Ch 3 Mental Prisms of Leadership by Fenwick W. English, PhD
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Ch 3 Mental Prisms of Leadership by Fenwick W. English, PhD

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The Art of Educational Leadership: Balanching Performance and Accountability by Dr. Fenwick W. English PPT Presentations for Dr. William Allan Kritsonis' PhD level courses.

The Art of Educational Leadership: Balanching Performance and Accountability by Dr. Fenwick W. English PPT Presentations for Dr. William Allan Kritsonis' PhD level courses.

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  • Performance as an educational leader is dependent on how the leader “sees” events, situations and challenges. This chapter explores how leaders discern what is good and true—the foundation of their beliefs. Also explored is how personal blind spots (biases) can be revealed. Finally, how assumptions have been used to guide educational leadership theories will be discussed.
  • A quick note about positioning, stacking, and grouping shapes: By positioning shapes, you put them where they work best. By stacking shapes, you give them more places to work in. By grouping shapes, you make them work together so that you can work faster. The rest of the course covers these concepts in detail.
  • The Art of Leadership is performance . Performance is anchored in a leader’s beliefs. Beliefs are comprise of an individual’s notion of what is good and true. These beliefs are the cornerstone of an educational leader’s ?????(Pg.53)
  • In this illustration, the diagram on the right is obviously easier to understand because it’s better organized. Your eye can easily follow the connections of the shapes. The diagram on the left looks random and is difficult to follow.
  • Flowcharts, org charts, and Web site diagrams are examples of diagrams with high clutter potential.
  • Spacing and size are especially important if you’re creating a detailed office layout or building plan that will control physical measurements.
  • Tip : Guides are also handy to mark off the margins of the page. And in case you’re wondering, guides don’t show up on printed diagrams. They’re your secret.
  • An example of when you might need to position shapes precisely: if you’re working on an office layout and need to position a desk to represent its exact location.
  • [ Note to trainer : Steps—given in either numbered or bulleted lists—are always shown in yellow text.]
  • [ Note to trainer : With Visio 2003 installed on your computer, you can click the link in the slide to go to an online practice. In the practice, you can work through each of these tasks in Visio, with instructions to guide you. Important : If you don’t have Visio 2003, you won’t be able to access the practice instructions.]
  • A closer look at the two clusters of computers shown in the diagram: You can see that each department has two computers and one printer. The underlying circles tell you so. If those circles weren't there, the situation wouldn’t be so clear. In Visio, each of those circles is said to be below the computer equipment. And the square is below the two circles.
  • In this example, the computer is on the top of the other shapes because it was the last one added to the page.
  • [ Note to trainer : With Visio 2003 installed on your computer, you can click the link in the slide to go to an online practice. In the practice, you can work through each of these tasks in Visio, with instructions to guide you. Important : If you don’t have Visio 2003, you won’t be able to access the practice instructions.]
  • Tip: The shortcut key for grouping is CTRL+SHIFT+G. (Think “G for Group.”)
  • Let’s use our cluster of buildings as an example. If three buildings are grouped together as one, how do you hone in on one of the buildings to resize it a little, or maybe change its color?
  • This method offers a good way to quickly change a shape. But if you need to do more extensive changes to the one shape, the next slide introduces an alternative.
  • When might you need to ungroup a shape? When you want to move the group but leave one building behind after all. Or, as described earlier, if you need to make extensive changes to one shape. Tip: You can also ungroup by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+U. (Think “U for Ungroup.”)
  • Keep ungrouping in mind as you work in Visio. If you want to change part of a shape, try ungrouping it—it may come apart in convenient ways.
  • [ Note to trainer : With Visio 2003 installed on your computer, you can click the link in the slide to go to an online practice. In the practice, you can work through each of these tasks in Visio, with instructions to guide you. Important : If you don’t have Visio 2003, you won’t be able to access the practice instructions.]
