Are We Really What We Eat
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  • Goal 2.01
  • Goal 2.05
  • Structure and function of chlorophyll (special molecules and structures chloroplasts)
  • Goals 2.03, 2.04, 2.05 and 5.02
  • Goals 2.02 and 3.01
  • Goals 3.01 and 3.02
  • Goals 3.01, 3.02 and 3.03
  • Goal 4.04

Transcript

  • 1. Are we really what we eat? What is what we eat? Organic molecules Where does what we eat come from? Photosynthesis What happens to what we eat? Enzymes Cell transport Cellular Respiration Carbon cycle How are our bodies specialized to use what we eat? Cell organelles Cell Specialization Gene Regulation How can a meal become a growing strand of hair? Mitosis Protein synthesis Why can we eat the same things, but grow different looking hair? Meiosis Molecular heredity Patterns of inheritance
    • Why do some people have no hair?
    • Causes of disease
    Driving Questions for Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
  • 2.
    • Nutrients consist of various chemical substances that make up our diet. We require a certain amount of nutrients to carry out essential life processes which require ENERGY !!!!
    • Which of the 4 organic molecules provide us with energy? How?
      • Proteins
      • Carbohydrates
      • Lipids
      • Nucleic Acids
    What is what we eat?
  • 3. Energy
    • Is the capacity to do work which comes from the breaking of bonds and rearranging them to form new, and sometimes very different, products during a chemical reaction
    • Matter is formed by energy
    Watch: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =-a-kLYerQl8 Through 5:52 - Exothermic - Endothermic What is what we eat?
  • 4. Exothermic
    • Combustion is an example of an exothermic process. It is an exothermic chemical reaction (give out heat to the surroundings). E.g., Burning of coal
    • The common observation in these reactions is that oxygen combines with carbon to release heat. These chemicals like coal or butane are known as fuels. Most of the fuels contain carbon and release carbon dioxide on combustion. The cleanest fuel is hydrogen because the product is water which is non polluting.
    Energy
  • 5. Endothermic
    • Photosynthesis is an example of an endothermic chemical reaction. In this process, plants use the energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. This reaction requires 15MJ of energy (sunlight) for every kilogram of glucose that is produced
    Energy
  • 6. Matter
    • Determined by the vibrations of atoms (solids have a much higher vibration, or frequency, than gases)
    Energy
  • 7. Proteins
    • Composed of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O) and Nitrogen (N)
    • Enzymatic proteins catalyze chemical reactions by providing the activation energy
    • Proteins from plant sources only have some of the amino acids we need (this is why vegetarians must use supplements)
    What is what we eat?
    • Proteins from animal sources have all of the essential amino acids we need
  • 8. Carbohydrates
    • Major source of energy for the body
    • Composed mostly of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and (O)
    • When these elements bond they provide energy for the body in the form of kilocalories (kcal)
    What is what we eat?
    • The body breaks down carbohydrates into its monomers called…..?
      • Glucose !!!!
  • 9. Lipids
    • Composed of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O)
      • There are fewer O than in Carbohydrates
    • There are two types:
      • Saturated
        • Mostly from animals, solid at room temperature
        • Saturated fatty acids can cause an increase in cholesterol leading to the clogging of arteries and heart disease
      • Unsaturated
        • Mostly from plants, liquid at room temperature
        • Unsaturated fatty acids help to regulate blood pressure and help to repair cell parts
    What is what we eat?
  • 10. Nucleic Acids
    • Do not provide us with energy
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acids (DNA) are where the instructions for cellular activities come from
    • Ribonucleic Acids (RNA) are involved in the production of proteins
      • We know some proteins are enzymatic and help to catalyze reactions by lowering activation energy
    What is what we eat?
  • 11. Where does what we eat come from?
    • Photosynthesis
    • Overview
    • Step 1
    • Step 2
    • Step 3
  • 12. Photosynthesis
    • Photosynthetic autotrophs use sunlight energy to power chemical reactions which convert CO 2 and water into food for themselves like carbohydrates such as cellulose (helps the plant stand up tall), starch, and oxygen which is released into the atmosphere
    CO2 + Water Sugar + Oxygen Light http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R_17euLU_EM&feature=related Insert youtube link to photosynthesis rap video http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/methuselah/photosynthesis.html Useful Links: Where does what we eat come from?
