Born: Aug.9, 1892 at Shiyali, Madras, India
Died: Sept. 27, 1972 at Bangalore, Mysore
Indian librarian and educator (mathematician) who was considered the
father of library science in India and whose contributions had worldwide influence.
Ranganathan's chief technical contributions to library science were in
classification and indexing theory. His Colon Classification (1933) introduced a
system that is widely used in research libraries around the world and that has affected
the evolution of such older systems as the Dewey Decimal Classification. Later he
devised the technique of chain indexing for deriving subject-index entries.
His Five Laws of Library Science (1931) was widely accepted as a
definitive statement of the ideal of library service. He also drafted plans for a national
and several state library systems, founded and edited several journals, and was active
in numerous professional associations.
Colon Classification is the system of library organization developed by
Ranganathan in 1933. It is general rather than specific in nature, and it can create
complex or new categories through the use of facets, or colons.
In it, there are 108 main classes and 10 generalized classes (broadly divided
between the humanities and sciences), which are represented by a mixed notation of
Arabic numerals and Roman and Greek letters. Each main class comprises five
fundamental facets, or groups: personality, matter, energy, space, and time.
Ranganathan's main contribution to classification was the notion of these
fundamental facets, or categories. Instead of schedules of numbers for each topic,
Colon Classification uses series of short tables from which component numbers are
chosen and linked by colons to form a whole. The book number is an integral part of
the call number, a departure from Dewey or Library of Congress systems.
Each main class has its appropriate facets and focuses; e.g., literature has
language and form. In addition, there are four floating tables that correspond to
subdivisions -- e.g., form, geography, time, and language. Further expansion of the
tables is allowed through colon addition or omission (if the subject cannot be
The collection of the University of Madras, India, was utilized in the
creation of Colon Classification.
His Life in Short:
He was educated at the Hindu High School in Shiyali, at Madras
Christian College (where he took B.A. and M.A. degrees in mathematics
in 1913 and 1916), and at Teachers College, Saidapet.
In 1917 he joined the faculty of Government College, Mangalore.
From 1920 to 1923 he subsequently taught at Government College,
Coimbatore, and at Presidency College, University of Madras, in
In 1924 he was appointed first librarian of the University of Madras,
and in order to fit himself for the post he traveled to England to study at
University College, London.
From 1925 to 1944 he took up the job at Madras in earnest in 1925 and
held it until 1944.
From 1945 to 1954 he served as librarian and as professor of library
science at Hindu University in Varanasi (Banaras), and from 1947 to
1954 he taught at the University of Delhi.
From 1954 to 1957 he was engaged in research and writing in Zürich.
He returned to India in the latter year and served as visiting professor at
Vikram University, Ujjain, until 1959.
In 1962 he founded and became head of the Documentation Research
and Training Centre in Bangalore, with which he remained associated
for the rest of his life, and in 1965 he was honoured by the Indian
government with the title of national research professor in library
Five Laws of Library Science (1931)
Colon Classification (1933)
Classified Catalogue Code (1934)
Prolegomena to Library Classification (1937)
Theory of the Library Catalogue (1938)
Elements of Library Classification (1945)
Classification and International Documentation (1948)
Classification and Communication (1951)
Headings and Canons (1955).
• Five Laws of Library Science, 1931.
• New Education and School Library, 1973.
• Philosophy of Library Classification, 1950.
• Prolegomena to Library Classification, 3rd ed., 1967.
• Classification and Communication, 1951.
• Documentation: Genesis and Development, 1973.
• Documentation and Its Facets, 1963.
• Library Book Selection, 2nd ed., 1966
• Reference Service, 2nd ed., 1961.
Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan
The Father of Library Science
This document is a factual account of the life work of S.R. Ranganathan.
Some elements such as our alive today page are fictitious and are told in the first person.
This document includes: a biography, his contributions to library science, awards and
honours, a sample list of publications, positions held and resources used.
Dr. Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (1892-1972) was perhaps the greatest
librarian of the 20th century. As an educator, librarian, and thinker, his contributions to
the field of library science surpassed all others, and placed the country of India
permanently on the world library stage. Ranganathan made two indispensable
contributions to the library profession: the Five Laws of Library Science (1931)
and Colon Classification (1933). Besides these two major contributions,
Ranganathan also studied a wide variety of library topics, including the education of
librarians, library administration and organization, reference services, and collection
management, among others.