  • Using This Template This Microsoft Office PowerPoint ® template has training content about using Visio 2003 to control the arrangement of shapes in a diagram. It's geared for you to present to a group and customize as necessary. This template's content is adapted from the Microsoft Office Online Training course called “Shapes II: Expertly position, stack, and group shapes.” Features of the template Title slide: On the very first slide, there is placeholder text over which you should type the name of your company. Or you can delete the text box altogether if you don't want this text. Animations: Custom animation effects are applied throughout. These effects play in previous versions back to Microsoft PowerPoint 2000. They include the entrance effects called Peek and Stretch , and sometimes the Dissolve effect. To alter animation effects, go to the Slide Show menu, click Custom Animation , and work with the options that appear. If this presentation contains a Macromedia Flash animation: To play the Flash file, you must register a Microsoft ActiveX ® control, called Shockwave Flash Object, on your computer. To do this, download the latest version of the Macromedia Flash Player from the Macromedia Web site. Slide transitions: The Wipe Down transition is applied throughout the show. If you want a different one, go to the Slide Show menu, click Slide Transition , and work with the options that appear. Hyperlinks to online course: The template contains links to the online version of this training course. The links take you to the hands-on practice session for each lesson and to the Quick Reference Card that is published for this course. Please take note: You must have Visio 2003 installed to view the hands-on practice sessions. Headers and footers: The template contains a footer that has the course title. You can change or remove the footers in the Header and Footer dialog box (which opens from the View menu).

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 3 (Dr. Fenwick W. English) THE ART OF EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP BALANCING PERFORMANCE AND ACCOUNTABILTIY MENTAL PRISMS OF LEADERSHIP Alison McBride William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
  • 2.
    • In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with a flat, polished surface that refract light.
    • Prisms can be used to break up, reflect or split light into various components.
    The optical prism: the premise for mental leadership
  • 3. THE ART OF LEADERSHIP
  • 4. TACTILE VS. MENTAL
    • OPTICAL PRISM
    • TRANSPARENT
    • POLISHED
    • MULTI-DIMENTIONAL
    • REFRACTIVE ( HOW IT DISTORT’S LIGHT)
    • MENTAL PRISM
    • A LEADER IS “SEEN” BY HIS ACTIONS
    • A LEADER MUST STICK TO HIS BELIEFS
    • A LEADER MUST HAVE DIFFERENT SIDES DEPENDING ON THE SITUATION
    • REALITY IS DISTORTED BY A LEADER’S SITUATIONAL INTERPRETATION
  • 5.
    • Diagrams are great because they communicate more efficiently than a bunch of text. But some diagrams fail because of the sloppy positioning of their shapes.
    • Positioning shapes on the page expertly and neatly will not only make your diagrams look good, but will also help communicate the information within them more clearly.
    A messy flowchart and an orderly one
  • 6. Use the grid and the rulers
    • If a diagram contains many shapes, it has the potential to get cluttered. One way to fight the clutter is to arrange shapes by using the grid and the rulers.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes The grid and rulers When you first add shapes to the page or position shapes, use the grid lines to keep them straight. And keep an eye on the grid to make sure your shapes are evenly spaced.
  • 7. Use the grid and the rulers
    • The rulers are also invaluable. Use them to see the exact distance between shapes or to know just how big a certain shape is.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes The grid and rulers By default, shapes snap to the grid lines and the measurement lines on the rulers. So you don’t have to do fussy hand work to position a shape: It puts itself where you want it and then stays there unless you move it.
  • 8. Follow the guides
    • Even more visible than the grid lines are the guides : vertical or horizontal lines that you can place on a page.
    • You drag guides from a ruler, and by default they appear blue, as in the illustration.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Guides: another way to keep things orderly
  • 9. Follow the guides
    • Guides help you organize your diagrams according to their content.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Guides: another way to keep things orderly For example, if you know that your flowchart shows three processes, you can evenly space three vertical guides on the page. Then you can position the shapes running down each one.
  • 10. Open the Size & Position window
    • Sometimes using a mouse to position or size a shape can be difficult. What if Visio snaps your shape to a location you don’t want, or you can’t seem to let go of the mouse button at the right time?