  • 13. 1. CO2 + Water make Glucose
    • CO2 and water undergo a chemical reaction and glucose is produced
    Photosynthesis
  • 14. 2. Two things can happen to glucose…
    • It can be burned through cellular respiration to make energy for the plant
    • 2. It can be strung together to make carbohydrates like starch and cellulose which help the plant to stand up tall
    Photosynthesis
  • 15. 3. Special molecules and structures
    • Special molecules called chlorophyll, a green pigment located within specialized structures called chloroplasts which provide a place for photosynthesis to occur
    Photosynthesis
  • 16. What happens to what we eat?
    • Catalytic proteins called enzymes provide the activation energy required to jump start cellular respiration which converts substrates into products
    • Homeostasis is maintained by either the release or uptake of glucose
    • Cellular respiration is the chemical reaction that converts glucose into CO 2 and water
    • Finally, energy flows and nutrients cycle!
    Click here to see! Click here to see! Click here to see! Click here to see!
  • 17. Enzyme involvement in cellular respiration What happens to what we eat?
    • Special enzymes speed up the reaction where sugar (solid) substrate bonds are broken and rearranged to form the products H 2 O and CO 2 (gases)
  • 18. Homeostasis
    • The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a sugar that comes from the foods we eat, and it's also formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of our body, and it's carried to each cell through the bloodstream. Blood glucose levels are regulated by the pancreas and the liver to maintain the delicate balance in the body.
    What happens to what we eat? Click the yellow circles for more information
  • 19. How our bodies use glucose
  • 20. Hyperglycemic
    • High blood sugar levels happen when the body either can't make insulin (Type 1 Diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (Type 2 Diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells of the body where it can be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia.
    • Having too much sugar in the blood for long periods of time can cause serious health problems if it's not treated. Hyperglycemia can cause damage to the vessels that supply blood to vital organs, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes.
    Homeostasis
  • 21. Hypoglycemic
    • Hypoglycemia, also called low blood sugar , occurs when blood glucose drops below normal levels. When blood glucose begins to fall, glucagon—another hormone made by the pancreas—signals the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the bloodstream. Blood glucose will then rise toward a normal level. In some people with diabetes, this glucagon response to hypoglycemia is impaired.
    Homeostasis
  • 22. Cellular Respiration
      • Aerobic Respiration
      • Anaerobic Respiration
    What happens to what we eat? Useful Links: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3z6dq-T68zs
  • 23. Aerobic Respiration
    • The breakdown of sugars in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP energy, CO 2 and Water
    Cellular Respiration
  • 24. Anaerobic Respiration
    • Two Types:
      • Alcoholic Fermentation
      • Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • The breakdown of sugars in absence of oxygen, or “without air”, to produce ATP energy
    Cellular Respiration
  • 25. Alcoholic Fermentation
    • After sugar and starch have metabolized, pyruvic acid (coenzyme) is the end product which then teams up with NADH and undergoes a chemical reaction which yields the products alcohol, CO 2 and NAD+
      • Yeast, beer, wine and root beer
    When yeast run out of oxygen, they begin to ferment which releases alcohol and CO 2 . The CO 2 causes air spaces which make the dough rise and the alcohol is burned off during baking. Anaerobic Respiration
  • 26. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • In many cells pyruvic acid accumulates as a result of the breakdown of sugars (glycolysis), through a chemical reaction the reactants can be converted into lactic acid and NAD+ which is used to power more glycolysis
    • This process can happen in our muscles if our cells aren’t getting enough oxygen during exercise
    Anaerobic Respiration
  • 27. Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration Mitochondria Chloroplast
  • 28. Energy flows and nutrients cycle
    • Energy flows from the sun to the autotrophs which do photosynthesis. Consumers like humans use the starch/sugars from plants we eat and the oxygen they provide us to breathe to produce ATP energy, CO 2 and H 2 O
    What happens to what we eat? - Energy - Nutrients
  • 29. Energy
    • Energy gets used up during chemical reactions, 1% of the suns energy gets passed on to the producers and only 10% is passed on to the higher trophic levels thereafter
    Energy Flows Energy flows and Nutrients cycle
  • 30. Nutrients
    • Nutrients flow throughout a system
      • Example: CO 2 is sequestered by plants from the atmosphere, the plants use the CO 2 to make glucose and O 2 . Plants use the glucose to get energy and to make cellulose/starch to stand up tall. Humans breathe oxygen and use it for the process of cellular respiration which produces CO 2 that returns to the atmosphere and water. Additionally, when decomposers break down dead organic matter, they release CO 2 into the air and some is stored in fossil fuels.
