IMMUNE RESPONSE Mr. Christ Advanced Biology
Abbreviations & Symbols <ul><li>Macrophage T-helper cell   B cell  Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>MO   TH   B   Ab </li></ul...
MACROPHAGE <ul><li>Ingests the foreign cell </li></ul><ul><li>Digests it using Lysosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Presents foreig...
F F F F
F F F F F
F F F
<ul><li>TH cells bind with the MO. TH work only by  recognizing foreign and self proteins (class II) together.  Class two ...
F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH
<ul><li>The binding action of the MO and TH stimulates the MO to release IL1, interleukin one resulting in: </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Net results is an increase in  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TH clones.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells that ab...
F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH
F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH IL2
F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH IL2
F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH IL2
F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH IL2
F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH IL2
TH TH TH THESE INCREASE IN # THESE DO NOT  INCREASE IN #
<ul><li>TH cells present Epitopes  </li></ul><ul><li>(foreign) to B cells. This  </li></ul><ul><li>occurs through random  ...
This binding action results in the release of two interleukins from the TH cell *IL4(BCGF) B cell Growth Factor , this res...
*IL5(BCDF) B cell  differentiating Factor This results in B cells  becoming differentiated  Plasma cells-  These are antib...
TH TH TH B B B B
TH TH TH B B B B IL4 IL4 B B B B NO MATCH NO REACTION
TH B IL4 B B IL5 PLASMA CELL
B F F F F PLASMA CELLS CAN PRODUCE UP TO  10,000 ANTIBODIES PER SECOND
BIOLOGICAL  ACTIVITY OF  ANTIBODIES
<ul><li>AGGLUTINATION – ESPECIALLY IGM </li></ul><ul><li>OPSONIZE – STIMULATE PHAGOCYTIC CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>TO EAT </...
<ul><li>So as B cells divide, some of their offspring will soak up BCDF and produce antibodies and some will not.  Those d...
SO A SECONDARY RESPONSE IS QUICKER AND MORE EFFECTIVE  BECAUSE THE HOST HAS MORE ANTIGEN SPECIFIC  TH CELLS, B CELLS,  AND...
THEREFORE MORE  TH CELLS FIND THE  MACROPHAGES SOONER  AND MORE  B CELLS FIND THE RIGHT  TH CELLS SOONER AND MORE ANTIBODI...
THAT, COUPLED WITH  THE FACT THAT  YOU HAVE  AB IN CIRCULATION  PRODUCES MEMORY.
<ul><li>  Each activated </li></ul><ul><li>B cell produces  </li></ul><ul><li>40 to 200  </li></ul><ul><li>memory cells, <...
Upon second exposure  to antigen, a greater  number of antigen  reactive cells will be available to respond.  ( both TH ce...
www.youtube.com/watch?v =hQmaPwP0KRI
A SECOND ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELL IS THE DENDRITIC CELL.  THESE CELLS ARE EXTREMELY DIFFICULT TO ISOLATE. THEY PLAY AN IMPO...
<ul><li>CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY: Protection that results from cells, NOT protection that results from antibodies. This immu...
VIRAL INFECTIONS DIFFER FROM  BACTERIAL INFECTIONS, BECAUSE OF THE MANNER IN WHICH VIRUSES  REPLICATE. VIRUSES ARE  OBLIGA...
Viruses Cell nucleus Host cell Viral DNA VIRUS ATTACHES TO CELL INJECTS ITS DNA
Viruses CELL BEGINS TO BUILD VIRUSES Cell nucleus Host cell Viral DNA
ANTIBODIES CANNOT GET INSIDE OF  CELLS TO BIND TO VIRUSES.  ANTIBODIES ARE NOT COMPLETELY  USELESS AGAINST VIRUSES THOUGH ...
VIRAL PAR- TICLES EX- PLODE OUT OF  CELL TO INFECT OTHER CELLS
<ul><li>The virus infested cell explodes and viruses spill out and infect new cells. </li></ul><ul><li>  In order to STOP ...
Tcyto -cytotoxic T cells <ul><li>Kill cells that have FOREIGN PROTEIN and  self proteins Class I </li></ul><ul><li>Macroph...
TCYTO BODY  CELL SELF PROTEIN – CLASS I FOREIGN PROTEIN – VIRUS  SHELL
TCYTO BODY  CELL SELF PROTEIN – CLASS I FOREIGN PROTEIN – VIRUS  SHELL GRANULES OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES
<ul><li>ACTIVATION OF THE T CYTO CELL </li></ul><ul><li>OCCURS IN TWO STEPS: </li></ul><ul><li>T CYTO CELL INTERACTS WITH ...