Ranganathan was born in Madras, India on August 9, 1892, and was first
trained as a mathematician, becoming a lecturer of mathematics at the University of
Madras . In 1924, he was offered a position of librarian at the University, on condition
that he would travel to University College in London to study contemporary
librarianship. During his studies in Great Britain, Ranganathan visited countless
numbers of public and college libraries throughout the country, which helped him to
focus his thoughts in the areas of classification, cataloguing, and library services.
Ranganathan saw libraries as essential elements in helping societies grow
and thrive through the spreading of literacy, which made him focus his studies in the
area of library services. He also saw libraries as places of service and intellectual
dialogue, and he perceived library workers, as both scholars, who should continue to
research and explore in the field, as well as teachers, sharing their knowledge with
members of society. Ranganathan based his studies from his mathematical background
and his beliefs in Hindu mysticism and the Analytico -Synthetic Method ( Pruiett )
. In this method, he examined complex phenomena, broke his observations into small
pieces, and then attempted to connect the pieces together in a systematic way.
Girja Kumar wrote in a biography of Ranganathan, "There had not
been a day of the life of Ranganathan since 1924 when he did not breathe, think, talk,
and even dream of librarianship and library science." (Kumar, 1992). Kumar also says,
[Ranganathan] spent two decades as librarian of Madras University. Never did he take
any vacations during this period, and during his entire twenty-year tenure as librarian at
the University, he did not take even one day leave. He spent 13 hours every day for seven
days a week on the premises of the library. (Kumar)
After leaving the University of Madras in 1945, Ranganathan served as a
librarian and professor of library science at Hindu University in Varanasi , and he also
taught at the University of Delhi from 1947 to 1954. During 1954 to 1957, he was
engaged in research and writing in Zurich, Switzerland, and he returned to India in 1957
and served as visiting professor at Vikram University until 1959. In 1962, he founded
and became head of the Documentation Research and Training Centre in Bangalore,
and in 1965 he was honoured by the Indian government with the title of national
research professor in library science.
Ranganathan wrote his 62 major books in the evenings, during his off
hours from the University. Besides Colon Classification and the Five Laws of Library
Science, other important works written by him, include Classified Catalogue Code
(1934), Prolegomena to Library Classification (1937), Theory of the Library Catalogue
(1938), Elements of Library Classification (1945), Classification and International
Documentation (1948), Classification and Communication (1951) and Headings and
Canons (1955), among many others. In addition to the large number of books and
articles written by Ranganathan, he also created many professional and educational
organizations, primarily in India, and he participated in library movements around the
When he died on September 27, 1972 in Bangalore, Mysore, the world
lost one of the pioneers, maybe even the creator, of the library and information science
field, and his writings will continue to be a significant impact and influence on the
library world, especially in today's growing electronic environment.
A DAY IN THE LIFE
Although countless numbers of books provide great insight into S.R.
Ranganathan's ideas, thoughts, and theories of library science, not many provide a look
into his everyday life or what the experience was like for students in his classes.
Ranganathan used the powerful teaching method of exposition, and
attempted to bring the scientific method to the library world. He did not simply lecture
or read prepared notes to his students, but instead created a continuous give-and-take
between himself and his students. Questions, answers, discussion, and practical
application would freely flow back and forth between teacher and student. Ranganathan
felt the most important component of teaching was to first build a teacher-student
relationship of familiarity. A student once said: "From the first day to the last you will
never feel that you are with someone who is high and far beyond your reach he gradually
tries to help you in casting off your fears, reserves, and emotions completely so you may
be very frank and expressive with him" (Shukla 570).
If a difficult point was attempting to be taught, Ranganathan would use
an anecdote, narrative experience or an analogy, of which he would never fail to be
without. He felt this would provide the students with a better grasp of the topic at hand,
and help them to understand the intricacies of librarianship. His ideal was "to make a
dull student bright, a dumb student talk, a blind student see, and a weak
student write" (Kaula 656). Also, he believed repetition was important in ensuring
students fully comprehended the material, and he believed terminology and idea were
inseparable. For example, Ranganathan would put questions to the students to get
them involved with a new idea, and make them give the answers in precise terminology,
in full sentences, and until correct answers were given by all. He attempted to make his
students think and use what they have learned. He would not forget the weaker
students, and patiently teach each and every member of his classes, while using his
humourous anecdotes and stories to prevent anyone else from becoming bored.
