AG/SR/JN/SC Global Powerpoint


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All aspects of the Khmer Empire (geography, trading, production, architecture, and religion)

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  • AG/SR/JN/SC Global Powerpoint

    1. 1. Geography, Trading, Production, Architecture, and Religion By Alexandra Gulyan, Justine Neuberger, Sankarsh Ramachandra, and Sejay Cabral The Khmer Empire
    2. 2. Southeast Asia is a land of beauty, bountiful beauty, and a myriad of wonderment. In order to truly realize its beauty and importance, however, we must go back to the 8th century, a time when the Khmer Empire stood dominant. Via trade, this small force grew and grew, until it resided as the largest continuous empire of Southeast Asia, based in what is now Cambodia. In order to understand this unique empire, we must first understand the elements that it is composed of. - Sankarsh Ramachandra Introduction
    3. 3. Geography of the Khmer Empire <ul><li>Today, Khmer is known as Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>The location is in southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>The region was tropical and rainy with a regular dry and monsoon season </li></ul><ul><li>The terrain is mostly low with flat plains, but there are mountains in the southwest and north </li></ul><ul><li>There are natural resources such as gas and oil, timber, and gemstones </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandra Gulyan </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>In the first picture, the map of the Khmer Empire is from 960 AD </li></ul><ul><li>The second picture is the map of the empire from 1200 AD. This time was the peak of their power and prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandra Gulyan </li></ul>Political Map of Khmer Empire
    5. 5. Trading of the Khmer Empire <ul><li>The empire used to be the main power of southeast Asia for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>The early kingdom dominated and ruled the sea trade between India and China </li></ul><ul><li>By the success of their trading, the empire grew and eventually, the economy grew </li></ul><ul><li>This growth was also due to surrounding kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandra Gulyan </li></ul>
    6. 6. Historians say that the Khmer Empire was a large production center of rice. Presumably, rice was their main export. The nature of several massive water reservoirs, or baray, surrounding the temples at Angkor, an ancient city in Khmer, was to help irrigation into the rice fields. This shows the importance of rice to the economy. - Sankarsh Ramachandra Production
    7. 7. Architectural Side of the Khmer <ul><li>Once the Muslims had conquered India around the 1500’s, they also shared their style of architecture. Since then, Hinduism and Islam shared a great influence on the architecture of the Khmer Empire. Their architecture consists of rows of sculptured columns, carefully carved exteriors, spires, and open porches. The most important architectural figure was called a mosque varying in appearance, depending on the country although it is likely that they have a large courtyard surrounded by arcades, or colonnades.The walls of the mosques were covered with colored brick, stucco, and tiles. These mosques also had multiple towers, called minarets. One last architectural feature of mosques is that they are topped by a dome. </li></ul>Sejay Cabral
    8. 8. Deeper Into Khmer Architecture <ul><li>Ruling from 877-889, Khmer's first king, Indravarman, was responsible for the greatest architectural monument in the empire-- in a good way. He had decided to begin constructing Angkor, which was a great temple-city with a special purpose: To gain better control over the river with a system of canals. Again, the style of Angkor was largely influenced by the Indians although much of it reflects a lot of Khmer, with the smiling faces and figures that showed a sign of sensual pleasure. </li></ul>Sejay Cabral
    9. 9. Two of the strongest Religious influences on The Khmer Empire Include India and China. Before Hinduism and Buddhism, however, most peoples of South East Asia were Animist. - Justine Neuberger
    10. 10. <ul><li>Animism is not a religion, but the belief that natural objects, phenomena, and the universe posses spirits or souls. It is the belief that natural objects have souls, and that souls exist outside the o physical body. </li></ul><ul><li>Animism was most prominent in hunter-gatherer civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions such as Shinto (An early Japanese Religion) draw most of their beliefs and </li></ul><ul><li>customs from Animism. </li></ul><ul><li>The belief on death varied with the location, but the idea that intelligence died with body </li></ul><ul><li>is similar in most locations. </li></ul><ul><li>- Justine Neuberger </li></ul>Animism
    11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Hinduism, influenced by India, was an official religion of the Khmer Empire for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a short period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mahayana Buddhism then prospered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mahayana Buddhism refers to a level of spiritual motivation and practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first mention of Mahayana Buddhism is in the Lotus Sutra, first century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes that one can reach reach salvation through faith alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is most prominent in Japan, Tibet, and China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Mahayana Buddhism, the official religion of the Khmer Empire was Theravada Buddhism, which is still Practiced today. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is translated to “teaching of the elders” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the oldest surviving Buddhist school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged that only oneself can achieve salvation through personal efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted Pali Scriptures and the ideal of reaching nirvana and self-purification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Justine Neuberger </li></ul></ul>Hinduism & Buddhism Within
    12. 12. <ul><li>Angkor Wat is one of the best preserved temples from Angkor, an area thriving </li></ul><ul><li>during the Khmer Empire </li></ul><ul><li>First Hindu, dedicated to Vishnu, it later became Buddhist </li></ul><ul><li>It was designed to represent Mount Menu, home of the Hindu Gods </li></ul><ul><li>- Justine Neuberger </li></ul>Angkor Wat
    13. 13. Angkor War- Smile for the Camera!
    14. 14. Final Wrap Up <ul><li>In conclusion, the Khmer Empire is an area which includes more than mountains and little farming and more than perhaps just a place with poor contact with their neighbors. In fact, they can easily fit in a category with other civilizations with their simple characteristics, or the qualities that made the Khmer Empire what it was! </li></ul>Sejay Cabral
    15. 15. Bibliography of Other Sources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>info/history_angkor.htm </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>