16th World Congress Draft Paper



    A SUBJECTIVE FIELD TEST ON LANE DEPARTURE
    WARNING FUNCTION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF ...
Moving from this preamble, European Commission launched - within the Seventh Framework
Programme (FP7) for research and te...
Figure 2 – Lancia Delta equipped with Driving Advisor.


TESTING THE LANE DEPARTURE WARNING

The Lane Departure Warning (L...
Figure 5 – The small camera mounted on the rearing mirror.


Five questionnaires are planned. They are directed to the veh...
scale to register the usability of the system [7]. Also in the periodical questionnaires, the risk
perception of the drive...
The first draft of the questionnaires will be ready during 2009. A specific phone number and
an email address are foreseen...
but preferred users as baseline are new
                                                   owner of Lancia Delta that did ...
[5] West, R., Elander, J., & French, D. (1992). "Decision making, personality and driving
    style as correlates of indiv...
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Paper 3463

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Paper 3463

  1. 1. 16th World Congress Draft Paper A SUBJECTIVE FIELD TEST ON LANE DEPARTURE WARNING FUNCTION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE EUROFOT PROJECT Gianfranco Burzio1*, Giacomo Mussino2, Roberto Tadei3, Guido Perboli3, Mauro Dell’Amico4, Leandro Guidotti4 1*. Centro Ricerche FIAT, Italy, strada Torino 50, Orbassano (TO), +39 0119083066, gianfranco.burzio@crf.it 2. FIAT Group Automobiles, Italy 3. Politecnico of Torino, Italy 4. University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy ABSTRACT This paper will present the Italian Field Operation Test (FOT) to be performed within the European Project euroFOT, aimed at assessing a wide variety of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) across Europe. This FOT is aimed at investigating an already marketed Lane Departure Warning (LDW) equipped on the Lancia Delta vehicles, deploying a sample of up to 1000 vehicles, and using a wide and differentiated set of self-reported questionnaires. Results will be referred to LDW impact on traffic safety, usefulness, and driving behavior. Given the huge sample, results are expected to accurately depict the actual impact of this function. KEYWORDS Field Operation Test (FOT), Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Human Machine Interface (HMI) INTRODUCTION The Intelligent Car Initiative (ICI) has identified road safety, energy, efficiency and traffic congestion as the main challenges currently facing European transportation. Despite their severity, these issues may be improved with the use of new in-vehicle technologies recently made available in the market. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) – including both safety and telematic applications - have been the subject of significant research and development in Europe in recent years. Several models of passenger cars are now equipped with these ITSs as options, like Adaptive Cruise Control, Lane Departure Warning, and Blind Spot Monitoring. Many others are currently waiting to be deployed on the market. However, implementing new technologies implies risks to manufacturers. Factors such as impact of these systems on traffic safety, markets’ and users’ acceptance are difficult to assess alone from internal testing. ! "!
  2. 2. Moving from this preamble, European Commission launched - within the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) for research and technological development – a large programme of Field Operation Tests (FOT) within which ITSs benefit towards traffic safety and users’ acceptance will be largely tested. In this context, euroFOT research project started, with the main aim to demonstrate the effectiveness of and encouraging the deployment of intelligent vehicle systems on European roads. During the course of 2009-2010, over 2500 vehicles will be tested from 9 European OEM brands. Several tests centers will be set-up across France, Germany, Italy and Sweden [1]. The goal of euroFOT is to identify and coordinate an in-the-field testing of ITSs with the potential for improving the quality and safety of European road traffic. EuroFOT has brought together 28 different organizations across Europe (e.g. car manufacturers, suppliers, universities, research institutes and others stakeholders). In details, the project will mainly address the following research issues: (i) performance and capability of the systems; (ii) driver’s interaction with and reaction to the systems; (iii) impacts on safety, efficiency, and on the environment. In order to reach its objectives, the project is applying the methodology that was developed in 2008 in the European FESTA project [2]. Different field testing are expected in this project, focused on 8 distinct functions. In particular: driver assistance in forward/rear longitudinal control functions (i.e. Adaptive Cruise Control, Forward Collision Warning, Speed Regulation System), in lateral control (i.e. Blind Spot Information System, Lane Departure Warning and Impairment Warning), and finally others advanced applications such as Curve Speed Warning, Fuel Efficiency Adviser, and Safe Human/Machine Interface [1]. The project will follow three major steps. In the first, the fleets are being prepared for the trials specifying the functions, defining hypotheses for each of the functions, setting up data management procedures, and recruiting the drivers’ samples. Secondly, involving the installation of data loggers and functionalities into the vehicles. Finally, analyzing data collected from the vehicle monitoring devices and from the driver himself (the so-called objective and subjective data). This paper is focused to describe and highlight the preliminary results of the Italian test site that will investigate the function available on the New Lancia Delta (see Figure 1 and Figure 2), namely the Driving Advisor. In euroFOT project, other test sites will also test LDW function using a different experimental method [1]. Figure 1 – Lancia Delta equipped with Driving Advisor. ! #!