Another student once said: "I remember that at times his lectures were
so thrilling that we could not help but discussing amongst ourselves the class room
proceedings even after the class was over" (Guha 578). Students in his classes had the
main part to play in reasoning out all details and Ranganathan acted simply as a guide
to help them proceed along the right lines. Everyone in his classes had to be alert to
think quickly and provide a contribution to the discussion of the topic. Following the
discussion, Ranganathan would then provide a reshaping of the classes' contributions,
taking everyone's points into consideration, and provide guidance for additional study,
reading, and homework.
AN AVERAGE DAY:
An average day for Ranganathan began at dawn, as he got up when it is
still dark to begin working on whatever he was currently engaged in (e.g. a book, a new
article). Then he went out for his morning walk, along with fellow librarians, visiting
scholars, and students, to discuss various library science issues. Classes and lectures
may be scheduled throughout the day, between which, he continued to work on his
research, while also answering letters well into the evening, and tending to discussions
with various groups who come to visit him. When he completed all his articles and work,
and answered all his letters for the day, he headed to bed. Even his sleep was rarely
peaceful, as his mind continued to think about various issues and problems for the next
day's articles and discussions.
Some other interesting facts about Ranganathan included the following:
• Ranganathan lived a very simple life of non-extravagance and austerity, as he
enjoyed doing the majority of his work from a mat on the floor; his powerful
concentration allowed him to work for long hours, both early in the morning and
late at night, and through anything, even several Indian civil wars.
• Ranganathan was said to breathe libraries at all times, and he would talk nothing
but library science. He would sometimes even be so engrossed deeply in his work
that he would forget to eat his food, and go for days without any sleep or rest.
• Ranganathan made huge impacts in any library meetings, conferences and
discussions that he attended, due to his strict routine of advanced preparation, in
which he would review agendas and make notes prior to meetings. He always
wanted to be prepared for any point or question which may have come his way.
• Ranganathan was constantly recognized for his punctuality. He would never be
late for any meeting, and was always the first to enter the library and last to leave
at night. Also, in his correspondence, he was meticulously prompt. He would
always reply to a letter the same day it was received, and he read each and every
letter, and provided the author with a hand-written response.
• Beyond the classroom, Ranganathan organized weekly teaching seminars,
making senior students the leaders, and provide yet another forum for discussion
and deliberation. As well, he encouraged all of his students to contribute papers
to various conferences and symposiums throughout India . Finally, Ranganathan
enjoyed taking regular morning walks, during which he and his colleagues, and
students would discuss the papers, various library problems, go around helping
• Ranganathan appreciated the people who were just as hardworking as he was,
and one of his weaknesses was that he would judge others by using himself as a
measuring rod. He attached the highest value to the character of a person, and
only dealt with those people who met his high standards of character. He was not
one who easily took the middle road or was open to compromise, and was not one
who believed in any time-wasting. However, he still was extremely accessible to
all, and was an unassuming man, who always had time for discussion on
S.R. Ranganathan (1892-1972)
I am an inventor, educator, librarian, philosopher and mathematician.
In 1928 I became involved in the development of the library at the University of Madras.
This was a period in library history when the world was grappling with fundamental
questions: What is a library?
What is library service?
I believed that all human activities were susceptible to analysis using the
scientific method and that such a careful examination of the phenomena of library work
could lead to the formulation of empirical "laws."
These are not laws in the sense that, say, the Second Law of
Thermodynamics is a law. However, they are more than mere generalities because they
are founded on observation and analysis.
The principles I enunciate in my 5 Laws of Library Science are the first
and, to date, the only clear definition of a library's functions and responsibilities.
Although simply stated, the Laws demand contemplation and experience before the
richness and import of their meaning will be revealed. The Laws provide essential
guidelines for librarians with the potential for planning and providing patron services in
all types of libraries. For a complete examination of these laws, please read my book.
This is just a brief summary of my theories.
Five Laws of Library Science
• Books are for use
• Every reader his/her book
• Every book, its reader
• Save the time of the reader
• A library is a growing organism
First Law: Books are For Use
It is wrong to conclude from my words that books are the only library
materials that matter to me. My point is that libraries must acquire materials and make
them accessible so they can be used. This law gives definition both to the concept of an
open-stack library and to a library that is appointed with tools and furnishings that
make the books it contains useful. Books are to be taken from locked back rooms and
brought out to welcoming rooms with open shelves. Shelves need to be accessible to
more than one user at a time. Libraries are to be located in the midst of their
communities. Whatever be the library location, hours of operation, type of furniture and
the way in which books are kept, it is the Library Staff that ultimately make or mar a
library. A Modern Librarian who has faith in this law is happy only when the readers
make the shelves constantly empty.