SO THE JOB OF RIDDING THE BODY OF  VIRUSES GOES TO THE CYTOTOXIC T  CELLS.  THEY KILL VIRUS INFESTED CELLS, CANCER CELLS, ...
www.youtube.com/watch?v=1tBOmG0QMbA
RESULTS OF A STUDY <ul><li>A Mouse was given a vaccine for pneumococcus </li></ul><ul><li>T cells were then removed from t...
-Blood was drawn from the mouse -T cells were found clumped together -scientists concluded that the vaccine Was too weak, ...
Ts cells were thus discovered <ul><li>These cells bind with TH cells and have receptors specific for specific TH cell rece...
<ul><li>-anti antibodies ALSO </li></ul><ul><li>prevent overkill </li></ul><ul><li>(over production of cells) </li></ul><u...
Interferons- <ul><li>a. are species specific proteins produced by viral infected cells, & white blood cells </li></ul><ul>...
REGULATION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE SO INTERFERONS, ANTI-ANTI- BODIES  AND  T SUPPRESSOR CELLS SERVE  TO PREVENT OVERKILL – ...
TDTH cells-T delayed Type hypersensitivity cells <ul><li>Involved in delayed hypersensitivities like poison ivy </li></ul>...
TDTH release interleukins that draw neutrophils, Basophils, and Esinophils  to the site. - This results in inflammation
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Immune Response2

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Immune Response2

  1. 1. IMMUNE RESPONSE Mr. Christ Advanced Biology
  2. 2. Abbreviations & Symbols <ul><li>Macrophage T-helper cell B cell Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>MO TH B Ab </li></ul><ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>- Self Protein MO - Macrophage </li></ul><ul><li>- Foreign Protein TH - T-helper cell </li></ul><ul><li>- Lysosome B - B cell </li></ul><ul><li>Ab - Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>IL1-interleukin one </li></ul><ul><li>IL2-interleukin two </li></ul><ul><li>BCGF-B cell Growth Factor (AKA IL4) </li></ul><ul><li>BCDF-B cell Differentiating Factor (AKA IL5) </li></ul>
  3. 3. MACROPHAGE <ul><li>Ingests the foreign cell </li></ul><ul><li>Digests it using Lysosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Presents foreign epitopes on its surface along with self proteins </li></ul><ul><li>( self class II) </li></ul>
  4. 4. F F F F
  5. 5. F F F F F
  6. 6. F F F
  7. 7. <ul><li>TH cells bind with the MO. TH work only by recognizing foreign and self proteins (class II) together. Class two are found on immune system cells, class one on body cells. The MO is known as an </li></ul><ul><li>antigen presenting cell. </li></ul>
  8. 8. F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH
  9. 9. <ul><li>The binding action of the MO and TH stimulates the MO to release IL1, interleukin one resulting in: </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation of TH cells to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A) Release IL2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B) Build receptors for IL2 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Net results is an increase in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TH clones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells that absorb IL1, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>build IL2, and IL2 receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>divide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and their offspring can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absorb IL2 and divide </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH
  12. 12. F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH IL2
  13. 13. F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH IL2
  14. 14. F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH IL2
  15. 15. F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH IL2
  16. 16. F F F F TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH TH IL2
  17. 17. TH TH TH THESE INCREASE IN # THESE DO NOT INCREASE IN #
  18. 18. <ul><li>TH cells present Epitopes </li></ul><ul><li>(foreign) to B cells. This </li></ul><ul><li>occurs through random </li></ul><ul><li>collisions, not through A </li></ul><ul><li>conscious seeking out, TH </li></ul><ul><li>cells will bind with B cells with </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody complementary </li></ul><ul><li>to the Epitope. </li></ul>