    Energy flows and Nutrients cycle
  • 31. How are our bodies specialized to use what we eat?
    • All living things are made up of cells. Our bodies are made up of a certain kind of cells and the bacteria that makes us sick are another type of cells.
    • There are two types of cells:
      • Eukaryotes
      • Prokaryotes
      • Which types of cells are we made up of and which type are bacteria?
  • 32. Levels of organization in living things Not Living Click for Example Related Links: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=28ueTHq_fLw&feature=PlayList&p=9B3256F2C9DCDDBF&index=0&playnext=1
  • 33. Levels of Organization
  • 34. Nucleus (Boss) Nucleus - contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules
  • 35. Organelles (Little Organs) Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified Golgi Apparatus- stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum Vesicle- used to transport raw material into the cell to be broken down into smaller usable parts AND MANY MORE (Chapter 7-2 in Textbook)!!!! Which organelles do you think would be the most common in muscle cells? This “power house” converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use Levels of Organization
  • 36. Cell
    • Cells are the basic units of structure of all living things . Most living things are composed of two cell types, either plant or animal cells. Cells can be highly specialized.
    1. Animal Cell 2. Plant Cell Levels of Organization Related Links: http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm : http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =uyM-0UxdzKU&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WdEP6GsQ9L4&feature=related En Espanol: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6fbwQGioDuI&feature=related Cell boundaries Cell Limitations
  • 37. Cell Specialization
    • Cells develop in different ways to be able to perform different tasks.
    Cell
  • 38. Animal Cells
    • Animal cells are typical of the eukaryotic cell, enclosed by a plasma membrane and containing a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles . Unlike the eukaryotic cells of plants and fungi, animal cells do not have a cell wall . This feature was lost in the distant past by the single-celled organisms that gave rise to the kingdom Animalia .
    Cell Eukaryotes Related Links: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animalcell.html
  • 39. Plant Cells
    • Plants are unique among the eukaryotes, organisms whose cells have membrane-enclosed nuclei and organelles , because they can manufacture their own food. Chlorophyll , which gives plants their green color, enables them to use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and carbohydrates, chemicals the cell uses for fuel. They also have a cell wall .
    Cell Eukaryotes Related Links: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plantcell.html
  • 40. Cell boundaries
    • All cells are bordered by a thin, flexible barrier, selectively permeable barrier called the plasma membrane (PM) that has two functions :
      • Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
      • Provides protection and support for the cell
    • Some cells also have “walls”
    Cell
  • 41. Cell Limitations
    • Recall:
      • A solution is a mixture of 2 or more substances
      • The liquid doing the dissolving is the solvent (usually water)
      • The solid being dissolved is the solute
      • The concentration is the mass of solute in a given solution ( mass/volume )
    Cell
  • 42. Cell Limitations (cont.)
    • Cells are limited in their size because of 3 things:
      • 1. Diffusion
          • Osmosis
          • Facilitated Diffusion
      • 2. DNA
      • 3. Food Requirements
  • 43. Diffusion
    • Does not require use of cell’s energy (passive transport)
    • Particles move constantly in a solution, colliding with each other. As a result they tend to spread out to areas where they are less concentrated (have more “elbow room”)
    • Equilibrium is reached when the concentration of solute is the same on both sides of the membrane
    Cell Limitations (cont.)
  • 44. Osmosis
    • Does not require cell’s energy (passive transport)
    • Water can move freely through the selectively permeable plasma membrane.
      • Isotonic -concentration the same on both sides
      • Hypertonic -solution with greater concentration of solutes
      • Hypotonic -solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
    High Concentration Low Concentration Cell Limitations (cont.) Video Link: http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-181118-5/bm/vaosmosi.html
  • 45. Osmosis and Cells
    • Osmosis plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis through the intake and loss of water . Osmosis exerts osmotic pressure on the hypertonic side causing a cell surrounded by fresh water to be flooded. The cell will burst (lysis) if it gains too much volume.
    • Blood cells in animals are isotonic and have roughly the same amount of dissolved materials as inside the cell
    • Plant cells have cell walls that prevent the cell from swelling and bursting when in contact with water
    Cell Limitations (cont.)
