Are we really what we eat? What is what we eat? Organic molecules Where does what we eat come from? Photosynthesis What happens to what we eat? Enzymes Cell transport Cellular Respiration Carbon cycle How are our bodies specialized to use what we eat? Cell organelles Cell Specialization Gene Regulation How can a meal become a growing strand of hair? Mitosis Protein synthesis Why can we eat the same things, but grow different looking hair? Meiosis Molecular heredity Patterns of inheritance
Why do some people have no hair?
Causes of disease
Driving Questions for Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
Combustion is an example of an exothermic process. It is an exothermic chemical reaction (give out heat to the surroundings). E.g., Burning of coal
The common observation in these reactions is that oxygen combines with carbon to release heat. These chemicals like coal or butane are known as fuels. Most of the fuels contain carbon and release carbon dioxide on combustion. The cleanest fuel is hydrogen because the product is water which is non polluting.
Photosynthesis is an example of an endothermic chemical reaction. In this process, plants use the energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. This reaction requires 15MJ of energy (sunlight) for every kilogram of glucose that is produced
Photosynthetic autotrophs use sunlight energy to power chemical reactions which convert CO 2 and water into food for themselves like carbohydrates such as cellulose (helps the plant stand up tall), starch, and oxygen which is released into the atmosphere
CO2 + Water Sugar + Oxygen Light http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R_17euLU_EM&feature=related Insert youtube link to photosynthesis rap video http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/methuselah/photosynthesis.html Useful Links: Where does what we eat come from?
The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a sugar that comes from the foods we eat, and it's also formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of our body, and it's carried to each cell through the bloodstream. Blood glucose levels are regulated by the pancreas and the liver to maintain the delicate balance in the body.
What happens to what we eat? Click the yellow circles for more information
High blood sugar levels happen when the body either can't make insulin (Type 1 Diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (Type 2 Diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells of the body where it can be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia.
Having too much sugar in the blood for long periods of time can cause serious health problems if it's not treated. Hyperglycemia can cause damage to the vessels that supply blood to vital organs, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes.
Hypoglycemia, also called low blood sugar , occurs when blood glucose drops below normal levels. When blood glucose begins to fall, glucagon—another hormone made by the pancreas—signals the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the bloodstream. Blood glucose will then rise toward a normal level. In some people with diabetes, this glucagon response to hypoglycemia is impaired.
After sugar and starch have metabolized, pyruvic acid (coenzyme) is the end product which then teams up with NADH and undergoes a chemical reaction which yields the products alcohol, CO 2 and NAD+
Yeast, beer, wine and root beer
When yeast run out of oxygen, they begin to ferment which releases alcohol and CO 2 . The CO 2 causes air spaces which make the dough rise and the alcohol is burned off during baking. Anaerobic Respiration
In many cells pyruvic acid accumulates as a result of the breakdown of sugars (glycolysis), through a chemical reaction the reactants can be converted into lactic acid and NAD+ which is used to power more glycolysis
This process can happen in our muscles if our cells aren’t getting enough oxygen during exercise
Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration Mitochondria Chloroplast
Energy flows from the sun to the autotrophs which do photosynthesis. Consumers like humans use the starch/sugars from plants we eat and the oxygen they provide us to breathe to produce ATP energy, CO 2 and H 2 O
Example: CO 2 is sequestered by plants from the atmosphere, the plants use the CO 2 to make glucose and O 2 . Plants use the glucose to get energy and to make cellulose/starch to stand up tall. Humans breathe oxygen and use it for the process of cellular respiration which produces CO 2 that returns to the atmosphere and water. Additionally, when decomposers break down dead organic matter, they release CO 2 into the air and some is stored in fossil fuels.
Energy flows and Nutrients cycle
How are our bodies specialized to use what we eat?
All living things are made up of cells. Our bodies are made up of a certain kind of cells and the bacteria that makes us sick are another type of cells.
There are two types of cells:
Which types of cells are we made up of and which type are bacteria?
