All LIVING things are mostly made of 4 types of molecules called BIOMOLECULES. BIOMOLECULES are very large molecules of many ATOMS covalently bonded together All BIOMOLECULES contain CARBON (C)
4 categories of BIOMOLECULES proteins carbohydrates lipids nucleic acids
ENERGY is stored in the COVALENT BONDS of these large molecules. When we eat, we get energy to live as chemical reactions within our bodies break these bonds. Our bodies can then use the parts of these large molecules to build new molecules that build our bodies.
PROTEINS <ul><li>Build muscle, bone, structural support of the cell, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Function as enzymes to speed chemical reactions within the body </li></ul><ul><li>Function as pigments and steroid hormones </li></ul>Made of many AMINO ACIDS bonded together in a long chain. C, H, O, N
MONOMER POLYMER CELL STRUCTURE amino acid protein chain muscle fiber PROTEIN
CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>Store ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>Provide some structure </li></ul>Made of many SUGARS bonded together in a LONG CHAIN Composed of C, H, and O Single sugar molecule
LIPIDS <ul><li>Store ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>Form cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Act as chemical messengers (steroid hormones) </li></ul>Composed of C, H, and O A GLYCEROL with 3 FATTY ACID CHAINS Can be SATURATED or UNSATURATED depending on type of BONDS