    • The cure for these woes and the key to positioning shapes precisely is the Size & Position window, and it is found on the View menu.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes The Size & Position window with X and Y coordinates
  • 11. Open the Size & Position window
    • The location of a shape is stated in terms of X and Y coordinates:
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes The Size & Position window with X and Y coordinates
    • The X coordinate is the position on the horizontal ruler at the top of the page.
    • The Y coordinate is the position on the vertical ruler at the left of the page.
    • The point where these meet is the shape’s pin .
  • 12. Open the Size & Position window
    • To move the shape, type in new numbers for the coordinates. The shape will automatically shift to that exact location.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes The Size & Position window with X and Y coordinates To size the shape, type new numbers for width and height. The shape edges change to those exact dimensions, while the shape pin stays where it was before.
  • 13. Command shapes to align themselves
    • The grid, rulers, and guides are great when you create a diagram in a planned, organized way. But sometimes you’ll prefer to work more freely and spontaneously, organizing as you go.
    • So while you’re working freehand or when you’re finished, you can tidy up your diagram by using the Align Shapes command on the Shapes menu.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes The Align Shapes command can be a real time saver.
  • 14. Command shapes to align themselves
    • Align Shapes makes it simple to line up your shapes: Select the shape you want the others to line up with, then click the alignment option you want.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes The Align Shapes command can be a real time saver. In the example you see here, a vertical alignment button got these shapes in line. It’s like a sheepdog for shapes.
  • 15. Distribute shapes evenly
    • You can use the grid, the rulers, and guides to position shapes one by one, but what if you’ve got dozens of shapes in your diagram?
    • The Distribute Shapes command on the Shapes menu will get you home in time for dinner.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Space patrol: the Distribute Shapes command
  • 16. Distribute shapes evenly
    • Let’s say you’ve got the shapes you want on the page, but one is too close to another, and another is too far away.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Space patrol: the Distribute Shapes command The ideal arrangement is to have an equal amount of space between all the shapes.
  • 17. Distribute shapes evenly
    • You can do this in three steps, without any fussy mouse work:
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Space patrol: the Distribute Shapes command
    • Select three or more shapes.
    • On the Shapes menu, click Distribute Shapes .
    • Choose a distribution option. In this example, a horizontal distribution option evened things out.
  • 18. Rotate shapes
    • Sometimes a shape is placed right and sized right but still needs one good turn.
    • For example, you might want to rotate an arrow to point where it should. Or you might want turn a desk in an office layout to get more light from a window.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Rotating 1-D and 2-D shapes
  • 19. Rotate shapes
    • To rotate 2-D shapes, use the green rotation handle . Just click and drag the handle to the new position.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Rotating 1-D and 2-D shapes To rotate 1-D shapes, click and drag either the beginning point or the ending point, swinging the shape around to where you want it.
  • 20. Flip shapes
    • And now for a different kind of rotation. Sometimes you need to rotate a shape, not by turning it around, but rather as if you were turning it over, to create a mirror-image reversed version.
    • This is called flipping a shape. Yes, just like a pancake.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes When rotating won’t do, simply flip.
  • 21. Flip shapes
    • You can flip shapes horizontally or vertically.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes When rotating won’t do, simply flip.
    • When you flip a shape horizontally, the flip action occurs from side to side.
    • When you flip a shape vertically, the flip action occurs from top to bottom.
  • 22. Suggestions for practice
    • Take a look at the practice diagram.
    • Use the rulers and create some guides.
    • Position shapes using the guides and grid.
    • Use the Size & Position window.
    • Try nudging a shape.
    • Align shapes and distribute spacing.
    • Rotate shapes and flip a shape.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Online practice (requires Visio 2003)
  • 23. Test 1, question 1
    • How do you access the Size & Position window? (Pick one answer.)
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
    • Select a shape, and then double-click the Width or Height value in the status bar at the bottom of the program.
    • On the Shape menu, click Size & Position Window .
    • On the View menu, click Shapes Window .
    • On the View menu, click Size & Position Window .
  • 24. Test 1, question 1: Answer
    • On the View menu, click Size & Position Window .
