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Vietnam

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  • 1. AMERICA IN VIETNAM
  • 2. Where is Vietnam?
  • 3. A brief history of Vietnam
    • French Indochina
    • A. France controlled Vietnam and surrounding countries from late 1800s to WWII
    • B. Japan takes control of Vietnam during WWII
    • 1. Vietminh (under Ho Chi Minh ) formed to win independence for Vietnam
    • 2. Japan withdraws in 1945 and Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam independent
    • C. French move back into Vietnam and regain southern half of country
    • 1. Ho Chi Minh and Vietminh fight to liberate southern Vietnam
    • 2. domino theory results in U.S. economic and military support of France
    • 3. French surrender at Dien Bien Phu
    • D. Geneva Accords
    • 1. Geneva Accords divide Vietnam temporarily
    • a. Ho Chi Minh and Communists control North Vietnam
    • b. anti-Communists control South Vietnam
    • 2. election to unify Vietnam scheduled for 1956
    • * election never takes place
  • 4. A brief history of Vietnam
    • American involvement in Vietnam
    • A. Ngo Dinh Diem remains President of South Vietnam
    • 1. corrupt, oppressive, little help to peasants, Catholicism versus Buddhism
    • 2. supported by the U.S.
    • B. Vietcong (VC)
    • 1. Communist opposition group in South Vietnam
    • 2. employed guerrilla tactics
    • 3. supported by Ho Chi Minh and North Vietnam
    • 4. Ho Chi Minh Trail
    • C. Ngo Dinh Diem assassinated in 1963
  • 5. After JFK’s assassination, Lyndon B. Johnson expands U.S. involvement in Vietnam …
    • Tonkin Gulf Resolution (1964)
    • 1. North Vietnamese patrol ship fires on American destroyer
    • 2. “take all measures necessary to repel armed attack against forces of U.S.”
    • Escalation of conflict
    • 1. Jan, 1965 = 25,000 troops
    • Dec, 1965 = 184,000 troops
    • 1968 more than 543,000 troops
    • 2. important people
    • A. Secretary of Defense
    • Robert McNamara
    • B. General William Westmoreland
    24,200 1972 156,800 1971 334,600 1970 475,200 1969 536,100 1968 485,600 1967 385,300 1966 184,300 1965 23,300 1964 16,300 1963 11,300 1962 3,200 1961 900 1960 U.S. Troop Levels in Vietnam
  • 6. Experiences of American Soldiers
    • The Draft
    • A. Lottery and Deferment
    • 1. men enrolled full-time in college could initially receive a deferment
    • 2. disproportionate numbers of poor and minorities drafted
    • 3. draft was revised in 1971
    • a. a lottery system was instituted based on birthdays
    • b. college deferment was abolished
    • B. Average Age and Tour of Duty
    • 1. average age of the soldier in Vietnam was 19
    • 2. a tour of duty was one (1) year
    • C. Fighting Conditions
    • 1. fought against …
    • a. NVA (North Vietnamese Army)
    • b. Viet Cong
    • 2. fought with ARVAN (army of South Vietnam)
    • 2. guerilla warfare , napalm , Agent Orange
    • C. Returning Home
    • 1. soldiers returned individually (after tour)
    • 2. mistreated by both pro-war and anti-war sides
  • 7. Draft Lottery Results for 1969 100 -- 079 -- 011 193 -- 313 -- 030 -- 211 31 003 174 038 315 333 287 209 103 208 217 -- 164 30 016 099 229 151 061 270 353 226 191 362 285 349 29 123 281 094 257 167 088 222 308 262 223 299 077 28 078 047 264 233 352 289 064 296 074 268 205 355 27 173 309 007 018 245 303 022 357 340 170 365 092 26 084 132 176 149 286 067 137 361 351 343 179 052 25 095 230 196 195 036 023 358 031 002 258 236 059 24 162 182 201 119 116 172 109 319 252 256 057 118 23 053 009 117 160 339 153 247 326 316 265 290 337 22 070 156 243 204 291 027 060 250 062 334 363 186 21 135 185 192 063 344 187 360 183 345 239 302 280 20 240 203 241 177 311 227 104 075 336 200 025 058 19 128 146 005 246 141 190 341 278 090 332 292 140 18 304 143 288 255 154 098 073 112 260 033 189 235 17 