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World War Ii Part 2 For Web

World War Ii Part 2 For Web






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    World War Ii Part 2 For Web World War Ii Part 2 For Web Presentation Transcript

    • The World at War: World War II Part 2
    • Turning Points
      • In early 1943 the Allies had begun the final push to defeat the Axis Powers.
      • Victories during the winter of 1942-43 brought the Allies closer to their goal.
      • Battle of Stalingrad -a fierce struggle between German and Soviet forces. Soviet forces surrounded and cut off supplies to German troops who in the center of the city.
      • The Axis Powers lost some 200,000 troops in the battle of Stalingrad; they
      • surrendered in Jan. 1943.
    • D-Day
      • Operation Overlord, called for a massive landing on the beaches of Normandy, in northwestern France.
      • On the morning of June 6, 1944, known as D-Day , Allied soldiers finally landed in Normandy.
      • Hundreds of warships off the coast tried to protect them by providing a cover of artillery fire.
      • D-Day was the largest sea-and-land invasion in history.
      Eisenhower and Paratroopers
    • D-Day [6-6-44]
      • The Americans and British faced fierce German resistance on the beaches of France.
      • By the end of D-day, the Allies had gained a foothold and landed more than 155,000 troops.
    • Turning Points
      • Omar Bradley and George S. Patton help lead the Allies to liberate France.
    • Battle of the Bulge
      • The Allies began to push through Belgium and France toward Germany.
      • Hitler refused to surrender.
      • In Dec. 1944, he made a desperate attempt to split the advancing Allied armies.
      • The Germans launched an offensive in the Ardennes, a forest region defended by just a few U.S. divisions.
      • Hitler hoped to recapture Antwerp, Belgium, the Allies major supply port.
    • Battle of the Bulge
      • On Dec. 16, some 25 divisions of the German army attacked in the heavy snow.
      • Surprised, outnumbered, and without air support, the Americans fought bravely in the Battle of the Bulge .
      • U.S. losses were heavy-some 77,000 casualties, but the Americans slowed the German offensive.
      • As 1945 began, the Soviet armies were pushing toward Berlin, Germany’s capital from the east. U.S. and British troops were preparing to cross the Rhine into
      • Germany from the west.
    • War in the Pacific
      • Japan had rapidly advanced across the Pacific following the attack on Pearl Harbor.
      • Under General Hideki Tojo , Japan conquered Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Burma, and Indonesia.
      • After Pearl Harbor, Japan took U.S. landholdings of Guam, Wake Island, Aleutian Islands (Kiska and Attu) and the Philippines.
    • Japan Advances across the Pacific
      • When the Japanese captured the capital of the Philippines, Manila, they forced their enemy troops on the Bataan Death March .
      • The Japanese marched more than 70,000 Americans and Filipinos, many of whom were sick and wounded, to prison camps.
      • The Japanese treated the prisoners harshly during their 65-mile forced march up the peninsula.
      • Between 400 and 1,000 Americans died and about 10,000 Filipinos died.
    • Halting Japan’s Advance
      • Admiral Chester Nimitz , commander of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific, had an important, top secret advantage against the Japanese.
      • Navy experts cracked the Japanese naval code and could read secret Japanese messages.
      • Nimitz knew that the Japanese were
      • planning to invade Port Moresby,
      • New Guinea.
    • Halting Japan’s Advance
      • In May 1942, Nimitz sent an Allied fleet to attack the Japanese invasion force.
      • Battle of the Coral Sea , U.S. planes sank one Japanese carrier and damaged another.
      • U.S. carrier Lexington was sunk; Yorktown was damaged.
      • The Allies for the first time had turned back the Japanese advance.
    • Halting Japan’s Advance
      • Japanese forces hoped to seize the Midway Islands, located northwest of Hawaii.
      • The Battle of Midway took place June 3 - 6, 1942. It was a battle of carrier-based airplanes.
      • Japanese and U.S. warplanes fought in the air, trying to sink each other’s aircraft carriers.
      • The U.S. Navy had crippled the Japanese navy by sinking four of its carriers, while only losing one.
      • After Midway, the Japanese navy was on the defensive for the rest of the war.
    • Halting Japan’s Advance
      • The Allies turned to Guadalcanal, one of the Solomon Islands in the southwest Pacific.
      • From this island, Japanese forces could threaten the important sea link b/w Australia and the U.S.
      • The fighting took place on land, sea, and in the air.
      • The Allies won control of the island in early 1943.
    • Taking the Offensive
      • The Allies planned to conquer one Pacific island after another, landing only on the most important islands.
      • This strategy, called island-hopping , would help the Allies gain new bases.
      • From these bases, the Allies could bomb and later invade Japan.
      • This campaign began in late 1943.
      • U.S. planes began bombing the main islands of Japan.
      • U.S. submarines were attacking Japanese cargo ships, cutting off the flow of raw materials to Japan.
    • Taking the Offensive
      • General MacArthur planned to take back the Philippines.
      • In Oct. 1944, Japanese and U.S. forces met at the Battle of Leyte Gulf , the largest naval battle in history.