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
  • 25. Test 1, question 2
    • Suppose you have a shape of a house with a tree on the left side. If you flipped the shape vertically, what would the result look like? (Pick one answer.)
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
    • The house would be upside down, the roof would be pointing down, and the tree would be pointing down as well.
    • The house would be tipped sideways with the roof and tree pointing to the left.
    • It would look the same, because flipping returns the shape to the original position
  • 26. Test 1, question 2: Answer
    • The house would be upside down, the roof would be pointing down, and the tree would be pointing down as well.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes When you flip vertically, the shapes flip from top to bottom or vice versa.
  • 27. Lesson 2 Stack shapes to relate shapes
  • 28. Stack shapes to relate shapes
    • Sometimes the position of shapes isn’t enough to convey a relationship. Additional visual information is required.
    • This network diagram contains shapes placed under and on top of each other in a particular stacking order . Using stacking order the right way can make complex relationships easier to understand in your diagrams.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Relationships become clearer when you use stacking order.
  • 29. How shapes stack up
    • Take a look at the illustration, and the concept of stacking order will be more clear to you.
    • Although you’ll never see stacked shapes from the side in Visio, imagining them like this helps you get the picture.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Shapes viewed from the side to show stacking order
  • 30. How shapes stack up
    • By default, Visio puts shapes in a stacking order as you add them to the page. The rule to remember for how Visio establishes the stacking order is: “The last one wins.”
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Shapes viewed from the side to show stacking order What that means is, the last shape you place on the page is the highest in the stacking order.
  • 31. How shapes stack up
    • But this rule doesn’t always work to your advantage. For example, what if you added the computer, and then added the circle? The circle would hide the computer, and that’s no help.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Shapes viewed from the side to show stacking order Obviously, knowing how to change the stacking order will help tremendously.
  • 32. How to change the stacking order
    • To change a shape’s position in the stacking order, select the shape, and then point to Order on the Shape menu.
    • You’ll see four options. Bring to Front or Send to Back moves a shape all the way in the stacking order.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Changing the stacking order for a shape
  • 33. How to change the stacking order
    • If your stacking order includes many shapes, however, you may not want a shape to go all the way to the front or back of the order.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Changing the stacking order for a shape In that case, you can move the shape forward or backward a step at a time, by choosing either Send Forward or Send Backward .
  • 34. Suggestions for practice
    • Take a look at the practice diagram.
    • Add the rectangle and change its stacking order.
    • Add the circles and change the stacking order in other ways.
    • Connect the Accounting and Sales circles.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Online practice (requires Visio 2003)
  • 35. Test 2, question 1
    • Why might you want to specify a stacking order for shapes? (Pick one answer.)
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
    • To show a sideways view of how boxes are stacked in a storeroom.
    • To show relationships by placing shapes in front of or behind each other.
    • So that you can number shapes in specific sequence.
    • So that you can arrange the shapes in an even and orderly fashion.
  • 36. Test 2, question 1: Answer
    • To show relationships by placing shapes in front of or behind each other.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Stacking order lets you indicate which shapes belong logically with other shapes, and makes separate categories visually distinct.
  • 37. Test 2, question 2
    • How do you move a shape to the back of the order? (Pick one answer.)
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
    • On the Shape menu, click Lay Out Shapes , and then click Shallow or Deep for the Depth option.
    • On the Shape menu, point to Order , and then click Send to Back .
    • On the Format menu, click Behavior , and then click Send to Back .
  • 38. Test 2, question 2: Answer
    • On the Shape menu, point to Order , and then click Send to Back .
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes You can also right-click a shape and follow this same process. After right-clicking the shape, click Shape on the shortcut menu. Then point to Order , and then click Send to Back . But here's one more tip: The keyboard shortcut is CTRL+SHIFT+B.
  • 39. Test 2, question 3
    • You add a square to the page, then a circle, and then a triangle. Which shape will be on the top of the stacking order? (Pick one answer.)
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
    • The square; since it was added first, it wins.
    • The triangle; since it was added last, it wins.
    • The circle; because it doesn’t have any corners, it wins.
