium, chromium, copper, cobalt, complex ore, antimony, gold, silver, molybdenum, etc
    • Azerbaijan is famous for its oil and gas deposits
    • 2/3 of the republic is rich in oil and gas
  • DID YOU KNOW THAT…
    • 10th Century Arabian historian Masudi-Abdul-Hussein (9th century-957) identified two main sources of black oil and white oil (kerosene) on Absheron.
    • In 1846 - more than a decade before the Americans made their famous discovery of oil in Pennsylvania - Azerbaijan drilled its first oil well in Bibi-Heybat
    • In 1901, Baku produced more than half of the world's oil (11 million tons), and 95 percent of all Russian Empire oil
    • As of January 1, 1916, the four main companies, which led the Baku oil industry included the Nobel Brothers Petroleum Company (Alfred and Robert Nobel) and “Standard Oil” of John D. Rockefeller
    Ludvig Nobel Zeynalabdin Taghiyev The students of Oil Academy
    • Naftalan is a rare type of oil that is used only for medicinal purposes. Azerbaijani doctors have prescribed it for years to successfully treat various skin, joint and bone diseases such as psoriasis, arthritis and rheumatism
    • Naftalan is extracted from only one place in Azerbaijan - in the north - central part of the country. The town takes its name from the oil, "Naftalan", which comes from the Azeri for "neft alan" (oil buyer)
    • Naftalan is different from other types of oil in that its purified form has a high concentration of naphthene hydrocarbons, about 55 percent. Other kinds of oil have a much lower concentration, about three to five percent
    Naftalan - The Miracle Oil Azerbaijan's Therapeutic Oil
  • Culture … Folklore
    • The classical music of Azerbaijan is called mugam and is usually a suite with poetry and instrumental interludes
    • UNESCO proclaimed the Azerbaijani mugam tradition a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on November 7 , 2003 .
    • There are a number of Azerbaijani dances, these folk dances of the azerbaijani people are old and extremely melodious. It has a very fast rhythm, so the dancer must have inherent skill
  • Culture… Opera, classic music, ballets
    • Azerbaijan prides itself with having created the first opera of the Middle East - " Leyli and Majnun " (1908) by Uzeyir Hajibeyov (1885-1948) , which is based on the poetry of Nizami (1141-1209)
    • The Azerbaijan State Theater of Opera and Ballet was built in 1910
    1908 Leyli and Majnun 1910 Husband & Wife* 1911 Mashadi Ibad* 1913 Arshin Mal Alan * 1915 Ashug Garib 1919 Shah Ismayil 1935 Nargiz 1937 Koroglu 1945 Vatan (Motherland) 1953 Sevil 1957 Azad 1960 Vagif 1972 Bridal Rock Major Operas by Azerbaijani Composers: Uzeyir Hajibeyov,Gara Garayev, Fikrat Amirov & others
  • Culture….. Architecture
    • Architecture went through many different stages over the centuries. Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower included in UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Culture….. the decorative and applied art
    • Azerbaijan is famous for its carpets. Carpet is one of the oldest and most traditional forms of art in Azerbaijan. You'll find two types of carpets: knotted and flat-weaved
    • The form of antiquity is represented by a wide range of handicrafts, such as chasing, jeweler, engraving in metal, carving in wood, stone and bon
  • Azerbaijan Cuisine, Food
    • Food is an important part of the country's culture and is deeply rooted in the history, traditions and values of the nation
    • Azerbaijani cuisine has over 30 kinds of soups, including those prepared from plain yogurt. There is a wide variety of kebabs including lamb, beef, chicken, and fish ( baliq ) kebabs
    • I like:
    • Plov
    • Kababs
    • Qutabs with Yogurt
  • and … of course CAVIAR!
    • This comes from three different varieties of Caspian sturgeon, rated top to bottom as beluga, osietra and servyuga , and is actually affordable
    • The 113 gram pots run from $25-$55, depending upon the type of fish and grade
  • Society… People, ethnic, language
    • Ethnic groups: Azeri 90.6%, Dagestan 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9%
    • Languages: Azerbaijani (Turkish group) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, and other 6%.
    • Literacy: 97%.
    • Population birth rate
    • 17.52 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
    • Life expectancy
    • total population: 66.31 years male: 62.2 years female: 71 years (2008 est.)
  • Society… RELIGIONS
    • Azerbaijan is a secular country, in article 48 of Constitution said that everyone has a right to choose any faith, to adopt any religion or to not practice any religion
    • Approximately 93.4 to 96 percent of the population is nominally Muslim
    • Judaism (Nearly 16 000 Jews reside in the country )
    • Christianity (is represented by Orthodoxy,
    • Catholicism and Protestantism)
    • Azerbaijan has a highest rates of diabetes mortality in the European Region
    • 8.7% of population (every 12) is thalassemia carrier. About 200 children are born with thalassemia major every year
    Society… Public Health Deaths by cause, all ages Cardiovascular disease – 51% Chronic respiratory disease - 4% Injuries - 4% Communicable,maternal and perinatal, nutritional deficiencies - 17% Other chronic diseases - 10% Diabetes - 3% Cancer -11%
  • To remember …..Khojali Genocide
    • on 26 February of 1992 the Armenian armed forces attacked the Khojaly town of the Republic of Azerbaijan. As a result of aggression Khojaly was razed to the ground; 613 men were killed, 56 men reduced to ashes alive, 112 men were missing, thousands of persons were kidnapped, 6 families were completely annihilated