Levels of organization in living things Not Living Click for Example Related Links: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=28ueTHq_fLw&feature=PlayList&p=9B3256F2C9DCDDBF&index=0&playnext=1
Nucleus (Boss) Nucleus - contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules
Organelles (Little Organs) Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified Golgi Apparatus- stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum Vesicle- used to transport raw material into the cell to be broken down into smaller usable parts AND MANY MORE (Chapter 7-2 in Textbook)!!!! Which organelles do you think would be the most common in muscle cells? This “power house” converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use Levels of Organization
Animal cells are typical of the eukaryotic cell, enclosed by a plasma membrane and containing a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles . Unlike the eukaryotic cells of plants and fungi, animal cells do not have a cell wall . This feature was lost in the distant past by the single-celled organisms that gave rise to the kingdom Animalia .
Cell Eukaryotes Related Links: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animalcell.html
Plants are unique among the eukaryotes, organisms whose cells have membrane-enclosed nuclei and organelles , because they can manufacture their own food. Chlorophyll , which gives plants their green color, enables them to use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and carbohydrates, chemicals the cell uses for fuel. They also have a cell wall .
Cell Eukaryotes Related Links: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plantcell.html
Osmosis plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis through the intake and loss of water . Osmosis exerts osmotic pressure on the hypertonic side causing a cell surrounded by fresh water to be flooded. The cell will burst (lysis) if it gains too much volume.
Blood cells in animals are isotonic and have roughly the same amount of dissolved materials as inside the cell
Plant cells have cell walls that prevent the cell from swelling and bursting when in contact with water
Cell Limitations (cont.)
Jump In: Osmosis What kind of membrane is this? Which direction will the water flow? Which cell is in an isotonic, a hypertonic and a hypotonic solution? 1. 2. 3. Cell Limitations (cont.)
Does not require cell’s energy (passive transport)
The cell’s plasma membrane has protein channels that help larger solute molecules who wouldn’t normally be allowed in, pass through more easily.
Oxygen diffusion through the blood for transport to mitochondria for cellular respiration Cell Limitations (cont.) Video Link: http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-181118-5/bm/vapassi.html - Red blood cells have a protein channel that facilitates the diffusion of glucose in and out
Cell’s sometimes need to move materials against a concentration gradient (low to high)
This process requires much of the cell’s daily energy
Generally carried out at PM by protein “pumps” or by processes called endocytosis and exocytosis
Video Links: Active Transport http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-181118-5/bm/vaactive.html Endocytosis and Exocytosis http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-181118-5/bm/vaendocy.html Cell Limitations (cont.)
The PM engulfs food particles and package them in a food vacuole called a vesicle.
“ Cell drinking”
Tiny pockets form along PM and fill with water. They pinch off inside the cell
The membrane of a contractile vacuole carrying waste or cellular material fuses with the PM and forces its contents outside the cell
Cell Limitations (cont.)
Jump In: Which molecule(s) do you think will diffuse across the Plasma Membrane most quickly? Why? What kind(s) of transport will be used? Which molecules do you think will diffuse across the Plasma Membrane least quickly? Why? What kind(s) of transport will be used? What is the relationship between molecule size and the rate of diffusion? The smaller the molecule, the faster it will diffuse and most likely passive transport is used.
The membrane is a double-layered sheet called a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins and carbohydrates. The proteins act as channels or pumps to move raw materials in through the membrane and cell products outward . The membrane’s carbohydrates are important in cell-cell identification.
Plants, algae, fungi and many prokaryotes have a “wall” outside their plasma membrane. The cell wall provides additional protection and support for the cell . The wall is made of carbohydrate and protein fibers like cellulose . Cellulose is the principle component of wood and paper!
Which of the four organic compounds does a book belong to? Carbohydrates!!! Cell Boundaries Plant Cells
Eukaryotic cells are more complex and contain many highly specialized structures called organelles. Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that they have a nucleus which houses and separates their genetic material from the rest of the cell.
Like a factory
How are our bodies specialized to use what we eat?