    • The smallest shape; because it mustn’t be covered, it wins.
  • 40. Test 2, question 3: Answer
    • The triangle; since it was added last, it wins.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes The triangle will be on top in the stacking order.
  • 41. Lesson 3 Group shapes together
  • 42. How to group shapes together
    • Suppose you’ve made a map with several buildings clustered together. But oops…The cluster of buildings is on the wrong street. You need to move all the buildings down one block.
    • You could select each one and move it down separately. Or—more efficiently—you could group the buildings so that the cluster stays bound together, and move them all at once.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes To move all the buildings, group them first.
  • 43. Select, then group
    • The first step in grouping shapes is to select the shapes.
    • You can do this by holding down the SHIFT key while you click them, or by dragging a selection net around them.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Grouping shapes
  • 44. Select, then group
    • When you’ve got the shapes selected, click Group on the Shape menu. That’s it: The shapes are now grouped.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Grouping shapes You can do anything to a group of shapes that you can do to a single shape: resize, rotate, align it with others, and so on. Visio treats a group as one big 2-D shape.
  • 45. Change just one shape within a group
    • Even after you’ve grouped shapes, you can still edit just one of the shapes in the group.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
    • Click the group to select it.
    • Click again to select a shape within the group.
    Selecting a shape within a group
  • 46. Change just one shape within a group
    • When one shape is selected, it appears with green handles, but these handles have Xs in them. This is a signal that the shape you selected is part of a group.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Selecting a shape within a group Now you can change that one shape any way you’d like.
  • 47. Ungroup shapes
    • Sometimes you need to ungroup a group of shapes. The process is simple:
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
    • Select the shape.
    • On the Shape menu, point to Grouping , and then click Ungroup .
    Ungrouping shapes
  • 48. Shapes that are grouped from the start
    • You might have worked with grouped shapes without knowing it: Many of the shapes in Visio are actually groups already.
    • How did the shapes get grouped? Designers made each shape by hand, and then grouped the shapes to make them easier for you to work with.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Many Visio shapes, like this factory shape, are grouped from the get-go.
  • 49. Shapes that are grouped from the start
    • This factory shape is a perfect example.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Many Visio shapes, like this factory shape, are grouped from the get-go.
    • This is what the factory shape looks like when you put it on the page.
    • But if you ungroup it, you’ll find it’s actually a group of several component shapes.
  • 50. Suggestions for practice
    • Examine the practice diagram.
    • Select and group houses.
    • Select and group cars.
    • Change a single shape in a group.
    • Ungroup shapes.
    • Take a look at a shape that was grouped for you.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Online practice (requires Visio 2003)
  • 51. Test 3, question 1
    • Which of the following is a reason why you would group shapes together? (Pick one answer.)
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
    • To move or resize several shapes as one.
    • To make particular changes to each shape on the page.
    • To connect several shapes with arrows.
    • To save shapes for later use.
  • 52. Test 3, question 1: Answer
    • To move or resize several shapes as one.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Grouping is useful when you need to modify several shapes as one.
  • 53. Test 3, question 2
    • True or False: Every shape in Visio is actually a group. (Pick one answer.)
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
    • True.
    • False.
  • 54. Test 3, question 2: Answer
    • False.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes Although many shapes are complex and are actually many shapes grouped together as one, this is not always the case. Some shapes consist only of one shape. One shape is not a group.
  • 55. Test 3, question 3
    • You might ungroup shapes when you needed to do which of the following? (Pick one answer.)
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
    • Make a simple change to one shape within the group.
    • Add text to the group.
    • Connect the group of shapes with a line.
    • Move one shape independently from the others in the group.
  • 56. Test 3, question 3: Answer
    • Move one shape independently from the others in the group.
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes You would also ungroup shapes if you need to make extensive changes to one of the shapes.
  • 57. Quick Reference Card
    • For a summary of the tasks covered in this course, view the Quick Reference Card .
    Expertly position, stack, and group shapes
  • 58. USING THIS TEMPLATE See the notes pane or view the full notes page ( View menu) for detailed help on this template.