  19. 19. This binding action results in the release of two interleukins from the TH cell *IL4(BCGF) B cell Growth Factor , this results in mitosis of B cells, which soak it up
  20. 20. *IL5(BCDF) B cell differentiating Factor This results in B cells becoming differentiated Plasma cells- These are antibody producing cells
  21. 21. TH TH TH B B B B
  22. 22. TH TH TH B B B B IL4 IL4 B B B B NO MATCH NO REACTION
  23. 23. TH B IL4 B B IL5 PLASMA CELL
  24. 24. B F F F F PLASMA CELLS CAN PRODUCE UP TO 10,000 ANTIBODIES PER SECOND
  25. 25. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIBODIES
  26. 26. <ul><li>AGGLUTINATION – ESPECIALLY IGM </li></ul><ul><li>OPSONIZE – STIMULATE PHAGOCYTIC CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>TO EAT </li></ul><ul><li>3. PREVENT VIRAL ATTACHMENT – BY BINDING TO </li></ul><ul><li>VIRAL EPITOPES </li></ul><ul><li>4. NEUTRALIZE TOXINS – BINDING TO TOXINS </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGES THEIR SHAPE </li></ul><ul><li>5. ACTIVATE COMPLEMENT – COMPLEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>LYSES CELLS COATED W/ AB </li></ul><ul><li>6. IMMOBILIZE PATHOGENS – BY BINDING TO </li></ul><ul><li>CILIA AND FLAGELLA </li></ul><ul><li>7. DETACH PATHOGENS FOR FLUSHING – BY </li></ul><ul><li>BINDING TO PILLI </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>So as B cells divide, some of their offspring will soak up BCDF and produce antibodies and some will not. Those do not soak up BCDF are called memory cells. </li></ul><ul><li>They remain in circulation for years. Upon subsequent exposure to the antigen they are specific for, they may soak up BCDF and become antibody producing plasma cells. </li></ul><ul><li>*This is known as HUMORAL IMMUNITY* </li></ul><ul><li>(immunity that arises from fluid not cells) </li></ul>
  28. 28. SO A SECONDARY RESPONSE IS QUICKER AND MORE EFFECTIVE BECAUSE THE HOST HAS MORE ANTIGEN SPECIFIC TH CELLS, B CELLS, AND ANTIBODIES SPECIFIC FOR THE EPITOPE OF THE ANTIGEN.
  29. 29. THEREFORE MORE TH CELLS FIND THE MACROPHAGES SOONER AND MORE B CELLS FIND THE RIGHT TH CELLS SOONER AND MORE ANTIBODIES ARE PRODUCED SOONER.
  30. 30. THAT, COUPLED WITH THE FACT THAT YOU HAVE AB IN CIRCULATION PRODUCES MEMORY.
  31. 31. <ul><li> Each activated </li></ul><ul><li>B cell produces </li></ul><ul><li>40 to 200 </li></ul><ul><li>memory cells, </li></ul><ul><li>which will remain </li></ul><ul><li>in the body </li></ul><ul><li>for years. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Upon second exposure to antigen, a greater number of antigen reactive cells will be available to respond. ( both TH cells AND B cells– memory cells)
  33. 33. www.youtube.com/watch?v =hQmaPwP0KRI
  34. 34. A SECOND ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELL IS THE DENDRITIC CELL. THESE CELLS ARE EXTREMELY DIFFICULT TO ISOLATE. THEY PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN INGESTING AND PRESENTING EPITOPES FOUND IN MUCUS MEMBRANES AND OF VIRUSES IN PARTICULAR. IT HAS BEEN FOUND THAT THESE CELLS MAY HARBOR HIV VIRUSES AND PRESENT THEM TO TH CELLS. WHICH LEADS US TO OUR NEXT TOPIC
  35. 35. <ul><li>CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY: Protection that results from cells, NOT protection that results from antibodies. This immunity is most important in viral infections as well as other intracellular parasites . </li></ul>
  36. 36. VIRAL INFECTIONS DIFFER FROM BACTERIAL INFECTIONS, BECAUSE OF THE MANNER IN WHICH VIRUSES REPLICATE. VIRUSES ARE OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR PARASITES . THEY NEED TO INFECT HOST CELLS WITH THEIR DNA – (OR RNA IN THE CASE OF RETROVIRUSES)
  37. 37. Viruses Cell nucleus Host cell Viral DNA VIRUS ATTACHES TO CELL INJECTS ITS DNA
  38. 38. Viruses CELL BEGINS TO BUILD VIRUSES Cell nucleus Host cell Viral DNA
  39. 39. ANTIBODIES CANNOT GET INSIDE OF CELLS TO BIND TO VIRUSES. ANTIBODIES ARE NOT COMPLETELY USELESS AGAINST VIRUSES THOUGH BECAUSE THEY CAN BIND TO VIRUSES IN CIRCULATION
  40. 40. VIRAL PAR- TICLES EX- PLODE OUT OF CELL TO INFECT OTHER CELLS