  • 46. Jump In: Osmosis What kind of membrane is this? Which direction will the water flow? Which cell is in an isotonic, a hypertonic and a hypotonic solution? 1. 2. 3. Cell Limitations (cont.)
  • 47. Facilitated Diffusion
    • Does not require cell’s energy (passive transport)
    • The cell’s plasma membrane has protein channels that help larger solute molecules who wouldn’t normally be allowed in, pass through more easily.
    Oxygen diffusion through the blood for transport to mitochondria for cellular respiration Cell Limitations (cont.) Video Link: http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-181118-5/bm/vapassi.html - Red blood cells have a protein channel that facilitates the diffusion of glucose in and out
  • 48. Active Transport
    • Cell’s sometimes need to move materials against a concentration gradient (low to high)
    • This process requires much of the cell’s daily energy
    • Generally carried out at PM by protein “pumps” or by processes called endocytosis and exocytosis
    Video Links: Active Transport http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-181118-5/bm/vaactive.html Endocytosis and Exocytosis http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-181118-5/bm/vaendocy.html Cell Limitations (cont.)
  • 49. Endocytosis and Exocytosis
    • Endocytosis
    • “ Cell eating”
      • The PM engulfs food particles and package them in a food vacuole called a vesicle.
    • “ Cell drinking”
      • Tiny pockets form along PM and fill with water. They pinch off inside the cell
    • Exocytosis
    • The membrane of a contractile vacuole carrying waste or cellular material fuses with the PM and forces its contents outside the cell
    Cell Limitations (cont.)
  • 50. Jump In: Which molecule(s) do you think will diffuse across the Plasma Membrane most quickly? Why? What kind(s) of transport will be used? Which molecules do you think will diffuse across the Plasma Membrane least quickly? Why? What kind(s) of transport will be used? What is the relationship between molecule size and the rate of diffusion? The smaller the molecule, the faster it will diffuse and most likely passive transport is used.
  • 51.  
  • 52. Plasma Membrane: Entry and Exit
    • The membrane is a double-layered sheet called a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins and carbohydrates. The proteins act as channels or pumps to move raw materials in through the membrane and cell products outward . The membrane’s carbohydrates are important in cell-cell identification.
    Cell Boundaries
  • 53. Plasma Membrane: Protection and Support
    • The lipid bilayer aides in protecting the cell from its surroundings and provides support for the cell’s contents.
    The “Bouncer” of the cell Cell Boundaries
  • 54. Cell Wall
    • Plants, algae, fungi and many prokaryotes have a “wall” outside their plasma membrane. The cell wall provides additional protection and support for the cell . The wall is made of carbohydrate and protein fibers like cellulose . Cellulose is the principle component of wood and paper!
    Which of the four organic compounds does a book belong to? Carbohydrates!!! Cell Boundaries Plant Cells
  • 55. Tissue
    • Group of similar cells that perform a specific function
    • Four types
      • Muscle
      • Epithelial
      • Nervous
      • Connective
    Levels of Organization
  • 56. Organ
    • Some tasks are too complicated for one type of tissue to handle. This is when several types of tissues work together to perform specialized tasks .
    • Each muscle is an individual organ.
    Levels of Organization
  • 57. Organ System
    • While organs complete specialized tasks, groupings of organs also work together to perform a specific function . This is called an organ system.
    Levels of Organization
  • 58. Organism
    • Multicellular organisms are the sum of all the specialized cells which make the different tissues which are arranged into organs. Organs come together to form an organ system.
    • Unicellular organisms are composed of only one cell .
    Levels of Organization
  • 59. Eukaryotes
    • Eukaryotic cells are more complex and contain many highly specialized structures called organelles. Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that they have a nucleus which houses and separates their genetic material from the rest of the cell.
    • Animal Cells
    • Plant Cells
    • Like a factory
    How are our bodies specialized to use what we eat?
  • 60. Cells are like factories
    • Just like a factory needs many different machines and operators to function, the cell needs different organelles (little organs) to do their job.
    Informational Video Link Eukaryotes
  • 61. Prokaryotes
    • Prokaryotic cells are small and simple. There genetic material is not contained in a nucleus and instead free floats in the cytoplasm.
    How are our bodies specialized to use what we eat?
  • 62. How can a meal become a growing strand of hair?
    • TBA
  • 63. Why can we eat the same things but grow different looking hair?
    • TBA
  • 64. Why do some people have no hair?
    • TBA