      • Both sides suffered heavy losses; however, the Allies came out victorious.
      • This greatly reduced the strength of the Japanese fleet.
    • Closer to Japan
      • U.S. bombers hit targets in Japan during massive nighttime raids.
      • These attacks caused great damage;
      • fire storm in Tokyo.
      • As Allied forces got closer to Japan, they faced some of the fiercest fighting of WWII.
      • Incredibly heavy losses
      • were suffered at Iwo Jima .
    • Closer to Japan
      • In the battle of Okinawa, the Japanese airforce used a deadly tactic involving crashing piloted planes into Allied ships.
      • Many of these kamikaze planes found their targets.
      • With the fall of Okinawa, Allied leaders looked to attack Japan for final victory.
    • Final Victory and Consequences
      • Victory in Europe came 11 months after D-Day.
      • The Allies had bombed Germany heavily during the final months of WWII.
      • These bombing raids were intended to destroy Germany’s ability to make weapons but also killed many civilians.
    • Victory in Europe
      • By mid-March 1945, British and U.S. forces had crossed the Rhine and were advancing east toward Berlin.
      • The Soviets pushed west toward the city.
      • On April 12, 1945, President Roosevelt died of a stroke and vice-president Harry S. Truman took over as the new president.
      • On April 30, Hitler committed suicide.
      • On May 8, 1945 was declared V-E day.
      • The war was officially over in Europe.
    • Victory in the Pacific
      • The war with Japan was coming to a close.
      • Allied leaders feared that the final invasion of Japan would result in great loss of life.
      • Since 1942, scientists had been working to develop an atomic bomb , a weapon the produced great destructive power by releasing the force of splitting atoms.
    • Victory in the Pacific
      • The Manhattan Project was a huge effort to develop an atomic bomb. The project employed some 600,000 people; it was headed by Dr. Robert Oppenheimer.
      • World-class scientists worked at a top-secret facility in Los Alamos, New Mexico.
      • The project cost some $2 billion.
      • On July 16, 1945, scientists exploded
      • the world’s first atomic bomb in
      • New Mexico.
    • Victory in the Pacific
      • When Japan did not surrender after the demand of the Potsdam Conference, President Harry Truman gave the order to use the atomic bomb.
      • On August 6, 1945, the B-29 bomber Enola Gay flew over the Japanese city of Hiroshima and dropped the first atomic bomb used in warfare.
      • In an instant, the atomic bomb blast killed between70,000 and 80,000 people.
      • Thousands more died later from
      • serious burns and radiation poisoning.
    • Hiroshima August 6, 1945
    • Victory in the Pacific
      • Japanese leaders still did not surrender.
      • On Aug. 9, U.S. forces dropped a second atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki.
      • On Aug. 15, 1945, Japan surrendered unconditionally.
    • The Costs of the War
      • WWII finally came to an end after nearly six years of fighting.
      • Some 50 million people had died, more than half civilians.
      • Millions more were injured or left suffering from disease or lack of food.
      • The war ruined national economies. Food production, industry, and transportation networks were destroyed in many areas.
      • Millions of people found themselves homeless, lacking even the basic needs of food, fuel, shelter, and water.
      • Large cities lay in ruins.
      • Much of the world’s great art and architecture was lost forever.
      • The U.S. escaped the physical destruction the Europe and Asia suffered.
      • U.S. economy emerged from the war more powerful than ever.
      • Much of the cost of the rebuilding efforts after the war would fall to the U.S.
    • The Holocaust
      • The Holocaust was the attempt by Hitler and the Nazis to murder the Jews of Europe.
      • Soon after taking power in Germany in 1933, the Nazis had written new laws for German Jews.
      • They were stripped of their civil rights, jobs, and property.
      • Many Jews were imprisoned in concentration camps, such as Auschwitz and Dachau.
      • The Nazis looked for ways to eliminate the Jewish population.
    • The Holocaust
      • Nazis forced Jews to live in isolated urban areas known as ghettos.
    • The Holocaust
      • The Nazis decided on a “final solution” to the Jewish problem.
      • Genocide is the deliberate murder of an entire people.
      • The Nazis planned to kill the Jews in specially built death camps across Europe.
      • These camps were equipped with gas chambers designed to kill great numbers of people cheaply and efficiently.
      • The camps also had special furnaces to burn the remains of the dead.
    • The Holocaust
      • People were packed shoulder-to-shoulder in railroad boxcars on the forced trip to labor camps.
      • Nazi officers sorted the arriving Jews by age, sex, and health, often tearing families apart.
      • The physically fit Jews went to work as slave laborers in camp factories.
      • Other prisoners went directly to the gas chambers. These victims were often women, children, elderly, sick, and weak.
      • Some 6 million Jews had been murdered or had died from the conditions in the camps.
      • This number equaled about 2/3 of all Jews living in Europe before the war.
      • Most surviving European Jews emigrated from Europe after the Nazi defeat.