Utilization of Bamboo in Fixing
 Biomass From Wastewater




               Progress Report By
                 Hunja Mura...
Introduction 1
Water pollution is a major problem in
Kenya.
Effluent from industries and human
settlements is the main sou...
Introduction 2
The forest cover in Kenya is under siege,
because of increased need for settlement,
farmland and forest pro...
Objectives
• To test bamboo species for their utility in
  wastewater treatment.
• To test the tolerance of these bamboo
 ...
Hypotheses
Different bamboo species respond to
wastewater by taking up nutrients and
increase leaf area.
Water use efficie...
Materials & Methods
3 bamboo species, Bambusa vulgaris,
Dendrocalamus giganteus, and Bambusa
X were used in this study.
Th...
Materials & Methods
Growth parameters such as plant height,
leaf number, number of branches, collar
diameter were taken at...
Bamboo Wastewater Trial in Juja
Constitution of Juja wastewater
Cu (mg/kg)Ni (mg/kg) Cd (mg/kg)Pb (mg/kg)Zn (mg/kg)K (mg/kg) Na (mg/kg)
      0.6        0...
Diurnal A for 3 Bamboo species
             12

             10

              8
 A (um/m2/




              6

         ...
Diurnal Stomatal Conductance for 3 Bamboo Species

                                         300
 Stomatal Conductan
      ...
Water Use Efficiency
            14

            12
                                            giant
            10
A(um/...
Stem & Branch Biomass
                   Stem & branches weight (kg)               Plants receiving
                      ...
Leaf Biomass
                      Leaves (gm)
                                                Total leaf weight
         ...
Biomass
                      Number of Branches
        300
                                                           XW...
Average Total Leaf Area Per Plant
            30000


            25000



            20000
Square cm




            150...
Chlorophyll Values (SPAD)
       45

       40

       35

       30
SPAD




       25

       20

       15

       10

...
Preliminary Conclusions
Confirm hypothesis 1 that main responses to
wastewater is increase in leaf area and
chlorophyll.
A...
Further Studies
Different sources of wastewater
particularly from industrial sites to be
investigated.
A wider range of co...
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Hunja Seminar 27th October

  1. 1. Utilization of Bamboo in Fixing Biomass From Wastewater Progress Report By Hunja Murage Supervisors: Prof. C. Ong, Dr.K. Ngamau, Dr. C. Muthuri
  2. 2. Introduction 1 Water pollution is a major problem in Kenya. Effluent from industries and human settlements is the main source of the problem. Rural urban migration has given pollution an urban focus. Effluent finds its way into the water supply: both surface and ground water.
  3. 3. Introduction 2 The forest cover in Kenya is under siege, because of increased need for settlement, farmland and forest products. Bamboo can, while providing a substitute for wood, because of its water pumping properties, be useful in fixing biomass from wastewater. Wastewater from urban areas is not suited to growing food crops due to pollutants.
  4. 4. Objectives • To test bamboo species for their utility in wastewater treatment. • To test the tolerance of these bamboo species to high nutrient conditions.
  5. 5. Hypotheses Different bamboo species respond to wastewater by taking up nutrients and increase leaf area. Water use efficiency will remain relatively similar between species Wastewater has little impact on water use efficiency
  6. 6. Materials & Methods 3 bamboo species, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus giganteus, and Bambusa X were used in this study. They were grown in 100 litre pots at the JKUAT experimental farm, in a randomized complete block design. Wastewater from the University treatment ponds was used to irrigate the plants
  7. 7. Materials & Methods Growth parameters such as plant height, leaf number, number of branches, collar diameter were taken at monthly intervals. Infra Red Gas Analyzer was used to measure assimilation, evaporation and stomatal conductance twice a week. Measures of chlorophyll content were also taken using SPAD, and soil moisture levels monitored with a moisture metre.
  8. 8. Bamboo Wastewater Trial in Juja
  9. 9. Constitution of Juja wastewater Cu (mg/kg)Ni (mg/kg) Cd (mg/kg)Pb (mg/kg)Zn (mg/kg)K (mg/kg) Na (mg/kg) 0.6 0.7 0.2 1.0 7.6 542.6 962.1 TOC (mg/l) TC (mg/l) IC (mg/l) P (µg/l) 5.8 37.9 32.1 70.9 TOC = Total Organic Carbon TC = Total Carbon IC = Inorganic Carbon The levels of K and Na are very high. This would have an effect in the opening and closing of stomata.
  10. 10. Diurnal A for 3 Bamboo species 12 10 8 A (um/m2/ 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 Hours (from 8am) The diurnal assimilation trend for the 3 bamboo species is the same. The plants receiving wastewater (red) have higher levels of assimilation than clean water (black).
  11. 11. Diurnal Stomatal Conductance for 3 Bamboo Species 300 Stomatal Conductan (milimoles/m2/s) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hours (from 8am) The diurnal stomatal conductance trend for the 3 bamboo species is the same. This supports the data on diurnal assimilation.
  12. 12. Water Use Efficiency 14 12 giant 10 A(um/ms2/ 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 E (um/ms2/s) D. giganteus has a higher Instantaneous WUE. Plants receiving wastewater appear to have a higher WUE in comparison to clean water plants.
  13. 13. Stem & Branch Biomass Stem & branches weight (kg) Plants receiving B. vulgaris waste water (-w) had the biggest 1600.0 B. x culm and branch 1400.0 1200.0 weight. Giant 1000.0 Bambusa vulgaris 800.0 (middle) did not 600.0 show sensitivity 400.0 to wastewater. 200.0 0.0 GC GW VC VW XC XW
  14. 14. Leaf Biomass Leaves (gm) Total leaf weight showed a clear 700.0 B.x difference between B. vulgaris 600.0 plants receiving 500.0 wastewater and 400.0 Giant clean water. 300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0 GC GW VC VW XC XW
  15. 15. Biomass Number of Branches 300 XW and VW had the B.x highest number of 250 new branches. B.v. 200 GW had a decrease in number of Numbe 150 branches in the same period. 100 giant 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 Months
  16. 16. Average Total Leaf Area Per Plant 30000 25000 20000 Square cm 15000 10000 5000 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 Months 2 2.5 3 3.5 B. vulgaris and B.x had more than double the leaf area of the other treatments. These treatments therefore have assimilation and evaporation rates that are three times of the other three.
  17. 17. Chlorophyll Values (SPAD) 45 40 35 30 SPAD 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 Months 3 4 5 Wastewater plants (orange) had higher chlorophyll values
  18. 18. Preliminary Conclusions Confirm hypothesis 1 that main responses to wastewater is increase in leaf area and chlorophyll. Although giant bamboo appears to have a higher WUE it is also the slowest growing. Water use efficiency was relatively similar although wastewater WUE appeared to be higher (significance?).
  19. 19. Further Studies Different sources of wastewater particularly from industrial sites to be investigated. A wider range of concentration of wastewater to be tested. Analysis of nutrient uptake to be carried out.
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