Mid-Term Study Slideshow #1 ART IN CONTEXT ART 213 10:00AM & 2:00PM MW James Greene
This Midterm Study Slideshow Covers the Following: Unit 1 What is Art? Unit 2 Technologies of Art Production
What is Art? THE CENTAUR EXCAVATION AT VOLOS- Hodges Library, University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN. Professor Beauvais Lyons from the School of Art at the University of Tennessee Knoxville worked with legendary set designer Bob Cothran to install this realistic and “scientific” display in the Hodges Library on the UTK campus in 1994. The centaur challenges students’ pre-conceived notions of the “truths” of Art, Science and History and also distinguishes the role of the University library as descriptive and not prescriptive. The Centaur offers an object lesson in skepticism. “Do you believe in centaurs?”
What is Art? Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) Famed author of War and Peace and Anna Karenina, who, later in life, composed several essays on Christianity, morality and art. In 1898 his essay What is Art? was published. In it, he argues against numerous aesthetic theories which define art in terms of the good, truth, and especially beauty. In Tolstoy's opinion, art at the time was corrupt and decadent, and artists had been misled.
What is Art? Leonardo Da Vinci’s Paragone In his Paragone, Leo argues persuasively that painting is superior in representing nature than all other forms of expression. The things he emphasizes as important to art have much to do with nature, beautiful light effects, and total control over the virtual “reality” contained within the painted surface. His arguments are reiterated by Modern painter, teacher and author Laurie Fendrich, who recommends that students of art read and react to Da Vinci in addition to keeping up with the trends of contemporary art that have taken beauty, nature, and technical skills OUT OF THE ART EQUATION.
What is Art? John Berger (born 1926) is an English art critic, novelist, painter and author. His 1972 essay on art criticism Ways of Seeing, written as an accompaniment to a BBC series, is often used as a college text. Ways of Seeing examines how seeing paintings or anything else is often less spontaneous or natural than we tend to believe due to the fact that in the age of mechanical reproduction, we see paintings as no one has seen them before.
The Technologies of Art Production: DRAWING Cave Drawing, Lasceaux, France 15,000-10,000 BC. Pigment, charcoal Leonardo Da Vinci, cartoon sketch for Madonna of the Rocks, charcoal, white lead, 1483-1486
The Technologies of Art Production: DRAWING Kathe Kollwitz, Self-Portrait, Charcoal, 1928 Adrian Piper, Self-Portrait Exaggerating My Negroid Features, pencil drawing, 1981 Robert Longo, Leap Into The Void, Charcoal drawings, 2004
The Technologies of Art Production: PAINTING ENCAUSTIC PAINTING: Pigment suspended in heated beeswax Egypto-Roman Funerary Masks, encaustic on wood Faiyum, c. 160-170 AD.
The Technologies of Art Production: PAINTING TEMPERA PAINTING: Pigment suspended in a mixture of water and egg yolk. Gentile deFabriano, Adoration of the Magi, Tempera on wood panel, 1423.
The Technologies of Art Production: PAINTING Fresco Painting: Pigment suspended in wet, fresh plaster applied to walls or ceilings. Giotto The Lamentation Fresco c. 1305.
The Technologies of Art Production: PAINTING OIL PAINTING: Pigment suspended in linseed oil and thinned with a solvent like turpentine. In the high European tradition, oil paint is applied in thin transparent glazes that build up and create luminous surfaces like this one. Jaques Louis-David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps Oil on canvas 1800.
The Technologies of Art Production: PAINTING Kehinde Wiley, Officer of the Hussars Oil on canvas 2007 When an artist chooses oil paint, they may enter into a well-developed European tradition of representation.
The Technologies of Art Production Oil paint is uniquely suited to capturing the luminosity of human flesh. Lucian Freud, Naked Portrait with Reflection Oil on canvas, 1980
The Technologies of Art Production Acrylic: Pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer (plastic) emulsion Robert Shimomura, "Classmates" acrylic on canvas, 2008
The Technologies of Art Production: PAINTING James Greene Custer, SD Acrylic on canvas 2010
Technologies of Art Production: PRINTMAKING Prints are derived from a matrix, or a mother image. This can be a block of wood, a metal plate, a slab of limestone, a nylon mesh screen or another material. The matrix gets between the work and the artist, but it allows for the creation of multiples.
Technologies of Art Production: PRINTMAKING Relief Printing: An image is carved into a surface like a block of wood, a linoleum panel, or rubber. Whatever surface area is left gets inked and pressed into paper. For each color, a different block must be used. This woodcut print used three blocks.
Technologies of Art Production: PRINTMAKING INTAGLIO PRINTING An image is etched into a metal plate and ink is scraped into these etched grooves. The ink is then wiped off the surface. When the intaglio is pressed, the paper is traditionally wet. The wet paper grabs the Ink out of all the grooves in the plate. Intaglios have distinct embossments.
Technologies of Art Production: PRINTMAKING LITHOGRAPHY Invented on purpose by German playwright AloysSenefelder in 1796 A slab of limestone is drawn upon with grease pencil. The image is then chemically etched in the stone, allowing the printing of multiples. This process is still used on a large scale using aluminum or polyester plates instead of stones.
Technologies of Art Production: PRINTMAKING LITHOGRAPHY Was the most popular form of printing in Europe and the US until mechanical plate lithography replaced it in the early 20th Century.
Technologies of Art Production: PRINTMAKING SILKSCREEN PRINTING The matrix is a piece of nylon fabric stretched over a screen frame. A stencil is made on the mesh, which the ink is pushed through to create flat areas of color. Andy Warhol elevated this cheap commercial technique to the level of fine art.
