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Lecture 4

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    • 1. Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ¿íýëãýýíèé àñóóäàë Ëåêö- 4 Áàãø: Б.Мөнхтуул 2008-2009 îíû õè÷ýýëèéí æèë
    • 2. Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ºíººãèéí õºãæèë Õîðüäóãààð çóóíä ÀÍÓ-ä ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí õÿìðàë ( Software crisis ) ãàðñàí áºãººä ýíý íü ãàð÷ áóé á¿õ ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ºðòºã òºñ⺺ñºº õýòýð÷ òºëºâëºñºí ãðàôèêò õóãàöààíààñàà õîöðîõ ¿çýãäýë äýýä öýãòýý õ¿ðñýí, ìºí ãàðñàí ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæóóä øààðäëàãàòàé ÷àíàðûí ò¿âøèíä õ¿ðýõýý áàéñàí ÿâäàë þì.
    • 3. Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ºíººãèéí õºãæèë
      • 1995 îíû áàéäëààð “Standish Group” êîìïàíè ÀÍÓ-ûí ïðîãðàì÷ëàëûí 364 êîðïîðàöè, êîìïàíèóäûã õàìðóóëàí òýäãýýðèéí ã¿éöýòãýñýí 20 ìÿíãà ãàðóé ïðîãðàì÷ëàëûí òºñëèéí ã¿éöýòãýëä ñóäàëãàà øèíæèëãýý õèéæýý. ¯ð ä¿íä íü:
        • Ǻâõºí 16.2 õóâü íü õóãàöààíäàà, òºëºâëºñºí çàðäëàà õýòð¿¿ëýëã¿é, øààðäàãäàõ ÷àíàðûí ò¿âøèíä õèéãäæýý.
        • 52.7 õóâü íü õóãàöààíû õîöðîãäîëòîé, çàðäëàà èõ áàãà õýìæýýãýýð õýòð¿¿ëñýí, òàâèãäñàí øààðäëàãàä íèéöñýí á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿í ãàðãàæ ÷àäààã¿é
        • Ïðîãðàì÷ëàëûí òºñë¿¿äèéí 31,1 õóâü íü çîãññîí
    • 4. ÕÓÃÀÖÀÀ /áîãèíî õóãàöààíä/ - Á àãà çàðäëààð ( çàðèìäàà èõ ) - ×àíàð ìóóòàé Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèé í ¿íýëãýý Òýíöâýðòýé àâ ÷ ¿çýõ øààäëàãàòàé ×ÀÍÀÐ /÷àíàðòàé/ - Óäààí õóãàöàà íä - Èõ çàðäëààð Õ¿íèé íººö ÇÀÐÄÀË /áàãà çàðäëààð/ - Áîãèíî õóãàöààíä - × àíàð ìóóòàé
    • 5. Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ¿íýëãýý: ×ÀÍÀÐ - QUALITY
    • 6. Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ¿íýëãýý: ×ÀÍÀÐ
      • Òºñºë íü îëîí ñàëáàð øèíæëýõ óõààíóóäàä õýðýãæäýã áºãººä òýäãýýðèéí íýã íü ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí òºñºë þì.
      • Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí òºñºë íü áóñàä òºñë¿¿äýýñ äàðààõ øèíæ ÷àíàðààð ÿëãàãäàíà. ¯¿íä:
        • Òåõíèê òåõíîëîãèéí õºãæèë äýíä¿¿ õóðäàöòàé
        • Òºñëèéí àæëûí ÿâöûã õÿíàõàä ò¿âýãòýé
        • Òºñëèéí ýõýí ¿åä õºãæ¿¿ëýõ ÏÕ-í òîäîðõîéëîëò, ôóíêöèîíàëü øààðäëàãóóä íü á¿ðõýã áàéäàã
        • ×àíàðûí òîãòñîí ñòàíäàðò ãýæ áàéõã¿é...
    • 7. ×àíàðò òàâèõ øààðäëàãà
      • Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ÷àíàð ãýæ þó áîëîõ òàëààð îäîî õ¿ðòýë ìàðãààíòàé àñóóäëóóäûí íýã юм.
      • Þóíû ò¿ð¿¿íä ÷àíàð ãýæ þó âý?