  3. 3. Figure 2 – Lancia Delta equipped with Driving Advisor. TESTING THE LANE DEPARTURE WARNING The Lane Departure Warning (LDW) provides the feedback through a torque applied on the steering wheel as soon as the driver unintentionally overcome the lane, namely in case the proper indicator is not activated (see Figure 3 and Figure 4). This system uses a small camera mounted on the rearing mirror to look for the lane indicators (see Figure 5), thus detecting lane changes. This FOT has the objective to select up to 1000 customers/drivers of the system and follow them in the first period of use of the system, i.e. 12 months [1]. During such period, drivers will provide their feedback answering specific questionnaires or filling forms related to specific events that happened during the vehicle usage. Figure 3 – Lancia Driving Advisor functional scheme. Figure 4 – Lane departure and detection of lane line markers. ! $!
  4. 4. Figure 5 – The small camera mounted on the rearing mirror. Five questionnaires are planned. They are directed to the vehicle main user and not to the owner. The first one is an introductory questionnaire in which the major social and demographic characteristics of drivers, including their driving habits, attitudes and behaviors will be collected. It will be filled in by drivers at the FOT start. The first questionnaire will be used to identify the drivers. They could fill in their personal details and self-report their driving habits. Some standardized tools could be used to register these characteristics of drivers. The Driving Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) will be used to register the frequency of driving errors and violations judged by the drivers themselves. They will be asked to indicate how often different kind of situations have happened to them. In DBQ questionnaire the drivers have to base their judgments on what they remember of their own driving over the past year [4]. Another standardized tool that could be used in the introduction questionnaire is the Driving Style Questionnaire (DSQ) that examines how drivers usually behave in specific situations [5]. A specific section of the first introduction questionnaire could register the risk perception of the drivers facing them with a explained contest and asking how often they engage in a behavior like that or how likely they are to get in an accident while doing that [6]. In the first questionnaire, the driver also clearly agree to participate at euroFOT project. A specific consent form will be sent to the driver together with the first questionnaire. Privacy issues are explained in it and the driver will be asked to agree on management of personal data by the Vehicle Management Center (VMC). So only information on how data will be managed in order to guarantee privacy will be explained there. Other questionnaires will be filled in by drivers at deadlines defined every 3 months. These questionnaires will detect users' perception about safety, trust, effectiveness, usefulness and value of the Driving Advisor, in strict accordance with the FESTA project research hypotheses referred to these functions, and the corresponding performance indicators, i.e. the quantifiable way to detect how these hypotheses can be assessed [2]. In the periodical questionnaires the drivers will be asked to fill in a specific post test questionnaire section. These questionnaires aim to detect the point of view of the user about some aspects of the LDW function like the perceived usability, the compatibility with the driving task, the perceived system consequences, the ease of use, the learnability and the perceived efficiency. In these periodical questionnaires, users could also be asked to evaluate themselves about their driving performance in the last period [3]. A specific section in the periodical questionnaires could be dedicated to the drivers’ acceptance using Van Der Laan ! %!
  5. 5. scale to register the usability of the system [7]. Also in the periodical questionnaires, the risk perception of the drivers could be registered. So far, the main research hypotheses selected and deployed within the FOT are briefly reported in the following: Does the LDW decrease and mitigate incidents, near-crashes, and accidents? After some driving experience, does the driver use a safer lane keeping offset even without LDW? Does the LDW influence speed, lateral driving performance, lane changes occurrence reduction, and driving in the lane center? Does the LDW reduce curve cutting? Does the LDW decrease the workload necessary to keep the vehicle inside the lane? Regarding the Human Machine Interface (HMI) systems, does the LDW issues warnings when the driver is not looking at the road? Does it increase the use of turn indicators? Does it provide an appropriate driver reaction? Does it reduce the