Second Law: Every Reader His or Her Book
This law reveals the fundamental issue of tension between the cost of
materials and the basic right of all persons to have access t the materials they need. This
makes acquisitions very important; each acquisition should call to mind a potential user.
One must always be mindful that since no one individual can own all the 'books', the
libraries must acquire a body of literature or research materials that will benefit each of
its readers and researchers. The collection must be appropriate to the Library's Mission.
Librarians must know the materials, its uses, and how to use it. Reference service gains
its legitimacy and its purpose from this law. Clearly, it is the business of librarians to
know the reader, to know the books, and to actively help in the finding by every person
of his or her book.
Third Law: Every Book its Reader
This law addresses the fundamental issue of open access. Open access
means that the collection can be examined with as much freedom as if it was the reader's
private library. In addition, when a library user comes to the library, or gains access to
the library's services, there are certain materials that will meet his or her needs. It is the
library's job to ensure that the connection between the user and the materials are made,
and that the connection is as speedy and practical as possible. There are many ways in
which a library can connect its users to its resources:
Distribution of acquisition lists
New Book displays
Providing Research Guides
The use of a structured, well-thought out classification scheme is a
necessity for connecting library users to materials, as it ensures uniformity of treatment
of various materials on similar topics. Also important is the accurate arrangement of
materials, as mis-shelving a book can make it all but invisible to the user.
Fourth Law: Save the Time of the Reader
Perhaps this law is not so self-evident as the others. None the less, it has
been responsible for many reforms in library administration. A Library must examine
every aspect of its policies, rules, procedures, and systems with the one simple criteria
that saving the time of the reader is vital to the library's mission. Policies must
formulate with the needs of the library's user in mind. For example, hours of operation
must be set in order to ensure appropriate and convenient access, and the collection
must be arranged in an inviting, clear, and obvious way so as not to waste the time of the
users. Saving time of the user means providing efficient, thorough access to materials.
Fifth Law: The Library is a Growing Organism
The 5th law tells us about the vital and lasting characteristics of the
library as an institution and enjoins the need for a constatnt adjustment of our outlook
in dealing with it. Libraries grow and change, and will always do so. Collections increase
and change, technology changes and budgets change. Change comes along with growth,
and in order to be healthy, that change and growth requires flexibility in the
management of the collections, in the use of space, in the recruitment, retention and
deployment of staff, and the nature of our programs.
My Laws Still Apply Today
My laws are meant to be elemental, in order to capture essential meaning
and to convey a deep understanding of libraries. As libraries change with time these
laws are meant to endure. However, I would like to express how these Laws pertain to
the present state of information management and access.
Books are for Use
Limiting access to books has prevailed through time, and exists even
today. The maintenance of special collections with limited access, storing materials off-
site, restricting access to libraries based on membership or fees, and even by selecting
materials that are contracted in such a way as to limit use, such as when print resources
are eliminated in favour of an electronic version of the material that is only accessible to
certain patrons with passwords, are all modern equivalents of chaining books to the
Another aspect of this first law that is still relevant is that libraries are about
service or they are about nothing. In order to deliver and reap the rewards of services,
libraries must identify the benefits that society can reasonably expect and then devise
means of delivering those benefits. Service always has a purpose, and our careers of
service still have purpose.
Every Reader His or Her Book
Any library that limits access in any way must ensure that this restriction
does not prevent adequate access to the collection by the people that the library was
created to serve. Access policies also have implications for interlibrary loan, cooperative
acquisitions, and consortia to which the library may belong. Libraries must also be
concerned with programs that provide for the preservation of materials in alternate
formats, such as microfiche, CD-ROM, and other electronic formats. Librarians need to
ask them selves:Which formats are appropriate?
Which format will be most useful for the user?
What additional hardware or software must be acquired to facilitate their usage?
Who will or won't have access?
What are the issues surrounding access to printing, passwords, etc?
Librarians must acknowledge that users of the libraries, themselves
included, use and value different means of communications in the pursuit of knowledge,
information and entertainment. Libraries must value all means of preserving and
communicating the records and achievements of the human mind and heart.