      • Я àæ ÷àíàðòàé á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿í áîëîâñðóóëàõ àðãà ç¿éã òîäîðõîéëñîí áàéõ øààðäëàãàòàé. Ýäãýýð àñóóäëóóäûã øèéäâýðëýñýíèé äàðààãààð ãîëîãäîëòîé á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íèé òàëààð ø¿¿ìæëýëòýé õàíäàæ áîëîõ þì.
      • Ïðîãðàìûí á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íèé ÷àíàðò òàâèõ ãîë ¿íäñýí øààðäëàãóóäûã æàãñààâàë:
          • (1) Þó ã¿éöýòãýõ çîðèëãîòîé áàéíà ò¿¿íèéãýý ë ã¿éöýòãýõ àæèëãààòàé áàéõ.
          • (2) Òàâüñàí øààðäëàãàä õàìààðàëã¿é ç¿éëèéã ã¿éöýòãýäýãã¿é áàéõ.
          • (3) Òîãòìîë àæèëãààòàé áà äýñ äàðààëàëòàé áàéõ.
          • (4) Íàéäâàðòàé àæèëãààòàé áàéõ.
          • (5) Õýðýãëýã÷äèéí õýðýãëýýíèé øààðäëàãàä òîõèðñîí õýðýãëýæ áîëîõóéö.
          • (6) ªºð÷ëºæ áîëîõóéö, ºðãºòãºæ áîëîõ. Õîæìûí øèíý÷ëýëò çàñâàðëàëò.
    • 8.
      • Ýíý øààðäëàãóóäûí õîîðîíäûí õàìààðëûã äàðààõü 4-í õýñýãò õóâààæ áîëíî.
      • (1) , (2) нь : Çîðèëãîî õàíãàñàí ýñýõèéã øàëãàõ øààðäëàãóóä.
      • ( 3) , (4) íü : Àæèëëàõ ÷àäâàðòàé õîëáîîòîé øààðäëàãà.
      • (5) íü : Õýðýãëýã÷äèéí õýðýãöýýã õàíãàñàí ýñýõèéã øàëãàõ øààðäëàãà.
      • ( 6) íü : Õýòäýý õºãæ¿¿ëýõ áîëîìæòîé ýñýõèéã õàðóóëñàí øààðäëàãà. ªºðººð õýëáýë öààøäûí ¿éë÷èëãýýòýé ýñýõèéã õàðóóëíà.
      • ×àíàð ãýäýã íü òîâ÷îîð òóõàéí ïðîãðàìûí á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íèéã á¿ðýí ã¿éöýä çºâ áîëîâñðóóëñàí þì ãýäãèéã øàëãàæ õàðóóëñàí, á¿òýýãäýõ¿¿íèéã õ¿ëýýëãýí ºãºõ人 áàòàëæ íîòîëñîí ïðîöåññ þì.
      ×àíàðò òàâèõ øààðäëàãà
    • 9. (1) Functionality : Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ôóíêöèîíàëü øààðäëàãûã á¿ðýí õàíãàñàí ( àëäààã¿é ) (2) Reliability : Ñèñòåìèéí íàéäâàðòàé àæèëëàãààã á¿ðýí õàíãàñàí ( 3 ) Efficiency : ÿéöýòãýëèéí õóðä íü çààñàí õýìæýýã õàíãàñàí ( 4 ) Usability : Õýðýãëýõýä õÿëáàð áàéõ (5) Maintainability : Çàñâàðëàëò, øèíý÷ëýëò õèéõýä õÿëáàð áàéõ (6) Portability : Àâñààðõàí (7) Flexibility : Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ÷àíàðûí ¿ç¿¿ëýëò¿¿ä: Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ¿íýëãýý: ×ÀÍÀÐ
    • 10. Functionality Reliability Usability Efficiency Maintainability Portability Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí îíöëîã äýýð ¿íäýñëýí ò¿¿íèé ÷àíàðûí ñòàíäàðòûã òîãòîîíî. Ýíýõ¿¿ ÷àíàðûí ñòàíäàðò íü õýðýãëýã÷èéí õ¿ñýë ñîíèðõîëä íèéöýõ ¸ñòîé. Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ¿íýëãýý: ×ÀÍÀÐ 0 1 2 3 4 5
