Lecture 4: Revolutions in the Americas and Europe
Introduction: the meaning of revolution <ul><li>18 th  century meaning of revolution = astronomical, orbit of planet </li>...
1) America: aristocratic revolt? <ul><li>Expansion of British Empire and army in Americas  </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act (17...
Declaration of Independence (July 1776) <ul><li>Example of British revolution 1688-9, right of resistance against tyranny ...
2) France: moderate and radical revolution <ul><li>French Revolution: interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>‘ bourgeois revolu...
i) Moderate phase: 1789-91 <ul><li>Meeting of Estates General at Versailles (May 1789) </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of ri...
ii) Radical phase: 1791-94 <ul><li>Louis XVI’s flight to Varennes (June 1791) </li></ul><ul><li>France at war with externa...
French Revolutionary calendar
Robespierre and ‘the Terror’ <ul><li>Explaining ‘the Terror’ </li></ul><ul><li>Supporters of Revolution: circumstantial fa...
The fountain of regeneration at the Festival of Unity
National regeneration and unity through bloodshed
3) Britain and the ideology of ‘counter-revolution’ <ul><li>Support for initial phase of French Revolution </li></ul><ul><...
The Contrast 1792: Which is Best?  Thomas Rowlandson (1792)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Revolution In The Americas And Europe

734 views
580 views

Published on

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
734
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
15
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Revolution In The Americas And Europe

  1. 1. Lecture 4: Revolutions in the Americas and Europe
  2. 2. Introduction: the meaning of revolution <ul><li>18 th century meaning of revolution = astronomical, orbit of planet </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution = return to status quo, not radical break e.g. Britain’s Glorious Revolution, 1688-1689 </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture structure: </li></ul><ul><li>1) American Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>2) French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>3) Britain and counter-revolution in the 1790s </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1) America: aristocratic revolt? <ul><li>Expansion of British Empire and army in Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act (1765) </li></ul><ul><li>Townshend duties (1767) </li></ul><ul><li>Tea Act and Boston tea party (1773) </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson, A Summary view of the rights of British America (1774) </li></ul><ul><li>Continental Congress (1774) </li></ul><ul><li>Shots fired at Lexington, MA (May 1775) </li></ul>Thomas Jefferson (1743-1825)
  4. 4. Declaration of Independence (July 1776) <ul><li>Example of British revolution 1688-9, right of resistance against tyranny </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration = defence of existing rights of 13 colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions between colonies – not a unified American ‘nation’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2) France: moderate and radical revolution <ul><li>French Revolution: interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>‘ bourgeois revolution’ (Georges Lefebvre, Alfred Souboul) </li></ul><ul><li>revision of ‘class struggle’ interpretation (Alfred Cobban, Colan Lucas) </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure of power by tyrannical minority (François Fouret, Simon Schama) </li></ul>
  6. 6. i) Moderate phase: 1789-91 <ul><li>Meeting of Estates General at Versailles (May 1789) </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of rights of man (August 1789) </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate leaders: Jacques Pierre Brissot, Abbé Sieyès, Comte de Mirabeau </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of limited monarchy on the British model </li></ul>Tennis court oath, 20 June 1789
  7. 7. ii) Radical phase: 1791-94 <ul><li>Louis XVI’s flight to Varennes (June 1791) </li></ul><ul><li>France at war with external powers (from April 1792) and fighting a civil war (the Vendée) </li></ul><ul><li>Attack on Tuileries Palace (August 1792) </li></ul><ul><li>National convention declares a republic (September 1792) </li></ul><ul><li>Execution of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette (Jan 1793) </li></ul><ul><li>Autumn 1793: the Terror begins (revolutionary ‘tribunals’, Committee of Public Safety) </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional agenda: universal male suffrage, civil equality for women, abolition of slavery in French colonies, de-Christianization, levée en masse </li></ul>
  8. 8. French Revolutionary calendar
  9. 9. Robespierre and ‘the Terror’ <ul><li>Explaining ‘the Terror’ </li></ul><ul><li>Supporters of Revolution: circumstantial factors (war with internal & external enemies) </li></ul><ul><li>Critics: Terror inherent in revolutionary ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Rousseau: general will, purification, national regeneration </li></ul>Maximillien Robespierre (1758-94)
  10. 10. The fountain of regeneration at the Festival of Unity
  11. 11. National regeneration and unity through bloodshed
  12. 12. 3) Britain and the ideology of ‘counter-revolution’ <ul><li>Support for initial phase of French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Price: connection between revolutions of 1688-89 and 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Edmund Burke, Reflections on the French Revolution (1790): </li></ul><ul><li>Britain = evolutionary not revolutionary </li></ul><ul><li>Burke opposed by Thomas Paine, Rights of Man (2 parts, 1791-92) </li></ul><ul><li>Crackdown on Paineite radicalism in 1790s </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Contrast 1792: Which is Best? Thomas Rowlandson (1792)

×