Every Book its Reader
In the digital age, getting the 'book' to its reader presents librarians with
unique challenges, and the challenges presented by the emergence of electronic
resources cannot be overstated! Libraries today must deal with electronic resources that
are available 'within' the library but are neither owned nor shelved by the library.
Libraries also have the additional challenge of providing access to 'cyber visitors' who
use the library's web site for research. Technology, when intelligently applied, is a
wonderful, life-enhancing thing. Technology exists to support the mission of librarians
to assist in ready and free access to recorded knowledge and information, and to deliver
library services effectively. However, technology must be useful, affordable, and cost-
effective, and anything beyond that is on the path to dashed expectations and skewed
Save the Time of the Reader
When a library subscribes to electronic resources, appropriate access to
them must be provided. When electronic databases are made available to the public,
public access terminals and printing resources must also be made available. Naturally,
libraries must also make the best use of available IP and networking technology. If
materials are stored off-site (which in essence breaks the first law), provision must be
made for easy and timely retrieval of those items.
Well-planned and executed library handbooks, stack guides, and library
tours, or research instruction sessions also serve the goal of saving the time of the
reader. The library must also provide adequate staffing of reference, information, and
circulation desks, as well as telephone and chat reference. Ultimately, employing the
best available technologies to provide quick access to materials saves the time of the
The Library is a Growing Organism
I have shown, both in my original writings and in the adaptations of those
laws to the present, how libraries have changed over time. The most obvious change I've
addressed here is the shift to electronic resources. This shift has had a major impact on
library funding and budget management. It is a common fallacy among many library
administrators (professionals and non-librarians alike) who control library budgets that
one way to save money is to merely cancel groups of subscriptions and then restart them
in a year or so. As a living organism, libraries consume information, and any cessation
in the flow of information starves the organism. Cutting a library off from its resources
at any arbitrary point will surely make it ill, and perhaps may even kill it.
• Member Imperial Library Committee (1932-1934)
• Committee on National Central Library (1948)
• International Committee Of Library Experts, United Nations (1948)
• Faculty, UNESCO International School on Public Librarianship (1948)
• Advisory Committee of INSDOC, New Delhi (1951)
• International Committee on Bibliography of UNESCO (1951-1953)
• Board of Studies in Library Science, Osmania University (1960)
• Lunch Club, Presidency College, Madras (1922-1923)
• Mathematics and Science Section, Madras Teachers' Guild (1922-1923)
• Madras Library Association (1928-1948)
• Library Service Section of All Asia Educational Conference, Benaras (1930)
• Indian Adult Education Association (1949-1953)
• FID committee on general classification. (He was also the Chairman of the FID
• President, Indian Library Association (1944-1953)
• Chairman, Documentation Committee of Indian Standards Institution (1947)
• Vice President, FID (1953-1956)
• Vice President, Indian Adult Education (1953)
• Chaiman, FID Committee on General Classificiation. (He was also the Secretary
of the FID Committee) (1954-9164)
• President, Madras Library Association (1958)
• Chairman, Library buildings , fittings and furniture committee of the Indian
Standards Institution (1958)
• Vice President, FID (1958-1961)
• Chairman, Library Committee University Grants Commission, New Delhi
• Chairman, Review Committee on Library Science, University Grants Commission
• Chairman, Library Science Courses Committee, University of Madras (1960)
• Chairman, Expert Committee on Library Science, Banaras Hindu University
• Chairman, Committee for Library Science Course, Mysore University (1960)
• Chairman, Preservation of Documents Section, Indian Standards Institution,
• Chairman, Committee to draft the Library bill for Mysore State (1962)
• Professor B. Ross endowment in Mathematics at the Christian College, Madras
• Abgila (1949)
• Library Research Circle, Delhi (1950)
• Delhi Seminar in Library Science, University of Delhi (1950)
• FID Committee on General Classification (1954)
• Annals of Library Science (1956)
• MP Library Association (1958)
• Documentation Research and Training Center, Bangalore (1962)
• Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science (1963)