  41. 41. <ul><li>The virus infested cell explodes and viruses spill out and infect new cells. </li></ul><ul><li> In order to STOP THE SPREAD OF VIRUSES completely, the cells that produce the viruses must be destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>That job is done by the Cytotoxic T cell </li></ul>
  42. 42. Tcyto -cytotoxic T cells <ul><li>Kill cells that have FOREIGN PROTEIN and self proteins Class I </li></ul><ul><li>Macrophage shows class II </li></ul><ul><li>Are activated by IL2 and TH cells </li></ul><ul><li>Kill virus infested cells, cancer cells, some protozoa, worms, fungi </li></ul><ul><li>(latch on and release enzymes that destroy cells) </li></ul><ul><li>work by lysing on contact (destroying) </li></ul>
  43. 43. TCYTO BODY CELL SELF PROTEIN – CLASS I FOREIGN PROTEIN – VIRUS SHELL
  44. 44. TCYTO BODY CELL SELF PROTEIN – CLASS I FOREIGN PROTEIN – VIRUS SHELL GRANULES OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES
  45. 45. <ul><li>ACTIVATION OF THE T CYTO CELL </li></ul><ul><li>OCCURS IN TWO STEPS: </li></ul><ul><li>T CYTO CELL INTERACTS WITH </li></ul><ul><li>CELL THAT HAS FOREIGN & SELF </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS I - IT IS THEREFORE </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULATED (HAS IL-2 RECEPTORS) </li></ul><ul><li>2. IL-2 IS SUPPLIED BY ACTIVATED </li></ul><ul><li>TH CELLS – ONLY STIMULATED </li></ul><ul><li>T CYTO CELLS CAN ABSORB IL-2 </li></ul><ul><li>AND DIVIDE </li></ul>
  46. 46. SO THE JOB OF RIDDING THE BODY OF VIRUSES GOES TO THE CYTOTOXIC T CELLS. THEY KILL VIRUS INFESTED CELLS, CANCER CELLS, AND ANY CELLS THAT EXPRESS FOREIGN AND SELF CLASS I. THEY KILL CELLS ON CONTACT. THEY ARE ACTIVATED BY TH CELLS (USUALLY) THIS IS KNOWN AS CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY SINCE IT PRIMARILY INVOLVES CELLS – CYTOTOXIC T CELLS (AKA CD8 CELLS) OR KILLER T CELLS
  47. 47. www.youtube.com/watch?v=1tBOmG0QMbA
  48. 48. RESULTS OF A STUDY <ul><li>A Mouse was given a vaccine for pneumococcus </li></ul><ul><li>T cells were then removed from the mouse </li></ul><ul><li>T cells were then transferred to second mouse (clone) </li></ul><ul><li>second mouse was given dose of pneumococcus to check for immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Result – NO immunity to pneumococcus </li></ul>
  49. 49. -Blood was drawn from the mouse -T cells were found clumped together -scientists concluded that the vaccine Was too weak, as stronger antigen Concentrations did confer immunity
  50. 50. Ts cells were thus discovered <ul><li>These cells bind with TH cells and have receptors specific for specific TH cell receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Ts cells are activated after TH cells, prevent overkill, an overproduction of AB </li></ul>TH TS
  51. 51. <ul><li>-anti antibodies ALSO </li></ul><ul><li>prevent overkill </li></ul><ul><li>(over production of cells) </li></ul><ul><li>See p.110 Network Hypothesis </li></ul>
  52. 52. Interferons- <ul><li>a. are species specific proteins produced by viral infected cells, & white blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>b. produce proteins which inhibit viral replication c. three major types: alpha, beta, gamma d. in low concentrations, they stimulate cell </li></ul><ul><li>division </li></ul><ul><li>e. in high concentrations, they inhibit cell </li></ul><ul><li>division </li></ul>
  53. 53. REGULATION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE SO INTERFERONS, ANTI-ANTI- BODIES AND T SUPPRESSOR CELLS SERVE TO PREVENT OVERKILL – AN OVERPRODUCTION OF ANTI- BODIES AND CELLS.
  54. 54. TDTH cells-T delayed Type hypersensitivity cells <ul><li>Involved in delayed hypersensitivities like poison ivy </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize foreign and self (class II like on Macrophage) TDTH undergo IL2 mediated clonal expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Behave like TH cells, but instead of activating B cells………. </li></ul>
  55. 55. TDTH release interleukins that draw neutrophils, Basophils, and Esinophils to the site. - This results in inflammation
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