Technologies of Art Production: PRINTMAKING INKJET PRINTING The fastest and most ubiquitous commercial method today. Who knows what will replace it? It is used by the best selling painter in the US. Thomas Kinkade, Make A Wish Cottage, oil on inkjet print on canvas, 2005
Technologies of Art Production: PRINTMAKING James Greene “Valuistics: The Making Of” (Installation view) silkscreen on pink foam insulation, dimensions vary, 2006. PRINTSTALLATION: A new genre where printed multiples are used to redefine a large space.
The Technologies of Art Production: PHOTOGRAPHY The first European drawing of a CAMERA OBSCURA. 1544
The Technologies of Art Production: PHOTOGRAPHY 18th Century innovations to the camera obscura. The Camera Obscura was a drawing instrument that used a lens and a dark space to create an upside-down image of reality. It would eventually be combined with the use of film and mechanized during the industrial revolution to become what we think of when we think of a camera.
The Technologies of Art Production: PHOTOGRAPHY The first permanent photograph was an image produced in 1826 by the French inventor NicephoreNiepce. However, because his photographs took so long to expose (8 hours), he sought to find a new process.
The Technologies of Art Production: PHOTOGRAPHY Working in conjunction with Louis Daguerre, they experimented with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light. Niépce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the work, eventually culminating with the development of the daguerreotype in 1837. Daguerre took the first ever photo of a person in 1839 when, while taking a daguerreotype of a Paris street, a pedestrian stopped for a shoe shine, long enough to be captured by the long exposure (seven minutes).
The Technologies of Art Production: PHOTOGRAPHY Matthew Brady, The Dead in Front of Dunker Church, Antietam, Maryland, 1862. Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made through the nineteenth century. Several were made by Matthew Brady’s crew when documenting the American Civil War.
The Technologies of Art Production: PHOTOGRAPHY In 1884, George Eastman developed the technology of cellulose film to replace photographic plates, leading to the Eastman-Kodak technology used by film cameras today.
Technologies of Art Production: CERAMICS PORCELAIN: Clay containing high levels of KAOLIN and low levels of sand. High plasticity, high fire. Porcelain ceramics are among the strongest and most luminous.
Technologies of Art Production: CERAMICS STONEWARE: Clay containing less Kaolin than porcelain and more sand. Strong, sturdy and not porous. Used in most everyday dishes, mugs, cups, etc. High fire.
Technologies of Art Production: CERAMICS TERRACOTTA Clay containing more sand little kaolin. Fired vessels are fragile and porous unless glazed. Ancient Greeks used black and red glazes for their terracotta dishes and containers.
Technologies of Art Production: CERAMICS PRIMATIVE GAS RAKU ELECTRIC KILN VARIETIES
Technologies of Art Production: SCULPTURE Relief sculptures are similar to 2D works in that their 3D forms are raised from a flat background. In low relief or bas-relief, the forms project only lightly from the background.
Technologies of Art Production: SCULPTURE In high relief, figures project at least half their natural depth.
Technologies of Art Production: SCULPTURE Freestanding sculptures have fronts, backs sides and tops. They invite the viewer to walk around, underneath, or even inside them.
Technologies of Art Production: SCULPTURE Subtractive Process: such as carving, unwanted material is removed.
Technologies of Art Production: SCULPTURE Additive Process: such as modeling, casting and constructing, material is added, assembled, or built up to reach its final form.
Technologies of Art Production: SCULPTURE Casting: The Lost-Wax Technique is used to create BRONZE CASTINGS like this.
Technologies of Art Production: SCULPTURE Assemblage:Found objects are CONSTUCTED into a finished work.
Technologies of Art Production: SCULPTURE Earthwork: When the artist uses only the earth as their medium. Kinetic sculpture: Where the sculpture literally moves.
Technologies of Art Production: SCULPTURE PUBLIC COLLABORATIVE SCULPTURE When the art is the result of an agreement with various government bodies. The result is a public art experience that the entire community shares.
Technologies of Art Production: NEW MEDIA SOUND ART: Speaks for itself. Sound pieces need not have an accompanying visual element. VIDEO ART: An artist or artists produce(s) a work that exists primarily as a video. A watershed moment for artists came in 1967 with the invention of the Sony Port-A-Pack.
Technologies of Art Production: NEW MEDIA Performance: Performance art can be any situation that involves four basic elements: time, space, the performer's body and a relationship between performer and audience. A piece of performance art may or may not have similarities with theatre. Performances are often documented with video and audio, blurring the boundaries between sound art, video art and performance art. This is why the term NEW MEDIA is useless.
Technologies of Art Production: NEW MEDIA Virtual Reality: Using a combination of video and sound, or a digital video-game interface, artists create virtual situations that take over the viewer’s senses. This can be delivered via a computer screen or created within a space that responds to the viewer’s presence using motion-sensing devises.
Technologies of Art Production: NEW MEDIA Installation Art: This blanket termdescribes an artistic genre of site-specific, three- dimensional works designed to transform the perception of a space. The genre incorporates a very broad range of everyday and natural materials, which are often chosen for their evocative qualities. Many installations are site-specific in that they are designed to only exist in the space for which they were created.
Technologies of Art Production: NEW MEDIA CaiGuoQiang: Head On 99 stuffed wolves, plexiglass, monofilamentDeutsche Guggenheim, Berlin, Germany 2006
Technologies of Art Production: NEW MEDIA Christopher Baker: Hello, World! Or, How I Learned to Stop Listening and Love the Noise Video, sound, motion sensors and rear-projection screens, 2008.