    • 11. Òåñò÷èëýë íü ÏÕ-í ÷àíàðò íºëººëºõ íü: Áóñàä ñèñòåì Ñèñòåì ST Ïðîãðàì MT I T ST M îäóëü OT IT OT Ñèñòåì User
    • 12. ÌÒ (Module Test) - Òóõàéí êîäûã áè÷ñýí ïðîãðàìèñò ìîäóëèéíõàà äîòîîä ëîãèêèéã øàëãàõ òåñò þì. IT (Integration Test) – Ìîäóëü áîëîí ïðîãðàì õîîðîíäûí õàðèëöàí õàìààðëûã øàëãàõ áºãººä ìîäóëèéí òåñò÷èëýëèéí äàðàà õèéãääýã. ST (System Test) – Òóõàéí ÏÕ-í øààðäëàãàä òóñãàãäñàí ôóíêöóóäûã òîãòîîñîí ã¿éöýòãýëèéí õóðäààð ã¿éöýòãýæ ÷àäàæ áàéãàà ýñýõèéã øàëãàõ áºãººä ñèñòåì õºãæ¿¿ëýã÷èä íü óã òåñò÷èëýëèéã íýâòð¿¿ëýõ áèçíåñ îð÷èíä íü õýðýãæ¿¿ëäýã. OT (Operation Test) -¯¿íèéã çàðèìäàà õ¿ëýýí àâàõ ¿åèéí òåñò (acceptance test) õýìýýäýã. Íýâòð¿¿ëýëò ýõëýõýýñ ºìíº õýðýãëýã÷èéí òºëººëëèéã ýíýõ¿¿ òåñò÷èëýëä òàòàí îðîëöóóëàõ áºãººä ýíý òåñò÷èëýëèéí ¿åýð ìºí õýðýãëýã÷èéã ñóðãàõ ïðîöåññ ÿâàãääàã. Òåñò÷èëýë íü ÏÕ-í ÷àíàðò íºëººëºõ íü:
    • 13. Àëäàà íü äàðààãèéí ¿å øàòóóäàä ñºð㺺ð íºëººëºõ íü Ñèñòåì Äýä ñèñòåì Ïðîãðàì Ìîäóë Øèíæèëãýý Çîõèîìæ Ïðîãðàìûí çîõèîìæ Ìîäóëèéí çîõèîìæ × × × × × × × ×: Àëäàà /bug/ Àëäààã ýõíèé ¿å øàòóóäàä èëð¿¿ëýõ íü ÷ óõàë
    • 14. Ïðîãðàì÷ëàëûí òºñëèéí àìæèëòàíä ñºð㺺ð íºëººëºõ õ¿÷èí ç¿éëñ
      • ÿéöýòãýõ ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèä òàâèãäàõ øààðäëàãà, áîäëîãûí äààëãàâðûã áóðóó ýñâýë äóòóó òîäîðõîéëîõ
      • Ýöñèéí õýðýãëýã÷èéã áîëîí çàõèàëàã÷èéí òºëººëëèéã ïðîãðàì÷ëàëûí òºñºëä òàòàí îðîëöóóëàõã¿é îðõèãäóóëàõ
      • Øààðäëàãàòàé íººö áîëîëöîî äóòàãäàõ
      • Òºñëèéí óäèðäàã÷ àæëûí òºëºâëºãºº, àæèë ¿¿ðýãèéí õóâààðü, àæèë÷èä õîîðîíäûí óÿëäàà õîëáîîã øààðäëàãàòàé ò¿âøèíä çîõèîí áàéãóóëæ ¿ë ÷àäàõ
      • ÿéöýòãýëèéí ÿâöàä çàõèàëàã÷ààñ íýìýëò íºõöºë, ººð÷ëºëò¿¿ä òàâèãäàõàä äàñàí çîõèöîæ ¿ë ÷àäàõ
      • Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæ áîëîâñðóóëæ áóé òåõíîëîãèóä íü øèíý áºãººä òýäãýýðèéã á¿ðýí àøèãëàõ äàäàë, òóðøèëãà äóòàõ
      • Ïðîãðàìèññòóóäûí ìýäëýã ÷àäâàðûí ò¿âøèí äóòàãäàõ
    • 15. Ïðîãðàì÷ëàëûí òºñëèéã ã¿éöýòãýõýä àíõààðàõ ç¿éëñ
      • Òîäîðõîé ÏÕ-ã çààñàí õóãöààíû èíòåðâàëä, ìýðãýæëèéí ºíäºð
      • ò¿âøèíä ã¿éöýòãýõèéí òóëä äàðààõ ç¿éëñèéã ìºðäëºã áîëãîí
      • áàðèìòëàõ íü ç¿éòýé. ¯¿íä:
      • Àæëûí áàãò õýðýãëýã÷èéí òºëººëëèéã èäýâõèòýé îðîëöóóëàõ
      • ªã뺺 á¿ð áîãèíî õýìæýýíèé óóëçàëò çîõèîí áàéãóóëàõ
      • Íýãäñýí íýã íýð òîìú¸îíû õýëëýã, êîä÷èëîëûí ñòàíäàðòûã áàðèìòëàõ
      • ÏÕ-ã õàìãèéí ýíãèéí îéëãîìæòîéãîîð çîõèîí áàéãóóëàõ
      • Ïðîãðàìûí ìîäóëü áîëãîíûã ñàéòàð òåñò÷èëæ áàéõ
      • Ïðîãðàìûã õîñîîð íü àæëóóëàõ çàìààð øèíý àæèëòíûã ñóðãàõ, àëäààã íü íýã íýðýýð íü õÿíóóëàõ...