096 107 254 207 044 120 274 055 148 166 212 121 16 320 131 171 113 102 322 180 130 273 169 089 017 15 026 127 294 001 198 331 356 178 231 354 004 238 14 163 126 138 175 307 042 069 295 124 259 152 318 13 314 066 072 242 142 015 272 133 346 300 068 221 12 039 046 237 158 324 248 134 037 014 136 150 329 11 041 282 220 071 021 284 206 065 218 323 216 325 10 043 080 342 263 106 277 335 197 219 317 338 194 9 105 097 283 184 048 013 366 321 312 213 181 199 8 012 051 234 008 168 050 085 035 147 122 091 306 7 010 076 087 006 114 327 110 155 253 139 347 224 6 056 310 024 082 054 188 028 364 269 293 214 101 5 165 266 202 232 145 279 020 276 081 275 210 215 4 157 348 244 049 261 115 301 040 083 267 297 251 3 328 034 125 161 045 350 228 298 271 029 144 159 2 129 019 359 225 111 093 249 330 032 108 086 305 1 Dec Nov Oct Sep Aug Jul Jun May Apr Mar Feb Jan  
  • 8. Doves
    • As the war continued, groups protested for a variety of reasons …
    • An opposition to all war on moral grounds
    • A belief that this particular war was wrong or unnecessary
    • The opinion that the draft was unfair and biased
    • 4. The eventual spread of the war into Cambodia
    • 5. Specific events of the war
    • Sometimes violence erupted at demonstrations …
    Hawks VERSUS SUPPORTED THE WAR OPPOSED THE WAR KENT STATE HARD HAT RIOTS
  • 9. The Tet Offensive and Massacre at My Lai Two events of 1968 which shaped public opinion about the war in Vietnam
    • Vietcong attack in South Vietnam
    • A. coordinated attacks throughout country
    • B. U.S. embassy attacked
    • Impact on American public
      • A. little military value significance
      • B. U.S. progress in Vietnam questioned
    • U.S. platoon massacred 200 innocent Vietnamese
    • A. frustration of American troops
    • B. kept secret; later revealed
    • C. 25 charged; Lt. William Calley imprisoned
  • 10. The End of the War
    • Richard Nixon is elected President in 1968
    • A. LBJ declines to run again due largely to Vietnam
    • B. Robert Kennedy assassinated during Democratic primaries
    • C. Vietnamization
    • 1. gradually turn war over to South Vietnamese
    • 2. decrease U.S. involvement and begin withdrawal of troops
    • D. more protests and upheaval
    • 1. Cambodia targeted due to Ho Chi Minh Trail
    • 2. Pentagon Papers
    • End of the War
      • last American troops left for home on March 29, 1973
      • B. Saigon falls to North Vietnam on April 30, 1975
  • 11. Legacy of the Vietnam War
    • Vietnam is unified under a Communist government
    • Relations between the United States and Vietnam have improved
    • 58, 256 Americans lost their lives in the conflict in Vietnam
    • 4 million Vietnamese civilians died from 1959 to 1975
    • 850,000 Vietnamese soldiers died in the conflict
    • 2,583 Americans continue to be listed as MIA
  • 12. Dear Ameria: Letters Home from Vietnam All the confusion, pain, despair, and even hope of the men and women who served in Vietnam is captured in Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam . Read by dozens of actors such as Harvey Keitel, Matt Dillon, and Kathleen Turner, these letters show a more human story of the war than we see in most media outlets and reveal real people in real situations trying to explain or understand. The footage, some newsreel, some shot by the servicemen and servicewomen, reveals a tension between the soldiers' actual experiences and the presentation their loved ones received from television. The soundtrack weaves the songs of the 1960s with the readings to create a compelling aural snapshot of the time, which complements the video exceptionally well. While it's not a "feel-good" movie, the viewer does get a sense of the indestructibility of human dreams. Amazon.com customer reviews of Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam

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