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The Age Of Commerce And Industry
 

The Age Of Commerce And Industry

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    The Age Of Commerce And Industry The Age Of Commerce And Industry Presentation Transcript

    • Lecture 3: The Age of Commerce and Industry
    • Introduction: Prometheus unbound?
      • Revisionist view of industrialization:
      • 1) scale of technological change
      • 2) population growth
      • 3) growth of commerce
    • 1) The Age of Machinery
      • Britain’s reputation as first industrial nation rests on 3 factors:
      • i) timing
      • ii) technological innovation
      • iii) population growth
      • Does this accurately reflect what we now know about the 18 th century economy?
    • No industrial take off in the 1780s   Estimated rates of growth in Gross National Product for Britain, 1700-1870 (Nicholas Crafts )   National income per capita Period 1.98 1830-1870 0.52 1800-1830 0.17 1760-1800 0.3 1700-60
    •  
    • The age of factories and machinery?
      • William Blake ‘dark satanic mills’, Jerusalem (1804)
      • Traditional view =
      • technological and mechanical innovation transformed economy
      • craftsmanship replaced by unskilled labour
      • Huge factories
      • Steam engine invented 1712, only 1200 in use in Britain 1800
      • Spinning jenny, spinning mule, powerloom, Jacquard loom = portable and operated by hand
      • Britain in 1841: only 10% of cotton mills more than a 100 workers
      • 1871: average manufactory less than 10 employees
      • Big 18 th century factories = state owned, arsenals, dockyards
    • Persistence of artisan and craft production
    • ‘ Boom’ regions in 18 th /early 19 th century
      • Britain: Pennines, Black Country
      • Continental Europe: Rhine and Meuse valleys, Belgium, Silesia, Northern Italy, Catalonia
    • 2) Population Growth
      • Expansion of European population and growth of major cities
      • Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) fear of famine
      • Findings of Cambridge Population Group for England:
      • i) more gradual rate of population growth over 18cy
      • ii) changes in ‘nuptiality’ responsible for population growth
      • iii) population growth increasingly took place in towns, not countryside
    • Modernization of agricultural sector
      • Enclosure acts, crop rotation, improved seeds, reclamation of land
      • Agricultural improvement societies – Arthur Young (1741-1820)
      • Population grew because agriculture grew to feed them
    • 3) Commerce and consumption
      • Increasing emphasis on ‘demand’ side of 18 th century economy (trade and consumption) rather than ‘supply’ (population growth, technology)
      • New global economy: fastest growing cities = capitals but also ports:
      • Bordeaux, Marseilles, Nantes
      • Trade in goods from China and India – re-exported to maritime colonies
    •  
    •  
    • New world of luxury goods
      • Britain: tea consumption = 0.32 lb per head in 1730s by 1800 = 1.36lb
      • End of century tea, sugar = staples of labouring classes
    • An industrious revolution?
      • Jan de Vries: desire for luxury goods changes working patterns and household economics
      • Hans-Joachim Voth – study of work time in England.
      • London: days worked increased from 208 in 1750 to 306 in 1800
    • Conclusion: The Age of Commerce
      • Evolution of artisan and craft economies, punctuated by boom regions
      • Population change caused by a decline in the age at which people married and decision to have larger families
      • Growth of demand for consumer goods