time spent on secondary tasks over time? Moreover, can the LDW number of warnings be considered as a good indicator for drowsiness? Can be the LDW activation and deactivation related to driver state, weather, road type, and number of warning issued? Finally, can the LDW be well accepted by the drivers? Repeated rounds of questionnaires will highlight changes in users’ perceptions over time (see Figure 6). All questionnaires are paper-based, but on line questionnaires will be set up as an option. Weekly vehicle normal use questionnaires will be also provided in order to detect and manage data about drivers’ car use during the FOT execution. Drivers will be asked to fill in a form and register some data as how many kilometres they did and what was the average speed in the period. A board diary is finally planned to record specific situations. It is event oriented and it records some features about traffic scenario, type of road, driver status and also the description of the event and the state of the system. Figure 6 – Questionnaires planning and timing at a glance. ! &!
  6. 6. The first draft of the questionnaires will be ready during 2009. A specific phone number and an email address are foreseen and they will be available for drivers that want information about questionnaires and how to fill in them. This number represents the help desk contact and provides support and all information about the project. All data collected through questionnaires will be inserted into a data server and properly analyzed using the most advanced statistical parameters. According to euroFOT consortium, the preliminary results concerning user acceptance and user-related aspects, the impact analysis and the Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) will be defined during 2009. The guidelines and the first draft version of data analysis plan will be ready during 2009. The analysis tools will be defined first and then they will be available and tested with piloting [1]. Table 1 – Piloting overview. Piloting tests start From September 2009. Number of vehicles in Piloting tests 10 – 15 vehicles with LDW recruited by Fiat. 10 – 15 vehicles as piloting baseline without LDW recruited by Fiat. Duration of Piloting test Max 3 months. Submission of introduction questionnaire and some periodical questionnaires (certainly in less than 3 months). Details of piloting will be defined during 2009. Also a focus group could be set up with piloting test participants. Piloting drivers recruited from New owner of Lancia Delta equipped with Driving Advisor optional feature (LDW system). For piloting baseline new owner of Lancia Delta that did not buy the Driving Advisor optional feature will be recruited. Table 2 – FOT overview. Type of vehicle Cars. Location National. All Italy. Road types All types of roads. Number of vehicles Up to 1000 (including baseline). Drivers recruited by Five main national Fiat sales centres and direct mailing. Drivers recruited from New owner of Lancia Delta equipped with Driving Advisor optional feature (LDW system). Incentive Gifts. Different and of increasing value during the test. No payment in money. Pre selection criteria Introduction questionnaire. FOT start From January 2010. Baseline Car without LDW system. Random assignment should be considered, ! '!
  7. 7. but preferred users as baseline are new owner of Lancia Delta that did not buy the Driving Advisor optional feature. Number of baseline vehicles About 100. Baseline test: overview and duration 12 months. Introduction questionnaire. Periodical questionnaire every 3 months. In total 4 periodical questionnaires. Questionnaires without parts related to the system. Table 3 – Experimental design overview. 90% fleet (900 vehicles): LDW ON 12 months ! 10% fleet (100 vehicles): WITHOUT LDW 12 months CONCLUSION Conclusions of this FOT will permit an accurate investigation and understanding of the impact of LDW in respect to several aspects such as safety, usefulness, acceptance, comfort, driving behaviors, etc. Given the huge sample to be collected, this assessment would offer to OEM, stakeholders and researchers the possibility to consider the results of this analysis not only limited to a restricted number of subjects but extended to the drivers’ universe as a whole. The complete results will be available at the end of the project, planned in 2011 [1]. The paper will describe the questionnaires and the preliminary results from the first feedbacks available from the selected users. REFERENCES [1] euroFOT consortium (2008). Description of Work v1.5. [2] FESTA consortium (2008). FESTA Handbook deliverable D6.4. [3] COMUNICAR consortium (2002). COMUNICAR deliverable D6.4. [4] Reason, J.T., Manstead, A.S.R., Stradling, S.G., Baxter, J.S. and Campbell, K. (1990). "Errors and violations on the road: a real distinction?", Ergonomics vol. 33, pp. 1315- 1322. ! (!
  8. 8. [5] West, R., Elander, J., & French, D. (1992). "Decision making, personality and driving style as correlates of individual accident risk", TRL Contractor Report 309, Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, United Kingdom. [6] UMTRI (2006). “Volume 2: Appendices”, Road Departure Crash Warning System Field Operational Test: Methodology and Results. [7] Van der Laan, J.D., Heino, A. and De Waard, D. (1997). “A simple procedure for the assessment of acceptance of advanced transport telematics”, Transportation Research Part C Vol. 5, pp.1-10. ! )!

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