What is a balanced diet? A balanced diet is one that contains all the nutrients required for health in appropriate proportions There are seven components in a balanced diet:
How much of each component do we need? Table Typical mass of each component required per day by a 17-year-old-girl
One important aspect of nutrition is energy intake. This is different for everyone as it depends on the level of activity Energy should come from carbohydrates (57%), Dairy (30%) and protein (13%) A good guide to whether your diet contains enough energy is change in mass or weight.
Malnutrition a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods
Malnutrition Malnutrition is caused by an unbalanced diet. Most people think of malnutrition as deficiency. However the biggest form of malnutrition in the developed world is obesity
Obesity Obesity is caused by consuming too much energy. Excess energy is deposited as fat in the Adiopse tissues Obesity is the condition in which excessive fat disposition impairs health. Usually indicated by a Body mass index (BMI) of 30 or over. This indicates a body weight of 20% above weight for your height.
Obesity and Disease
Coronary heart Disease and Obesity Obesity can be linked to a disease known as Coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease is the term that describes what happens when your heart's blood supply is blocked or interrupted by a build-up of fatty substances in the coronary arteries. If your coronary arteries become narrow due to a build up of Atheroma, the blood supply to your heart will be restricted. This can cause angina (chest pains).If a coronary artery becomes completely blocked, it can cause a heart attack.
Diet and blood pressure High Bloodis mostly linked to poor diet. Excess salt in your diet decreases water potential in your cell, as a result more water is held in the cells, increasing blood pressure particularly the pressure in a resting heart. This is called hypertension and can Damage the inner lining of the arteries. Causing atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis When a tear occurs in the endothelium chemicals signals are sent out. These are picked up by a form of phagocytes called macrophages, they enter the damage tissue through the endothelium through a process known as leukocyte extravasation The macrophages encourage the growth of smooth muscle and the disposition of fatty substances (Low density lipoproteins).
Atherosclerosis The macrophages can also turn them selves into foam cells to help repair the cells. The end result of this process is an Atheroma. This formation is strong enough to last for the persons life.
Low-density liproprotein (LDL) and atherosclerosis High cholesterol with an excess of LDL can cause the Atheroma to grow in size. This is due to the excess cholesterol in the blood , the macrophages continue to build up the Atheroma and will eventually form a bulge in the endothelium called a plaque This will continue to grow and will decrease the lumen of the artery, therefore increasing blood pressure further.
Why is this bad? And how can it be stopped? This reduced lumen size increases the chance of a blood clot (thrombosis) dramatically. this can lead to Myocardial infarction (heart attack) The risk can be reduced by eating foods high in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and keeping the ration of HDLs to LDLs High.
High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) Unsaturated fats. This substance helps to reduce blood cholesterol levels They help to stop Atherosclerosis and also may remove some of the disposition already there.
How To Improve Your Diet By reducing the chances of contracting Coronary Heart Disease
Eat Less Saturated Fat These foods all contain high amount of LDLs:
Other things to try... Loose Weight Research hints that losing even a small amount of weight (5% to 10%) may help lower LDL levels. Exercise Aerobic exercises, such as running, cycling, jogging, and swimming, appear to benefit cholesterol the most by lowering LDL by 5% to 10%. Other forms of exercise, such as yoga, walking and weight-bearing exercises, have also been shown to decrease LDL levels. Drink Alcohol Although moderate consumption of alcohol can significantly raise HDL levels, it can also lower LDL by about 4% to 8% Stop Smoking Increases LDL, Lowers HDL