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Chapter 4 (Dr. Fenwick W. English) Individual Human Agency and Principles of Action Lavada Moore Walden William Allan Krit...
<ul><li>“ The inescapable dilemma of every leader is the gap between deeply held  personal beliefs concerning right and wr...
Overview <ul><li>Weberian principle of action </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner Cognitive Model of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
<ul><li>“… leaders are fragile instruments.  As in classical tragedy, their very virtues often contain the seeds of failur...
Weberian Principle of Action <ul><li>Humans can become real and knowable by examining their actions </li></ul><ul><li>Four...
Type 1 :  Zweckrationalitat <ul><li>Instrumental leadership; traditional educational leadership decision making in which a...
Type 2:  Wertrationalitat <ul><li>Decision is approached and engaged  to attain an ethical, aesthetic, moral, or religious...
Type 3:  Affectual <ul><li>based purely on the emotional response to a situation </li></ul>
Type 4:  Traditional <ul><li>“Ingrained habitation” - A decision made from following past practices irrespective of whethe...
The Moment of Leadership <ul><li>“ The first thing a leader does is situate himself in a public discourse, and construct a...
The Good Ole Days – <ul><li>Leaders must always look forward </li></ul><ul><li>Advice in ancient times </li></ul><ul><ul><...
The Gardner Cognitive  Model of Leadership <ul><li>Leaders traffic in stories or narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Followers cr...
Gardner continued <ul><li>Leaders give voice, make sense of, and interpret and rationalize what followers are perceiving a...
Gardner continued <ul><li>This creates situation in which leaders rise up and give voice to their emotions or privations <...
Gardner continued <ul><li>Leaders compete for followers by engaging in stories or narratives – Ex:  Civil Rights Movement ...
Gardner continued <ul><li>Leaders tell “identity stories”- give answers to questions asked when confronting uncertainty an...
Gardner continued <ul><li>Leaders must embody the beliefs they espouse </li></ul><ul><li>“When leaders ask their constitue...
<ul><li>Weber:  “leadership legitimacy of those leaders who have attracted followers last only so long as the belief in it...
Moral Discourse <ul><li>Written and spoken communication </li></ul><ul><li>The character of modern leadership reveals itse...
Who the Leader Is <ul><li>Decisions comprised of two levels </li></ul><ul><li>1. Nature of the decision itself </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Leaders should have some idea of the medium in which potential actions move in their heads, their hearts, and the ...
<ul><li>Morality does not dissolve all disputes </li></ul><ul><li>“Common good” – focus for leader in deciding competing v...
Sophists Perspective <ul><li>pursuit of truth must be taken without regard to moral values - we cannot know in advance wha...
Plato’s Perspective <ul><li>“common good” – based on enduring and permanent values based on disciplined thinking </li></ul...
<ul><li>One of the first task of leadership is to maintain organizational unity </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders must observe the...
The Wounded Leader <ul><li>Leadership roles often do not support, confirm, or resonate with the psychic needs of the perso...
<ul><li>The healing process for a wounded leader begins with permitting herself to tell her own story </li></ul><ul><li>Wo...
The Wounding Process <ul><li>Time to engage in critical self-reflection and growth </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to recast...
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Ch 4 Individual Human Agency and Principles of Action by Fenwick W. English, PhD

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The Art of Educational Leadership: Balanching Performance and Accountability by Dr. Fenwick W. English PPT Presentations for Dr. William Allan Kritsonis' PhD level courses.

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Transcript of "Ch 4 Individual Human Agency and Principles of Action by Fenwick W. English, PhD"

