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Biomolecules

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY!
  • 2. All LIVING things are mostly made of 4 types of molecules called BIOMOLECULES. BIOMOLECULES are very large molecules of many ATOMS covalently bonded together All BIOMOLECULES contain CARBON (C)
  • 3. 4 categories of BIOMOLECULES proteins carbohydrates lipids nucleic acids
  • 4. ENERGY is stored in the COVALENT BONDS of these large molecules. When we eat, we get energy to live as chemical reactions within our bodies break these bonds. Our bodies can then use the parts of these large molecules to build new molecules that build our bodies.
  • 5. PROTEINS
    • Build muscle, bone, structural support of the cell, etc.
    • Function as enzymes to speed chemical reactions within the body
    • Function as pigments and steroid hormones
    Made of many AMINO ACIDS bonded together in a long chain. C, H, O, N
  • 6. MONOMER POLYMER CELL STRUCTURE amino acid protein chain muscle fiber PROTEIN
  • 7. CARBOHYDRATES
    • Store ENERGY
    • Provide some structure
    Made of many SUGARS bonded together in a LONG CHAIN Composed of C, H, and O Single sugar molecule
  • 8. MONOMER POLYMER CELL STUCTURE sugar starch starch grains in chloroplasts CARBOHYDRATE
  • 9. LIPIDS
    • Store ENERGY
    • Form cell membranes
    • Act as chemical messengers (steroid hormones)
    Composed of C, H, and O A GLYCEROL with 3 FATTY ACID CHAINS Can be SATURATED or UNSATURATED depending on type of BONDS
  • 10. fatty acid fat molecule adipose (fat) cells SUBUNIT MOLECULE CELL STRUCTURE LIPID
  • 11. NUCLEIC ACIDS
    • Store genetic information
    • Direct the production of PROTEINS
    Composed of C, H, N, O, P Made of many NUCLEOTIDES bonded together in a long chain
  • 12. MONOMER POLYMER CELL STRUCTURE Nucleotide DNA strand chromosome NUCLEIC ACID