    • 16. Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ¿íýëãýý: ÇÀÐÄÀË - COST
    • 17. Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ¿íýëãýý: ÇÀÐÄÀË Ñèñòåì õºãæ¿¿ëýõ çàðäëûí èõýíõè õóâèéã õ¿íèé õºäºëìºðèéí çàðäàë ýçýëäýã. Èéìä çàðäëû ã òîîöîõäîî ¿éë àæèëëàãàà áóþó ÷ àðìàéëò ûã òîîöîõ øààðäëàãà ãàðäàã. ÕªÃƯ¯ËÝÕ ÇÀÐÄÀË (Development Cost) HARDWARE COST SOFTWARE COST HUMAN RESOURCE’S COST ×àðìàéëò (Effort)
    • 18.
      • KoKoMo àðãà (CoCoMo) .
      • Ýíý àðãà íü ÷ àðìàéëò (effort) - ûã
      • Ïðîãðàìûí õýìæýýí äýýð ¿íäýñëýí òîîöäîã
      • Õ¿í-ñàð ãýñýí õýìæèõ íýãæýýð èëýðõèéëäýã
      • 2. Öýãýí øèíæèëãýýíèé àðãà
      • (FPA - Function Point Analysis )
      • Ýíý àðãà íü ÷ àðìàéëò (effort) - ûã
      • Ñèñòåìèéí ôóíêö á¿ðèéí õóâüä ò¿¿íèé
      • îðîëò, ãàðàëò äýýð ¿íäýñëýí
      • öýãýí øèíæèëãýý õèéõ çàìààð òîîöäîã.
      ¯íýëãýýíèé òîîöîî õèéõ àðãà÷ëàëóóä ID Name Address click DB Äýëãýöèéí çîõèîìæ 10 LOC 2 LOC 4 LOC Òóõàéí ÏÕ (16 LOC áóþó ÊÌ ) * LOC: Line Of Code
    • 19. Õ¿íèé íººöèéí çàðäàë Outsourcing Òýýâðèéí çàðäàë Õóäàëäàæ àâñàí ÏÕ (OS,Middleware .. .) Hardware Ñåðâåð, ïðèíòåð, ñ¿ëæýýíèé òºõººðºìæ Õºãæ¿¿ëýõ îð ÷ èí ( Ìàøèí , Õýðýãñë¿¿ä ) Software Áóñàä Ñóóðèëóóëàëò Óòèëèòóóä Ò¿ðýýñ Îôôèñ ¯ð ä¿í Ïëàí 4 ñàð ¯ð ä¿í Ïëàí 5 ñàð 0 964 98 1,505 1,500 1,000 1,006 0 0 100 97 50 60 100 100 20 16 434 368 Íýãæ : 1,000 òºãðºã Æèøýý: Çàðäëûí òºëºâëºëòèéã ¿ð ä¿íòýé íü õàðüöóóëàõ íü 3,002 1,988 200 196 0 0 1,000 1,002 0 0 100 97 50 43 100 100 20 17 100 102 Òºõººðºìæ ( äèñê, õàâòàñ, êàíîí ) Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ¿íýëãýý: ÇÀÐÄÀË
    • 20. Ïðîãðàì õàíãàìæèéí ¿íýëãýý: ÕÓÃÀÖÀÀ - DELIVERY