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  • Cut up hand out 18 into separate lists.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The multi-store model (MSM) Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
    • 2. In pairs
      • A describe diagram on p to B
      • B draw diagram without seeing it.
    • 3. Multi-Store Model of Memory Sensory Memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory Stimuli attention Retrieval Elaborative rehearsal Maintenance Rehearsal
    • 4. The multi-store model
      • An explanation of how memory processes work based on the idea that there are three separate stores (SM, STM, LTM)
    • 5. Sensory memory (SM)
      • SM is equivalent to any one of the senses e.g. the eye or ear.
      • Information first arrives at the senses; if attention is focused on it, it is transferred to STM.
      Attention Rehearsal Sensory  Short-term  Long-term store store store
    • 6. Short-term memory (STM)
      • Has unique characteristics in terms of duration, capacity and encoding.
      • Information is maintained in STM through rehearsal, otherwise it will decay. It also may be displaced by new information.
    • 7. Short-term memory (STM)
      • Increasing rehearsal leads to transfer from STM to LTM, the more rehearsal the better it is remembered.
      Attention Rehearsal Sensory  Short-term  Long-term store store store
    • 8. Long-term memory
      • Potentially unlimited capacity and duration, semantic encoding.
      • Lasting memory created by rehearsal.
      Attention Rehearsal Sensory  Short-term  Long-term store store store
    • 9. Evaluation: what are the Strengths
      • 1. Research support, e.g. studies of duration, capacity and encoding.
      • 2. Matches commonsense perception of memory.
    • 10. Evaluation: Limitations
      • 1. An oversimplification, e.g. doesn’t distinguish between different STM stores (see working memory) and different LTM stores (episodic and procedural memory).
      • 2. Rehearsal doesn’t explain all LTM memories.
    • 11. positron emission tomography (PET)
    • 12. Auditory pets
    • 13. Research related to the MSM
      • Beardsley (1997), Squire et al . (1992)
      • Findings: STM associated with activity in prefrontal cortex active, LTM associated with LTM.
      • Conclusions: Shows that stores are distinct.
    • 14. HM
    • 15. HM
      • Suffered brain damage during an operation to his brain to reduce the severe epilepsy he suffered.
      • His personality and intellect remained intact, but he could not form new long term memories.
      • Not able to remember his mother’s death.
      • Viral infection resulted in damage to hippocampus and couldn’t transfer new memories form stm to ltm. Remembers events before infection but not since.
      • However procedural memory for skills still intact suggests that LTM is more than one store.
    • 16.  
    • 17. Complete the case study worksheet
      • What conclusions can you draw?
    • 18. Support for sensory store
      • You will see a series of letters and numbers for a very limited time.
      • You will be asked to recall all items.
    • 19. Ready?
    • 20. 4 9 b S L f 6 5 g 7 t 3
    • 21. Write answers
    • 22. What does this tell us?
      • That there is a sensory memory store.
      • That information in the sensory memory store doesn’t last very long.
    • 23. And again this time
      • You will see a series of letters and numbers for a very limited time.
      • You will be asked to recall the top line if you hear a high tone, middle line if you hear a mid tone and bottom line if you hear a high tone.
    • 24. Ready?
    • 25. Write answers
    • 26. Research related to the MSM
      • Sperling (1960)
      • Findings: When asked (after 50 milliseconds) to report all 12 letters/digits recall was poorer (5 items recalled, about 42%) than when asked to give one row only (3 items recalled, 75%).
      • Conclusions: This shows that information decays rapidly in the sensory store.
    • 27. Other research support
      • Read through the list once.
      • Turn over and write down as many of the words as you can remember in any order.
      • So the same with the rest of the lists.
      • Complete the next handout.
    • 28. Research related to the MSM
      • Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
      • Findings: Participants best remember words from start of list ( primacy effect ) and end of list ( recency ).
      • Conclusions: Called the serial position effect which occurs because first words best rehearsed and transferred to LTM, last words are in STM when you start recalling the list.
    • 29. HW
      • Can you illustrate the model, and research support with minimal use of words?
    • 30. Evaluating the multistore model
      • There is research support.
      • It can explain how it is organised (structure, three stores)
      • It can explain how it works ( processes, attention and rehearsal).
      • Makes predictions which can be tested.
    • 31. weaknesses
      • oversimplified..why?
      • KF case study suggests that STM does more than one thing. It can recall visual and verbal information differently.
    • 32. oversimplification
      • 2. Schachter et al 2000 suggests that LTM does more than one thing:
      • Knowledge( semantic memory)
      • Events( episodic memory)
      • Skills (procedural memory)
      • Recognition of familiar images (PRS)
    • 33. Oversimplification
      • 3. Rehearsal isn’t the only way.
      • Craik and Lockhart found deep processing is more memorable than shallow repetition.
    • 34. oversimplification
      • How separate are the STM and LTM stores?
      • Ruchkin 2003 found that both STM and LTM are involved when chunking information in STM. This is because you need to recall meaningful groups of letters which are stores in LTM.
    • 35. validity
      • Use of word lists
      • Participants often psychology students
      • Lab experiments ( demand characteristics, experimenter bias, well controlled)
    • 36. Investigator /Experimenter bias
      • Anything the investigator does which has an effect on a participant's performance in a study, other than what was intended.
      • This includes direct (interaction) and indirect effects (design).
    • 37. Demand characteristics
      • Features of an experiment that a participant, unconsciously, responds to when searching for clues about how to behave.
      • A confounding variable .
    • 38. Laboratory experiment
      • IV manipulated to observe effect on DV, controlled.
      • (+) Can draw causal conclusion.
      • (+) Confounding variables minimized.
      • (+) Can be easily replicated.
      • (-) Artificial, contrived situation.
      • (-) Investigator and participant effects.
    • 39. To do
      • Activity 3 p 27
      • Compare answers p 28
    • 40. review
      • Using the multi store model of memory outline how information is transferred from STM to LTM. (2 marks)