• Library Science with a Slant to Documentation (1965)
• Editorial Board, Modern Librarian (1937-1947)
• Editorial Board, Indian Librarian (1947)
• Abgila , Indian Library Association (1949-1953)
• Associate Editor, Libri (1951)
• Annals of Library Science (1956-1963)
• American Documentation (1959)
• Library Science with a Slant to Documentation (1965-1972)
• UNESCO for preparing the place of machinery in literature search (1950)
• Jaffna Public Library (1952)
• Library Development Plan for Kerala State
Positions held in Conferences/Seminars
• President, Pudukkotta Library Conference (1926)
• Local Secretary, All India Public Library Conference held in Madras (1927)
• President, First Library Conference of Central Provinces and Berar (1946)
• President, All India Adult Educational Conference, Mysore (1948)
• President, All India Library Conference, Nagpur (1949)
• President, Gwalior Library Conference (1950)
• Secretary, Seminar on Literature for Neoliterates, Okhla, Delhi (1953)
• Director, Seminar on Social Service Research on Libraries (1959)
• President, Bengal Library Conference at Nawadwip (1959)
• Director, UGC Seminar on Work flow from publisher to reader - workflow in
college and university libraries (1959)
• Chairman, Indian Library convention, Delhi (1959) Chairman, Documentation
Section, Second Indian Standards Convention, Hyderabad (1959)
• Director, Govt. of India, Seminar on School Libraries, Bangalore (1962)
• Director, Govt. of Andra Pradesh Seminar (1962)
• Director, National Seminar , DRTC, Bangalore (1963)
• Director, MWF - Masters' course and T, Th and PhD course, University of
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA (1964)
• Chairman, International Study Conference on Classification, Elsinor, Denmark
• Director, International Seminar on Colon Classification, Rutgers University, USA
• Rao Sahib Govt. of India (1935)
• D.Litt (Honoris causa), Delhi University (1948)
• Honorary Fellow, Virginia Bibliographic Society (1951)
• Patron, Delhi Library Association (1954)
• Honorary member, Indian Association of Special Libraries and Information
• Padmashree, Govt. of India (1957)
• Honorary Vice President, Library Association, London (1957)
• Honorary Fellow, International Federation for Documentation (1957)
• D.Litt (Honoris causa), University of Pittsburgh, USA (1964)
• National Research Professor for Library science, Govt. of India (1965)
• Honorary Fellow, Indian Standards Institution (1967)
• Margaret Mann Award, American Library Association (1970)
• Grand Knight of Peace , Mark Twain Soceity, USA (1971)
• Professor in Library Science, University of madras (1929-1944)
• Visiting Lecturer in Library Classification, University of Bombay (1944)
• Professor of Library Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (1945-1947)
• Member of the Faculty, UNESCO International School for Public Librarianship,
• Professor in Library Science, University of Delhi (1949-1955)
• Visiting Lecturer of Library Schools, United Kingdom (1956)
• Visiting Professor of Library Science, Vikram University, Ujjain (1957-1959)
• Visiting Lecturer of Library Schools, USA, Canada and Japan (1958)
• Honorary Professor, Documentation Research and Training Centre, Bangalore
• Visiting Lecturer of Library Schools, University of Pittsburgh (1964)
Prof. S R Ranganathan contributed over 1500 articles to the literature
Five Laws of Library Science (First Edition in 1931).
Education for Leisure (First edition in 1945).
Preface to Library Science (First edition in 1948).
Library Service for all (First edition 1965).
Library Organization and Library System
Model Library Act (First edition in 1935).
Post-War Reconstruction of Libraries in India (First edition in 1944).
National Library System: A plan for India (First edition in 1946).
Library Development Plan for India (First edition in 1950).
Library Legislation, A Handbook to Madras Library Act
(First edition in 1953).
Education and Library System of the Nation (First edition in 1971).
Library Book Selection (First edition in 1952).
Colon Classification (First edition in 1933).
Prolegomena to Library Classification (First edition in 1937).
Library Classification: Fundamentals & Procedures (First edition in 1944).
Elements of Library Classification (First edtion in 1945).
Classification and International Documentation (First edition in 1948).
Classification, Coding and Machinery for Search (First edition in 1950).
Classified Catalogue Code (First edition in 1934).
Dictionary Catalogue Code (First edition in 1945).
Library Administration (First edition in 1935).
Library Organization (First edition in 1946).
Library Manual (First edition in 1951).
Source: http://www.digitallantern.net/school/ranganathan.htm> (March 21, 2004).
Anil Kumar Mishra,
Learning Resource Centre (LRC),
Indian School of Business (ISB), Hyderabad, India.