  1. 1. Chapter 4 (Dr. Fenwick W. English) Individual Human Agency and Principles of Action Lavada Moore Walden William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ The inescapable dilemma of every leader is the gap between deeply held personal beliefs concerning right and wrong, good and evil, and the requirements of working in environments in which these principles become muddled in a messy world.” </li></ul><ul><li>Fenwick W. English </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Weberian principle of action </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner Cognitive Model of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>The moral leader </li></ul><ul><li>The pragmatic leader </li></ul><ul><li>The wounded leader </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“… leaders are fragile instruments. As in classical tragedy, their very virtues often contain the seeds of failures and disasters; and self-knowledge is not generally their strongest suit.” </li></ul><ul><li>Carnes Lord (2003 ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Weberian Principle of Action <ul><li>Humans can become real and knowable by examining their actions </li></ul><ul><li>Four types of action </li></ul>
  6. 6. Type 1 : Zweckrationalitat <ul><li>Instrumental leadership; traditional educational leadership decision making in which an administrator anticipates the costs and benefits of reaching a desired set of goals </li></ul>
  7. 7. Type 2: Wertrationalitat <ul><li>Decision is approached and engaged to attain an ethical, aesthetic, moral, or religious ideal or principle </li></ul>
  8. 8. Type 3: Affectual <ul><li>based purely on the emotional response to a situation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Type 4: Traditional <ul><li>“Ingrained habitation” - A decision made from following past practices irrespective of whether the reason for it is apparent </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Moment of Leadership <ul><li>“ The first thing a leader does is situate himself in a public discourse, and construct a narrative relating what has been done previously to what he proposes to do in the moment at hand. The basic parameters of the politics of leadership is set here….” Scott Skowronek </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Good Ole Days – <ul><li>Leaders must always look forward </li></ul><ul><li>Advice in ancient times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oracles or seers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle of Delphi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on core of personal values in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>present time </li></ul></ul>Consulting the Oracle of Dephi
  12. 12. The Gardner Cognitive Model of Leadership <ul><li>Leaders traffic in stories or narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Followers create leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers search for leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership is an artful and purposive construct of a voice and a message that resonates with the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers are the doers </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Gardner continued <ul><li>Leaders give voice, make sense of, and interpret and rationalize what followers are perceiving and feeling </li></ul><ul><li>A common group or subgroup confront, or are surrounded by conditions, hardships, or deprivations </li></ul><ul><li>Continued interaction with negativity creates a shared sense of community </li></ul>
  14. 14. Gardner continued <ul><li>This creates situation in which leaders rise up and give voice to their emotions or privations </li></ul><ul><li>Charisma – magnetic personality; the greatest revolutionary force </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders emerge to meet the needs of the followers facing similar circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Follower opinions create a “movement” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Gardner continued <ul><li>Leaders compete for followers by engaging in stories or narratives – Ex: Civil Rights Movement </li></ul><ul><li>“ Born leaders” and “born followers” </li></ul><ul><li>Followers seek social structure, hierarchy, or purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Followers seek leaders to help make sense of what may often appear overwhelming </li></ul><ul><li>Followers require a sense of identity and mission </li></ul><ul><li>Followers need assurance that their privations are not in vain </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gardner continued <ul><li>Leaders tell “identity stories”- give answers to questions asked when confronting uncertainty and ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Stories contain symbols, signs, and metaphors that the followers already know and understand </li></ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul>
  17. 17. Gardner continued <ul><li>Leaders must embody the beliefs they espouse </li></ul><ul><li>“When leaders ask their constituents to die for a certain cause, the leaders must appear credible. Leaders must convincingly embody the stories they tell to their audience.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Weber: “leadership legitimacy of those leaders who have attracted followers last only so long as the belief in its charismatic inspiration remains.” </li></ul><ul><li>Charisma is contradictory to requirements of organization routinization, which is retained by stability; rules of office with predictable relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Not everyone with authority is a leader </li></ul>
  19. 19. Moral Discourse <ul><li>Written and spoken communication </li></ul><ul><li>The character of modern leadership reveals itself fully only from a vantage point beyond itself </li></ul><ul><li>Some leaders and followers see their values as fixed to standards they believe extend through time, are universal = Plato perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Others swayed by possibilities within immediate political or social contexts = Sophists </li></ul>
  20. 20. Who the Leader Is <ul><li>Decisions comprised of two levels </li></ul><ul><li>1. Nature of the decision itself </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ideas, perceptions, assumptions, and values </li></ul>And what is important
  21. 21. <ul><li>Leaders should have some idea of the medium in which potential actions move in their heads, their hearts, and the language and culture that defines what they think and how they feel and perceive the outside world. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential decisions rest on perceptions and judgments; value system </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Morality does not dissolve all disputes </li></ul><ul><li>“Common good” – focus for leader in deciding competing values </li></ul><ul><li>School law relies on constitutional interpretation – Whose common good? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sophists Perspective <ul><li>pursuit of truth must be taken without regard to moral values - we cannot know in advance what the truth will turn out to be </li></ul><ul><li>“ common good” = many temporary arrangements worked out between conflicted elements in society </li></ul><ul><li>Protagorian leader – Abraham Lincoln </li></ul>
  24. 24. Plato’s Perspective <ul><li>“common good” – based on enduring and permanent values based on disciplined thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for the unchanging lies at the core of Christian theology </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: William Lloyd Garrison - abolitionists </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>One of the first task of leadership is to maintain organizational unity </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders must observe the laws that govern his or her office </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws often unjust and unfair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders who are working to change laws must ignore or break them in protest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a leader belongs to an organization that supports unjust laws, s(he) may be forced to forfeit membership or have their cause compromised </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Wounded Leader <ul><li>Leadership roles often do not support, confirm, or resonate with the psychic needs of the person who become a leader </li></ul><ul><li>The gap between the demand of the organizational role and the requirements for “dramatic effectiveness” may cause a leader to become lost and is put in a position in which her moral compass has become confused or points to a false position </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>The healing process for a wounded leader begins with permitting herself to tell her own story </li></ul><ul><li>Wounding is not the sign of an inept leader </li></ul><ul><li>- comes with territory of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>- not “if”, but “when” </li></ul><ul><li>- what do you do about it </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Wounding Process <ul><li>Time to engage in critical self-reflection and growth </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to recast public image </li></ul><ul><li>Time to rethink how you can work day to day within the value system in which you believe and reset your moral compass </li></ul><ul><li>“ Know thyself” </li></ul>
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